Training Agenda: Cogeneration

Introduction Types of cogeneration systems Assessment of cogeneration systems Energy efficiency opportunities

Steam turbines Microturbines Fuel cells .Introduction What¶s a Cogeneration/CHP System? ‡ Generation of multiple forms of energy in one system: heat and power ‡ Defined by its ³prime movers´ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reciprocating engines Combustion or gas turbines.

Introduction Efficiency Advantage of CHP Conventional Generation (58% Overall Efficiency) 36 Units (Losses) Combined Heat & Power (85% Overall Efficiency) 60 100 L = 40% 24 Uni ts 68 34 Uni ts 40 L = 85% 6 Units (Losses) 10 Units (Losses) .

especially CO2 ‡ Ability to use waste materials ‡ Large cost savings ‡ Opportunity to decentralize the electricity generation ‡ Promoting liberalization in energy markets .Introduction Benefits of Cogeneration / CHP) ‡ Increased efficiency of energy conversion and use ‡ Lower emissions.

Training Agenda: Cogeneration Introduction Types of cogeneration systems Assessment of cogeneration systems Energy efficiency opportunities 6 .

Bottoming cycle .Type of Cogeneration Systems ‡ Steam turbine ‡ Gas turbine ‡ Reciprocating engine ‡ Other classifications: .Topping cycle .

Type of Cogeneration Systems Steam Turbine Cogeneration System ‡ Widely used in CHP applications ‡ Oldest prime mover technology ‡ Capacities: 50 kW to hundreds of MWs ‡ Thermodynamic cycle is the ³Rankin cycle´ that uses a boiler ‡ Most common types ‡ Back pressure steam turbine ‡ Extraction condensing steam turbine .

Type of ogeneration Systems Back Pressure Steam Turbine ‡ Steam exits the turbine at a higher pressure that the atmospheric HP Steam Boiler Turbine Advantages: -Simple configuration -Low capital cost -Low need of cooling water -High total efficiency Disadvantages: -Larger steam turbine -Electrical load and output can not be matched Fuel ondensate Process LP Steam Figure: Back pressure steam turbine .

Type of Cogeneration Systems Extraction Condensing Steam Turbine HP Steam ‡ Steam obtained by extraction from an intermediate stage ‡ Remaining steam is exhausted ‡ Relatively high capital cost. lower total efficiency ‡ Control of electrical power independent of thermal load Boiler Fuel Turbine LP Steam Condensate Process Condenser Figure: Extraction condensing steam turbine .

expanded ‡ excess power used to produce power ‡ Natural gas is most common fuel ‡ 1MW to 100 MW range ‡ Rapid developments in recent years ‡ Two types: open and closed cycle .Type of Cogeneration Systems Gas Turbine Cogeneration System ‡ Operate on thermodynamic ³Brayton cycle´ ‡ atmospheric air compressed. heated.

Type of Cogeneration Systems Open Cycle Gas Turbine ‡ Open Brayton cycle: atmospheric air at increased pressure to combustor ‡ Old/small units: 15:1 New/large units: 30:1 ‡ Exhaust gas at 450600 oC ‡ High pressure steam produced: can drive steam turbine Compressor ir Turbine Combustor Fuel Exhaust Gases Condensate from Process HRSG Steam to Process G Generator Figure: Open cycle gas turbine cogeneration .

Type of Cogeneration Systems Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Heat Source ‡ Working fluid circulates in a closed circuit and does not cause corrosion or erosion ‡ Any fuel. nuclear or solar energy can be used Heat Exchanger G Generator Compressor Turbine Condensate from Process Steam to Process Figure: Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Cogeneration System .

fuel costs ‡ Used as direct mechanical drives ‡ Four sources of usable waste heat Figure: Reciprocating engine cogeneration system (UNESCAP.Type of Cogeneration Systems Reciprocating Engine Cogeneration Systems ‡ Used as direct mechanical drives ‡ Many advantages: operation. efficiency. 2000) .

Type of Cogeneration Systems Topping Cycle ‡ Supplied fuel first produces power followed by thermal energy ‡ Thermal energy is a by product used for process heat or other ‡ Most popular method of cogeneration .

Type of Cogeneration Systems Bottoming Cycle ‡ Primary fuel produces high temperature thermal energy ‡ Rejected heat is used to generate power ‡ Suitable for manufacturing processes .

Training Agenda: Cogeneration Introduction Types of cogeneration systems Assessment of cogeneration systems Energy efficiency opportunities .

Assessment of Cogeneration Systems Performance Terms & Definitions ‡ Overall Plant Heat Rate (kCal/kWh): Ms x (hs  hw) Power Output (kW ) Ms = Mass Flow Rate of Steam (kg/hr) hs = Enthalpy of Steam (kCal/kg) hw = Enthalpy of Feed Water (kCal/kg) ‡ Overall Plant Fuel Rate (kg/kWh) Fuel Consumption * (kg / hr ) Power Output (kW ) .

Assessment of Cogeneration Systems Steam Turbine Performance ‡ Steam turbine efficiency (%): Actual Enthalpy Drop across the Turbine (k al / kg ) x 100 Isentropic Enthalpy drop across the Turbine (k al / kg ) Gas Turbine Performance ‡ Overall gas turbine efficiency (%) (turbine compressor): o er utput ( k ) x 860 uel Input for Gas Turbine ( kg / hr ) x G V of x 100 uel ( k al / kg ) .

Assessment of Cogeneration Systems Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) Performance ‡ Heat recovery steam generator efficiency (%): M s x ( hs [ M f x Cp (t in hw ) x 100 t out )]  [ M aux x GCV of Fuel (kCal / kg )] Ms = Steam Generated (kg/hr) hs = Enthalpy of Steam (kCal/kg) hw = Enthalpy of Feed Water (kCal/kg) Mf = Mass flow of Flue Gas (kg/hr) t-in = Inlet Temperature of Flue Gas (0C) t-out = Outlet Temperature of Flue Gas (0C) Maux = Auxiliary Fuel Consumption (kg/hr) .

Training Agenda: Cogeneration Introduction Types of cogeneration systems Assessment of cogeneration systems Energy efficiency opportunities .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Steam Turbine Cogeneration System Steam turbine: ‡ Keep condenser vacuum at optimum value ‡ Keep steam temperature and pressure at optimum value ‡ Avoid part load operation and starting & stopping Boiler & steam ± see other chapters .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Gas Turbine Cogeneration System Gas turbine ± manage t e follo ing parameters: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Gas temperature an pressure art loa operation an starting stopping Temperature of ot gas an e aust gas ass flo t roug gas turbine ir pressure ir compressors ± see ressors ter Heat recovery y tem enerator ± see w ste eat recovery chapter .

or reliance on. the contents of this publication. © UNEP. 2006.Disclaimer and References ‡ This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project ³Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific´ (GERIAP). ‡ The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) ‡ Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on www.energyefficiencyasia. and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use . UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced.

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