Hand Tools

By: Eng r. Rodel M. Vasquez


is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge of blade on its end, for carving and/or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal. The handle and blade of some types of chisel are made of metal or wood with a sharp edge in it. In use, the chisel is forced into the material to cut the material. The driving force may be manually applied or applied using a mallet or hammer. In industrial use, a hydraulic ram or falling weight ('trip hammer') drives the chisel into the material to be cut.

is a tool used to provide a mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn bolts, nuts or other bolts, hard-tohard-to-turn items.

Pipe Wrench 
adjustable wrench used for turning soft iron pipes and fittings with a rounded surface. They are not intended for use on hard hex nuts because they would ruin the head The design of the adjustable jaw allows it to rock in the frame, such that any forward pressure on the handle tends to pull the jaws tighter together. They are usually made of either steel or aluminium

Open - End Wrench   

wrench with a U-shaped opening that grips two opposite faces of the bolt or nut. is often double-ended, with a different-sized opening at each end. The ends are generally oriented at an angle of around 15 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the handle to allow greater range of movement in enclosed spaces

The twelve-point fits onto the fastening at twice as many angles. The recess is generally a six-point or twelve-point opening for use with nuts or bolt heads with a hexagonal shape. an advantage where swing is limited. Eight-point wrenches are also made for square-shaped nuts and bolt heads.Ring Spanner Wrench   one-piece wrench with an enclosed opening that grips the faces of the bolt or nut. Ring spanners are often double-ended and usually with offset handles to improve access to the nut or bolt .

. also sometimes called by the original patent holder's brand name as a Crescent Wrench (Crescent Tool and Horseshoe Company).Adjustable Wrench  an open-ended wrench with adjustable (usually smooth) jaws.

pull. Pliers are designed for numerous purposes and sometimes require different jaw configurations to grip. designed primarily for gripping objects by using leverage. turn.Pliers  are hand tools. . or crimp a variety of things. leverage.

Gripping Pliers Long nose Locking pliers .

narrow jaws for gripping in confined spaces y Locking pliers. which Longneedlepliers.y Long-nose or needle-nose pliers. have long. also called "Vise Grips" or pliers. "mole grips" .

 Diagonal Pliers or Side Cutters .

Instead of using a shearing action as with scissors. thus the two jaws can be visualized to form the letter "X". . hence the name. The jaw edges are ground to a symmetrical "V" shape. are wire-cutting pliers (though they are not used to grab or turn anything. they cut by indenting and wedging the wire apart. but are used to cut wire). although these terms are shared by other pliers designs and may lead to confusion. The plane defined by the cutting edges of the jaws intersects the joint rivet at an angle or "on a diagonal". The pliers are made of tempered steel and inductive heating and quenching is often used to selectively harden the jaws. as seen end-on when fully occluded.Diagonal pliers or wire cutters or diagonal cutting pliers. They are sometimes called side cutting pliers or side cutters.

Flat nose Round nose .

Special Purpose Pliers Glass Breaking Electrical wire stripping and terminal crimping pliers .

CRIMPING PLIER oFor crimping electrical terminals and connectors (solderless connections) oFor crimping metal rings or tags on livestock oFor crimping metal security seals on cargo carriers oFor crimping an impression on a document .as in a notary's seal oFor crimping laboratory vials oFor crimping bottles with sprayer tops. such as perfume bottles .

cuts and removes insulation on electrical wire while leaving the wire intact .WIRE STRIPPING PLIER Wire-stripping pliers .

Combination pliers or lineman's pliers .

and insulating handle grips that reduce (but do not eliminate) the risk of electric shock from contact with live wires (versions with properly tested and guaranteed insulation in two colors to make faults visible are also available). Lineman's pliers typically are machined from and the two handles precisely joined with a heavy-duty rivet that heavymaintains the pliers' accuracy even after repeated use under extreme force on heavy-gauge wire. Lineman's pliers have a gripping joint at their snub nose. also called combination pliers and commonly referred to in the USA as Kleins after a brand name. heavy- . Lineman's pliers (US English). cable. and cutting edge in their craw. Some versions include either an additional gripping or crimping device at the crux of the handle side of the pliers' joint. are a type of pliers used by electricians and other tradesmen for gripping small objects. to cut and bend wire and cable.

Fencing Pliers Pliers that include a hammer. wire cutter and nail puller .

The most common uses are for driving nails. objects.Hammers  is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. and breaking up nails. fitting parts. .

Kinds of Hammer .

. some other object.Claw Hammer a tool primarily used for pounding nails into. or extricating nails from.

Geologist Hammer Used to obtain a fresh surface of a rock in order to determine its composition. nature. . mineralogy and history. they are employed to break rocks with the aim of discovering fossils inside. In fossil hunting.

.Upholstery Hammer used for securing upholstery fabric to furniture frames using tacks.

.Wooden Mallet Used in carpentry to knock wooden pieces together. A wooden mallet will not deform the striking end of a metal tool. but it also reduces the force available to drive the cutting edge of a chisel. or to drive dowels or chisels. as most metal hammers would.

The head is typically made of metal. . flat head attached to a lever (or handle). The sledgehammer can apply more impulse than other hammers due to its large size.Sledge Hammer A tool that consists of a large.

Ballpen Hammer is a type of peening hammer used in metalworking. .

.Saws a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. electric or other power. water. or powered by steam. steam. power. A abrasive. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. water. saw may be worked by hand. hand.

Hand saw  also known as "panel saws". are used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes. .  They usually operate by having a series of sharp points of some substance that is harder than the wood being cut.

It is a tool for cutting wood or other materials and may be handheld or table-mounted. such as those in "saw mills". were traditionally powered by water turning a large wheel. . Today they are almost exclusively powered by electricity. larger ones.Circular Saw  a metal disc or blade with saw teeth on the edge as well as the machine that causes the disk to spin.

Rotating saw is a type of saw in which the cutting action is achieved through a push and pull reciprocating motion of the blade. . blade.

The blade is brittle. releasing the tension on the blade. the arch will bend a little.On bones.Hack saw saw for cutting metal or bones.On the push stroke. . so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. normally quite brittle.

Backsaws are normally used for precise work. allowing for better control and more precise cutting than with other types of saws. Backsaws usually have relatively closely-spaced teeth. the backsaws are limited in the depth to which they can cut. mitres. such as cutting dovetails.Back saw  have a stiffening rib on the edge opposite the cutting edge. or tenons in cabinetry and joinery. often with little or no set. . Because the stiffener is thicker than the blade.

. loosen and remove. screws.Screwdriver device specifically designed to insert and tighten. or to screws.

Basic Screwdriver  Has a flat almost chisel ended tip .

designed originally for use with mechanical screwing machines. The Phillips screw drive has slightly rounded corners in the tool recess to cause driver to cam out to prevent overtightening .Philips Screwdriver  Has a "+"-shaped slot "+"and is driven by a crosscrosshead screwdriver.

overTORX heads were designed to prevent it.  . to prevent over-tightening.Torx Screwdriver characterized by a 66point star-shaped starpattern  If Phillips heads were designed to cause the driver to cam out.

.Hex or Allen  is a tool used to drive screws and bolts that have a hexagonal socket in the head.

Robertson type of screwdriver with a squaresquareshaped tip .

. often adjustable sides or parts for bracing objects or holding them together.Clamps a tool with opposing. It is an essential fastening device to hold objects tightly together so that it can prevent movement or separation while applying inward pressure.

The size of a "C" clamp is measured by its capacity. the frame can accommodate with the screw fully extended. which is measured by the dimension of the largest object. .C Clamp  consist of a "C" shaped frame into which an adjustable screw is assembled.

.Bar Clamp  Bar clamps have a clamping device built on a bar made usually of steel. which is the dimension of the largest object that can be accommodated between its clamping jaws. The length of the bar determines the capacity of the clamp. Screw pressure applies the final clamping load.

 .Spring Clamp spring clamp is two metal jaws to which clamping pressure is applied by use of a steel spring.

welding or soldering . They are also used for holding work at right angles.Edging Clamps  Edging clamps are used for installing molding and trim on furniture. countertops etc.

They may be made of different kinds of raw materials. or may be simply used for nailing. Guns may be used as stapling tools or as lubricating tools. .GUNS  used for a varied kind of functions in the hand tools industry.

Grease Guns  Constructed of heavy duty steel and finished in rugged baked enamel or tough zinc plate. Lawn & Garden and Hardware segments . for use in recreational. Grease guns are basically used by Automotive & Marine Professionals.

Oil Guns  Oil guns are actually lubricating tools that are used for oiling of machines or tools. Oil guns are to be used when safe oil lubrication is needed to be appiled at high pressures. .

.Suction Gun  In a suction gun that has a bottom cup. the material is drawn up by vacuum. Mild steel plunger type oil suction guns are used for removing and replacing small quantities of new and waste oil.

Staple Guns  Staple guns are specially designed for the purpose of fastening low-voltage lowwires. Other guns are used mainly for fastening wires and cables. Some guns shoot flared staples without an external anvil. . to staple insulation around pipes and ducts.

molding and insulation with a single stroke. It drives and countersinks nails into paneling. .Nail Guns A nail gun is similar to a stapler. carpeting.