such as radio. hazardous. followed by electrodynamic induction. Wireless energy transfer is different from wireless transmission of information. where the signal-to-noise ratio or the percentage of power received becomes critical only if it is too low to recover the signal successfully. With wireless energy transfer efficiency is the more important parameter. The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using induction.
. or impossible. Other present-day technologies for wireless power include those based upon microwaves and lasers. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed but interconnecting wires are inconvenient. Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load without interconnecting wires.
ELCTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTION EVANESCENT WAVE COUPLING
Electric toothbrush chargers work in a similar way. In the induction cooker. The main drawback to induction.
. however. The transfer of energy takes place by electromagnetic coupling through a process known as induction. where it is converted ohmically into heat for cooking. The primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are electrically isolated from each other.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
The electrical transformer is probably the simplest example of wireless energy transfer. is the short range.) The induction cooker is an example of how this principle can be used. The receiver must be in relatively close proximity to the transmitter (or ³induction unit") in order to inductively couple with it. (An added benefit is the capability to step the primary voltage either up or down. electrical energy is wirelessly transferred into the cookware.
Efficient power transmission via radio waves can be achieved by using shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
. This is generally known as "power beaming. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered. a high degree of efficiency in power transmission is also achievable under certain circumstances. 3. Conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been achieved in this manner. Conversion back into electricity is also typically very inefficient. While systems based upon this method are used mostly for information transfer.ELECTOMAGNETIC RADIATION
Electromagnetic radiation in the form of either radio waves or light can also be used to transfer energy wirelessly. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then fired at a solar cell receiver. Atmospheric absorption causes losses. is usually very inefficient (although quantum cascade lasers improve this) 2. 4. As with microwave beaming. such as a laser." Its drawbacks are as follows:
1. Conversion to light. typically in the microwave range. In the case of light. with the absolute best modern solar cells achieving 40% efficiency. this method requires a direct line of sight with the target.
the evanescent field gives rise to propagating wave mode(s). thereby connecting (or coupling) the wave from one waveguide to the next. This is usually accomplished by placing two or more waveguides close together so that the evanescent field does not decay much in the vicinity of the other waveguide. for charging electronic gadgets without wires
. NewScientist. ("'Evanescent coupling' could power gadgets wirelessly". A new application could be wireless energy transfer. and are currently working on a functional prototype. non-radiative coupling between the primary and secondary coils of a transformer. the electromagnetic equivalent of tunneling) to the power drawing waveguide.
If a proper resonant waveguide is brought near the transmitter. the process is the same as that of quantum tunneling.EVANESCENT WAVE COUPLING
Researchers at MIT believe they have rediscovered a way to wirelessly transfer power using non-radiative electromagnetic energy resonant tunneling. evanescent waves are produced which carry no energy. Evanescent wave coupling is used to excite dielectric microsphere resonators among other things. useful.e. the evanescent waves can allow the energy to tunnel (specifically evanescent wave coupling. except with electromagnetic waves instead of quantum-mechanical wavefunctions. with the induced currents and charges within a partially reflecting surface. or between the two plates of a capacitor. Researchers anticipate up to 5 meters of range for the initial device. Evanescent wave coupling is a process by which electromagnetic waves are transmitted from one medium to another by means of the evanescent (or decaying) electromagnetic field(s). for instance. Since the electromagnetic waves would tunnel. they would not propagate through the air to be absorbed or dissipated. where they can be rectified into DC power. i. and would not disrupt electronic devices or cause physical injury like microwave or radio wave transmission might. By sending electromagnetic waves around in a highly angular waveguide. Assuming the receiving waveguide can support mode(s) of the appropriate frequency.com)
Evanescent coupling is always associated with matter. This coupling is directly analogous to the nearfield. Mathematically.
definitely related to its diameter.ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTION
From experiments performed between 1888 and 1907 Nikola Tesla concluded that the earth is an excellent electrical conductor. "by impressing upon it [very low frequency] current waves of certain lengths. charged to 200.
. The currents are proportionate to the potentials which are developed under otherwise equal conditions. but I have also pointed out in my patents that the same principles can be applied to telegraphy and other purposes. It was also found that the earth¶s natural electrical charge can be made to oscillate. and an electric current can be made to propagate undiminished for distances of thousands of miles. That is simply a question of how much power you want to transmit. When I spoke of these enormous potentials [on the order of 12 million volts]. If you have an antenna of a certain capacity charged to 100.000 volts. twice the current. you will get a certain current. I was describing an industrial plant on a large scale because that [industrial power transmission] was the most important application of these principles.000 volts.
which is made of copper # Antenna resonates at a frequency of about 10MHz. producing electromagnetic waves # Tails¶ of energy from antenna µtunnel¶ up to 2m (6. Energy used to re-charge device # Energy not transferred to laptop re-absorbed by source antenna. which must also be resonating at 10MHz. People/other objects not affected as not resonating at 10MHz.
.5ft) # Electricity picked up by laptop¶s antenna.HOW WIRELESS ELECTRICITY COULD WORK :
# Power from mains to antenna.
is applicable for a number of devices with low power requirements. Wireless transmission of electricity aids navigation by the Global Positioning System.(SplashPower. which will soon be used on "Herman Miller" desks to recharge devices wirelesly. Example include the transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial hearts like [[AbioCor] and induction stove tops (and microwave ovens). In the distant future this system could allow for the elimination of many existing high-tension power transmission lines and facilitate the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale
. wireless sensors. computer peripherals. FM. This could include LEDs. A company called eCoupled unveiled their own take on inductive coupling. unveiled in 2007. A method for.) The Powercast system. and medical implants.
The transmission of power
Devices using this principle to charge portable consumer electronics such as cell phones are commercially available. "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conduction through the earth was announced in 1904. Telecommunications and wireless internet was an application that began in the last decade of the 20th century. Battery powered devices can be charged by placing them on an induction mat.WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER APPLICATIONS
The transmission of information
Several 20th century technology that use wireless power (and are in widespread use) included AM. and TV broadcasting.
Losses are minimum .where construction of grids are not possible. Easy to transmit. More efficient. Less consumption of area.ADVANTAGES OVER LINE TRANSMISSION
Electrical World and Engineer. Margaret "Tesla: Man Out of Time". Google «
Source of inspiration«««« Cheney. Simon and Schuster Tesla. "The Transmission of Electric Energy Without Wires". Nikola.