# What is Cost Control???

Minimizing

costs the company must expend without sacrificing the end product (service/food) that the customer receives.

Revenue and Expense
Revenue - Expenses = Profit Revenue ± Desired Profit = Ideal Expense
Expense Revenue = Expense %

Revenue (100%) - Food and Beverage Cost % - Labor Cost % - Other Expense % = Profit %

A budget is simply a forecast or estimate of projected revenue, expense, and profit.
The 28-day-period approach to budgeting divides a year into 13 equal periods of 28 days each. This helps the manager compare performance from one period to the next without having to compensate for ³extra´ days in any one period. 
If significant variations with planned results from a budget occur, management must:

1. 2. 3.

Define the problem Determine the cause Take corrective action

Sales Forecasts
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Revenue Estimates Expense \$ Estimates Scheduling Workers Scheduling Food and Service Production needs Proper purchasing of amounts of food for immediate use. Increased operational efficiency ± lower pricing, increased benefits for workers. Increased dollars for growth Increased profit levels and stockholder value

6)

7) 8)

Sales This Year ± Sales Last Year = Variance 
Percentage variance indicates the percentage change in sales from one time period to the next. Sales This Year ±Sales Last Year Sales Last Year or Variance Sales Last Year = Percentage Variance = Percentage Variance 

Revenue forecast is calculated using the following formula: Forecast =Sales Last Year + (Sales Last Year X %Increase)

00 + % Increase Estimate) = Guest Count Forecast . Guest Count Last Year + (Guest Count Last Year x % Increase Estimate) = Guest Count Forecast Or Guests Last Year x (1.Forecasting The guest count forecast is determined by multiplying guest count last year by the % increase estimate. and then adding the guest count last year.

which is defined as the percentage of total guests choosing a given menu item from a list of alternatives. based on an item¶s individual sales history.Cost of Food & Bev Once you know the average number of people selecting a given menu item. you can compute the popularity index. and the total number of guests who made the selections. Popularity Index =Total Number of a Specific Menu Item Sold Total Number of All Menu Items Sold The basic formula for individual menu item forecasting. is as follows: Number of Guests Expected x Item Popularity Index = Predicted Number of That Item to Be Sold .

The standardized recipe is the key to menu item consistency. 2. It consists of the procedures to be used in preparing and serving each of your menu items. 5. standardized recipes contain the following information: 1. 6. and ultimately. if necessary Recipe cost (optional) . operational success.  In general. 3. Item name Total yield (number of servings) Portion size Ingredient list Preparation/method section Cooking time and temperature Special instructions. 4. 7. 8.Standardized Recipes The standardized recipe controls both the quantity and quality of what the kitchen will produce.

Converting Recipes ± Factor or Percentage Yield Desired Current Yield = Conversion Factor Ingredient Weight / Total Recipe Weight = % of Total then % of Total x Total Amount Required = New Recipe Amount .

00 .Waste. Yield AP & EP Yield % = 1.Waste % AP ± Waste (EP) AP EP Required Yield % = AP Required = Yield % EP Required =AP Required x Yield % .

Calculating Food Cost Determining Actual Food Expense  Cost of food sold is the dollar amount of all food actually sold. thrown away. It is computed as follows: Beginning Inventory PLUS Purchases = Goods Available for Sale MINUS Ending Inventory = Cost of Food Consumed MINUS Employee Meals = Cost of Food Sold . wasted or stolen.

23 \$488.60 \$2.20 43.08% Tuesday \$920. Purchases to Date Sales to Date = Cost % to Date Sales Purchases Cost & Weekday Today To Date Today To Date Today To Date Monday \$850.748.20 0.404.927.00 40.26% 51.006.42 \$0.03 \$841.771.00 \$2.22 \$286.00 \$4.40 \$1.40 \$850.956. 0 130.22% = Cost % Today .20 14.034.20 \$10.97% Wednesday \$1.955.874.00% 39.50 \$2.60 91.58 \$5.285.034.185.106.63 \$1.08% 130.26% Friday \$1.Six Column Reporting Six Column Food Cost % Estimate 1. 0 \$1.106.19% Sunday \$2.03 \$519.947.20 \$4.30% 75.467.70 50.80% Saturday \$2.947.39% 109. Purchases Today Sales Today 2.41 \$7.30 \$3.68% 63.85% 83.46% Thursday \$971.40 \$1.20 \$3.881.81 \$792.

Calculating Beverage Cost Beginning Inventory PLUS Purchases = Goods Available for Sale Less Ending Inventory Less Transfers from Bar Plus Transfers to Bar = Cost of Beverage Sold .

Calculating Sales Mix & Terms Item Dollar Sales Total Beverage Sales = Item % of Total Beverage Sales Two-key system Oxidation Broken case Empty for full system of managment .

F&B Production Necessary Components of F&B Production Planning: 1) Maintain Sales Histories 2) Forecast Future Sales Histories 3) Purchase and store needed F&B supplies 4) Plan daily production schedules 5) Issue needed products to production areas 6) Manage the food and beverage production process .

Controlling Product Issues Issues Today Sales Today = Beverage/Food Cost Estimate Today The six-column form requires only that the manager divide today¶s issues by today¶s sales to arrive at the today estimate as follows Issues ate -Jan -Jan -Jan -Jan 5-Jan 6-Jan -Jan Total Today Sales Beverage Cost Estimate To ate Today To ate Today To ate 9 5 9 5 50 50 65 6% 65 6% 5 0 6 6 6 9% 55 % 65 5 65 00 5 5 0 0 5% 95 % 9 5 5 9 9 0 06 50 9% 9 % 595 5 69 55 6 5 60 9 6% 05 % 00 6 59 5 0 5 5 % 55% 6 55 95 90 5 5 % % 6 55 90 5 5 % .

A perpetual inventory system is one in which additions to and deletions from total inventory are recorded as they occur. physical count and valuation of all inventory on hand is taken at the beginning and close of each accounting period. It separates inventory items into three main categories .Methods of Inventory Control A physical inventory is one in which an actual. The ABC system attempts to combine both the physical and perpetual inventory systems.

Those are typically highvalue items. Category B items are those that make up 10% to 15% of the inventory value and require only routine control and record keeping.ABC Inventory System o o o Category A items are those that require tight control and the most accurate record keeping. These items require only the simplest of inventory control systems . which can make up 70% to 80% of the total inventory value. Category C items make up only 5% to 10% of the inventory value.

Inventory Control Formulas Cost in Product Category Total Cost in All Categories = Proportion of Total Product Cost Cost as per Standardized Recipes Total Sales =Attainable Product Cost % Actual Product Cost Attainable Product Cost = Operational Efficiency Ratio .

Principles of Cost Percentages The food cost percentage equation is extremely interesting. In its simplest form. it can be represented as: where A B =C A = Cost of Goods Sold B = Sales C = Cost Percentage .

If costs can be kept constant but sales increase. If costs remain constant but sales decline. If costs increase with no increase in sales. cost percentage increases. . the cost percentage goes down. the cost percentage goes down. If costs go up at the same rate sales go up. the cost percentage will go up. your cost percentage will remain unchanged. If costs can be reduced but sales remain constant.

Local competition Service levels Guest type Product quality Portion size Ambience Meal period Location Sales mix .Factors Influencing Menu Pricing 1. 7. 5. 6. 2. 3. 4. 8. 9.

Selling Price Determination Cost of a Specific Food Item Sold Desired Food Cost % of That Item = Selling Price of That Item .

00 Desired Product Cost % = Pricing Factor Pricing Factor x Product Cost = Menu Price .Multiplier Method 1.

Contribution Margin Method Selling Price ± Product Cost = Contribution Margin Product Cost + Contribution Margin Desired = Selling Price .

B items. . and C items. . A items should comprise no more than 2 of the total product available. no more than 3 .Pricing Buffets Total Buffet Product Cost Guests Served = Buffet Product Cost per Guest The secret to keeping selling price low for a salad bar or buffet is to apply the ABC method.

Minimum staff is used to designate the least number of employees. Variable Payroll consists of those dollars paid to hourly employees. Payroll refers to the gross pay received by an employee in exchange for his or her work. .Labor Cost Labor Expense includes salaries and wages. Sometimes employees have both a fixed and variable element to their pay. A salaried employee receives the same income per week or month regardless of the number of hours worked. or payroll dollars. Fixed Payroll refers to the amount an operation pays in salaries. but it consists of other labor-related costs as well. required to operate a facility or department within the facility.

Productivity Standards Output Input =Productivity Ratio Cost of Labor Total Sales =Labor Cost % Total Sales Labor Hours Used = Sales per Labor Hour Cost of Labor Guests Served = Labor Dollars per Guest Served .

125 x 3000 Covers = 375 hours .Productivity and Scheduling Productivity = hour 7.5 covers = 60 = 0.125 Productivity X Forecast Cover = Scheduled Hours 0.

3. 6. Scratch Preparation Equipment Service Level Desired . 5. 10. 2. 8. 9.Factors Influencing Productivity 1. 4. 7. 10 Key Factors Affecting Employee Productivity Employee Selection Training Supervision Scheduling Breaks Morale Menu Convenience vs.

A job description is a listing of the tasks that must be accomplished by the employee hired to fill a particular position.A job specification is a listing of the personal characteristics needed to perform the tasks contained in a particular job description. . Task training is the training undertaken to ensure an employee has the skills to meet productivity goals.

Employee Turnover Employee Turnover Rate = # of Employees Separated # of Employees in Workforce separation is one in which the employee made the decision to leave the organization. An involuntary separation is one in which management has caused the employee to separate from the organization. A voluntary Employee Turnover Rate Number of Employees Separated Number of Employees in Workforce = .

beverage. or mixed 2. They are: 1.Managing Other Expenses Other expenses are those items that are neither food. nor labor. two views of these costs are particularly useful for the foodservice manager.Fixed.  While there are many ways in which to consider other expenses.Controllable or non-controllable . variable.

and mixed expenses behave as sales volume increases: Expense As a Percentage of Sales Fixed ecreases xpense Variable Remains the ame xpense Mixed xpense ecreases Total Dollars Remains the ame Increases Increases . variable. The following shows how fixed.

and nonoperating expenses.  These three sections are arranged on the income statement from most controllable to least controllable by the foodservice manager. the uniform systems of accounts have been established for many areas of the hospitality industry. operating expenses. .Financial Analysis  To ensure that this financial information is presented in a way that is both useful and consistent.  The USAR can better be understood by dividing it into three sections: gross profit.

the details are not included directly on the statement. Although this summary gives the manager a one-shot look at the performance of the operation.The gross profit section consists of food and beverage sales and costs that can and should be controlled by the manager on a daily basis. cost. For example. The operating expenses section is also under the control of the manager but more so on a weekly or monthly basis (with the exception of wages which you can control daily). interest paid to creditors for short-term or long-term debt is due regardless of the ability of the manager to control operations. Nonoperating expenses section is the least controllable by the foodservice manager. . This means that all details associated with the sales. and profits of the foodservice establishment are summarized on the P L statement. The income statement is an aggregate statement.

. etermine the difference between this period¶s sales minus last period¶s sales. etermine sales for this accounting period. 3. 2.Analysis of Sales/Volume Overall sales increases or decreases can be computed using the following steps: 1. ivide the difference in #2 by last period's sales to determine percentage variance.

erve more guests at a higher check average. erve more guests at the same check average. erve the same number of guests at a higher check average. There are several ways a foodservice operation experiences total sales (dollar) volume increases. 2. 3. . These are: 1.

x: if prices were on all menu items. ivide the difference in tep 2 by the value of tep 1.The procedure to adjust sales variance for known menu price increases is as follows: tep 1. tep 3. tep 2. . ubtract the result in tep 1 from this period's sales. increase the increased prior period sales by . Increase prior period sales (last year) by amount of the price increase.

the cost percentage for the category Meats and eafood would be computed as follows: Meats and Seafood Cost Total Food Sales Seafood Cost % = Meats and . For instance.Analysis of Food Cost & Inventory A food cost percentage can be computed for each food sub-category.

Cost of Food Consumed Average Inventory Value= Food Inventory Turnover The higher the Food Inventory Turnover number. . the greater the frequency of orders and typically the smaller the inventory size.Inventory turnover refers to the number of times the total value of inventory has been purchased and replaced in an accounting period.

Analysis of Profit Net Income This Period ± Net Income Last Period Net Income Last Period = Profit Variance % .

Profit Planning Strategies .

Three of the most popular systems of menu analysis are: Variables Considered Analysis Method Matrix Overall Goal Minimize overall FC% Food Cost % Food Cost % Popularity Contribution Margin Contribution Margin Popularity Matrix Maximize CM Goal Value Analysis Contribution Margin % Algebraic Equation Popularity Selling Price Variable Cost % Food Cost % Achieving certain Profit Percentage Goals A matrix allows menu items to be placed into categories based on whether they are above or below menu item averages such as food cost %. and contribution margin. popularity. .

The characteristics of the menu items that fall into each of the four matrix squares are unique and thus should be marketed differently 1 ± High FC%. Low Popularity % 4 ± Low FC%. Low Popularity % 2 ± High FC%. High Popularity % 1 FC% 2 3 Popularity % 4 . you are seeking menu items that have the effect of minimizing your overall food cost percentage.When analyzing a menu using the Food Cost Percentage Method. High Popularity % 3 ± Low FC%.

Low Popularity % 4 ± Low CM. Low Popularity % 1 CM\$ 2 2 ± High CM.Each of the menu items that fall in the squares requires a special marketing strategy. depending on its square location. High Popularity % 3 4 Popularity % . High Popularity % 3 ± Low CM. 1 ± High CM.

The selection of either food cost percentage or contribution margin as a menu analysis technique is really an attempt by the foodservice operator to answer the following questions: 1. Are my menu items priced correctly? 2. Are the individual menu items selling well enough to warrant keeping them on the menu? 3. Is the overall profit margin on my menu items satisfactory? .

95 0.28 7.00 .68 x 152 x 8.28 9.Food Cost % (Contribution Margin %) B = Item Popularity C = Selling Price D = 1.28 Burrito Dinner 0.(Variable Cost % + Food Cost %) Food Cost % Item (in decimal form) Fajita Plate 0.25 Mexican Salad 0.26 Overall Menu (Goal Value) 0.95 0.28 Average Goal Value = 0.33 Taco Dinner 0.95 0.95 0.28 6.30 Chalupa Dinner 0.32 umber Sold 147 200 82 117 125 168 225 152 Selling Variable Cost % Price (in decimal form) \$12.28 9.95 x 0.00 .28 8.28 8.95 0.The goal value formula is as follows: A x B x C x D = Goal Value A = 1.35 Menudo 0.95 0.38 Enchilada Dinner 0.40 = 370 .95 0.95 0.28 5.

40 171. Ite (i Fa ta ate nch ada D nner Menudo Me can a ad Cha upa D nner urr to D nner aco D nner Average C st eci al f r ) 0.68 er l 147 200 82 117 125 168 225 152 elli aria le C st rice (i eci al f r ) G al al e \$12.72 0.3 \$ 8.4 370.95 0.70 0. Anything scoring above the average would be considered a good item.2 \$9.65 0. that is.95 0. anything below would be considered an item that needs some re-thinking.4 \$6.4 \$8.0 \$5.40 448.0 \$7.95 0.95 0. it is neither a percent nor a dollar figure because it is really a numerical target or score.74 0.95 0.95 0.62 0.75 0.The computed goal value carries no unit designation.40 260.67 0.40 322.40 517.0 .95 0.40 396.95 0.1 \$9.40 472.

This is different than the C. Total Sales .M.Variable Costs = Contribution Margin C.M.M. per Guest = Contribution Margin \$ / Guests .Contribution margin for the overall operation is defined as the dollar amount that contributes to covering fixed costs and providings for a profit. % = Contribution Margin \$/ Total Sales \$ C. for a menu item in that it takes into account both important variable costs ± food and labor.

use the following formula: Fixed Costs Contribution Margin % = Break-Even Point in Sales In terms of the number of guests that must be served in order to break even. use the following formula: Fixed Costs Contribution Margin per Unit (Guest) = Break-Even Point in Guests Served .To determine the dollar sales required to break even.

 The information necessary to compute MSP is as follows: 1. Food cost % 2. Minimum payroll cost for the time period 3. . fixed costs still exist and must be paid. Minimum Sales Point (MSP) is the dollar sales volume required to justify staying open for a given period of time. Variable cost %  Fixed costs are eliminated from the calculation because even if volume of sales equals zero.

Minimum Operating Cost = FC% +VC% MSP = Minimum Labor Cost 1 ± Minimum Operating Cost Or it could be written as: MSP = Minimum Labor Cost 1 ± (FC% + VC%) .

Assumptions of next period operations 3.Budgeting Developing the Budget  To establish any type of budget. Goals 4. Monitoring policies annual budget achievement budget . you need to have the following information available: 1. Prior period operating results 2.

compute the estimated food cost as follows: 1.To determine a food budget. Last Year¶s Food Cost per Meal + % Estimated Increase in Food Costs = This Year¶s Food Cost per Meal 3. Last Year¶s Average Food Cost per Meal = Last Year¶s Cost of Food / Total Meals Served 2. This Year¶s Food Cost Per Meal x Number of Meals to Be Served This Year = Estimated Cost of Food This Year .

Last Year¶s Labor Cost per Meal + stimated Increase in Labor Cost = This Year¶s Labor Cost per Meal 3. compute the estimated labor cost as follows: 1. To determine a labor budget. Last Year¶s Labor Cost per Meal = Last Year¶s Cost of Labor / Total Meals erved 2. This Year¶s Labor Cost per Meal Number of Meals to Be Served This Year = Estimated Cost of Labor This Year x .

or other reasons such as waste or theft. .Yardstick Method Some operators elect to utilize the yardstick method of calculating expense standards so determinations can be made as to whether variations in expenses are due to changes in sales volume. The yardstick method helps you identify specific problems quickly and accurately.