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Principles of

Design
Principles OF DESIGN

BALANCE
Balance in design is the distribution of elements across the
design. Balance is a visual interpretation of gravity in the
design. Large, dense elements appear to be heavier while
smaller elements appear to be lighter. You can balance
designs in two ways:

symmetrical balance
asymmetrical balance
Use of Balance in Design:
Symmetrical balance is achieved by placing elements in a very even
fashion in the design. If you have a large, heavy element on the right
side, you'll have a matching heavy element on the left. Centering is
the easiest way to get a symmetrically balanced page

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE
Asymmetrically balanced can be more challenging
to design - as they don't have elements matched
across the centerline of the design. For example,
you might have a large element placed very close
to the centerline of the design. To balance it
asymmetrically, you might have a small element
farther away from the centerline. If you think of
your design as being on a teeter-totter or seesaw,
a lighter element can balance a heavier one by
being further away from the center of gravity. You
can also use color or texture to balance an
ASYMMETRICAL asymmetrical design.
SAMPLE
Gradation
Gradation of size and direction produce linear
perspective. Gradation of colour from warm to cool and
tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective.
Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A
gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move
along a shape.
repetition
The principle of repetition states that you repeat some
aspect of the design throughout the entire piece. The
repetitive element may be a bold font, a thick rule (line),
a certain bullet, color, design element, particular format,
spatial relationships, etc. It can be anything that a
reader will visually recognize.
Contrast
Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements eg.
opposite colours on the colour wheel - red / green, blue /
orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast
in direction - horizontal / vertical. The major contrast in a
painting should be located at the center of interest. Too
much contrast scattered throughout a painting can destroy
unity and make a work difficult to look at. Unless a feeling of
chaos and confusion are what you are seeking, it is a good
idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of
maximum contrast.
Harmony
Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image
relate to and complement each other. Harmony pulls the
pieces of a visual image together.
dominance
Dominance refers to areas of interest that guides the
eye into and out of the image through the use of
sequence of various levels of focal points, primary focal
point, secondary, etc. Emphasis or dominance of an
object can be increased by making the object larger,
more sophisticated, more ornate, use of colour , by
placing it in the foreground, or standout visually more
than other objects in a project.
Unity
Unity is the final result in a composition when all the
design elements work harmoniously together giving
the viewer a satisfying sense of belonging and
relationship. You know unity has been achieved when all
aspects of the design complement one another rather
than compete for attention. Unity is the relationship
among the elements of a visual that helps all the
elements function together. Unity gives a sense of
oneness to a visual image.

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