The Kremlin and St.

Basil·s Cathedral

Neil Treni Global Connections

Russian Federation Map

Russian Federation Information
‡ The Russian Federation - Largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States ‡ Was the center of the Communist empire, Cold War with the United States, is the government center of the Russian Federation, site of many international meetings ‡ Located in both Europe and Asia ‡ Area ² 17,075,200 mi.2 ‡ Population ² 144,530,000 ‡ Capital ² Moscow ‡ Currency ² Ruble

Russian Federation Information
‡ People - 79.8% Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian, 10.3% non-specified ethnicity ‡ Climate ² Steppes in the south, humid continental in European Russia, Subarctic in Siberia, tundra climate in the polar north ‡ Imports ² Machinery, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, and semi-finished metal products ‡ Exports ² Petroleum, natural gas, wood, metals, chemicals, and civilian and military manufactures

Russian Federation Culture
‡ Government ² Semi-Presidental Federal Republic ‡ Language ² Russian (82%), Ukrainian, Byelorussian ‡ Religion ² Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% ‡ Education - Literacy rate 100%, focus on reading and math, must pass rigorous tests for further two years of secondary education, even tougher to attend a university ‡ Technology ² defense industries including radar, missile production, vehicles, aircraft

Russian Federation Culture
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Art ² Porcelain collections, Fabrege, Jewelry Music ² Classical, Folk, Pop, Hip Hop, Rock Recreation ² Camping, Golf, Hiking Customs ² Russia Day, 12 June (1990) Food ² ² Main courses: Potato, bread, eggs, meat, butter ² Desserts ² Pancakes, Oladi, Pastries Tvorog, Syrniki

The Kremlin
‡ The Kremlin is a historic fortified complex in Moscow, Russia ‡ Serves as the official residence of the President of Russia ‡ Includes Red Square, four palaces, four cathedrals ‡ Enclosed by the Kremlin wall with Kremlin towers

Kremlin - History
‡ Continuously inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC ‡ The word "kremlin" was first recorded in 1331 ‡ Kremlin means fortress ‡ First stone structures were built late 1320s and early 1330s ‡ Buildings have undergone many transformations depending on who was in power at the time

St. Basil·s Cathedral
‡ Commissioned by Ivan the Terrible 15551561 ‡ Named Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed in 1588 after the Russian Orthodox saint ‡ Features distinctive onion domes

History of Major Structures
‡ Churches of Cathedral Square built 1479-1508 ‡ Kremlin wall and towers built 1485-1495 ‡ Ivan the Great Bell Tower built 1505-1508 ‡ Grand Kremlin Palace was constructed in 18391849 to serve as the residence of the Tsar

Cathedral Square
‡ The heart of the Kremlin ‡ Surrounded by six buildings, including three cathedrals ‡ Cathedral of the Dormition - 1479
² the main church of Moscow and where all the Tsars were crowned

‡ Cathedral of the Annunciation - 1489 ‡ Cathedral of the Archangel Michael ² 1508

Kremlin wall and towers
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Forms an irregular triangle Area = 275,000 square meters (68 acres) Length = 2235 meters (2444 yards) Height ranges from 5 to 19 meters There are 20 towers in all All are square, except three have circular sections

Ivan the Great Bell Tower
‡ Tallest of the bell towers that ring the Kremlin ‡ Height = 81 meters (266 feet) ‡ Marks Moscow's precise geographic center

Grand Kremlin Palace
‡ Built 1837 - 1851 ‡ Length = 125 meters ‡ Height = 47 meters ‡ Area = 25,000 square meters ‡ Has over 700 rooms

Red Square
‡ Considered the central square of Moscow and Russia ‡ Separates the Kremlin from a historic merchant quarter ‡ Major streets of Moscow radiate from it in all directions ‡ Named from the Russian word, krasnaya, meaning either "red" or "beautiful"

Bibliography
http://www.visaexpress.net/russia/arts.htm http://www.waytorussia.net/WhatIsRussia/RussianFood www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/countrylisting.ht ml Geography.about.com/library/blank/blxindex.htm www.factmonster.com/countries.html www.studentsoftheworld.info/menu_infopays.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kremlin