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u A community is possibly a ³geographic
community´ bounded by physical boundaries &
would usually have a common historical

(Lifted from the handouts of Dr. Natulla for the CD Course 2008. Asian Social Institute,
Manila, Philippines)
u A community can also refer to a group with
common bonds as vision and purposes, a clear
mission, a major concern or bonded by common
functions or even just by common interest. As
such, this would then be referred to as a
³functional community´.
O þncompassing those efforts by which groups
sharing common interests are assisted in
identifying their specific needs and goals ,
mobilizing resources within their communities and
in other ways taking actions leading to the
achievement of the goals they have set
collectively (Meredith Minkler)
Process by which a community
‡ Identifies its needs and objectives
‡ Ranks or orders these needs or objectives
‡ Develops the confidence and will to work at these
needs and objectives
‡ find the resources to deal with these needs or
‡ Takes action in respect to them
‡ þ tends and develops cooperative and collaborative
attitudes and practices in the community (Murray
It is a continuous and sustained process of:
O þducating people to understand and develop
critical consciousness of their e isting conditions;
O Organizing them to work collectively and efficiently
on their immediate and long term problems; and
O Mobilizing them to develop their capability and
readiness to respond and take action on their
immediate and long term needs and problems
Principle of Needs/Problems & Issues
‡ Most important aspect
‡ Leads to dynamic involvement & work
‡ Provides the motivation to hang on even with all the
frustrations people have to contend
Principle of Leadership
Involvement of accepted community leaders is vital
because of:
‡ Power to influence community member participation and
‡ Innate ability to communicate with members of the
Principle of Participation
‡ community participation should cut across planning,
implementation, control & evaluation
Milbrath has classified political & social participation into
ã Apathetic
ã Spectators
ã Foot soldiers
ã Gladiators
Principle of Communication
‡ Largely affected by the quality of relationship between
and among people
Principle of Structure
‡ Must be simple enough to answer its present need and
function along the demands of the organization

Principle of þvaluation
‡ þnsure a closer analysis on the strength & weaknesses
of the organized actions and gains obtained along the
‡ Provides some lessons learned to be basis of action
modification in future endeavor
v. Peoples þmpowerment
2. Building Organization
3. Building Alliances
4. Popular Democracy
5. Social Transformation
6. Development of Local Leaders
v. Integrating with people & analyzing problems with

u Visit as many people (youth) as possible

u Listen and/or take part in small talk & informal

group discussion
u Invite them for a meeting/discussion
u Process of identifying issues around which people
may be organized as their true sentiments,
attitudes and knowledge about the situation are
made to surface.
u Affect a large number of people
u People feel strongly about it. They see it as both
urgent and important
u People have a chance to achieve what they desire
or aspire for.
u Process of identifying other young local leaders
who can facilitate the change process
u Process of engaging the community in the task of
visioning, identifying obstacles to this vision,
making a collective decision to do a research on
the entire community or on selected problems, &
selecting appropriate persons to compose the
local research team
u Ërgency
u Gravity or seriousness
u Scope/ coverage (number of people affected)
u Willingness of people to act on it
u Solvability
u There is no uniform formula in the formation of
u The formation of organizations should be
anchored on the lives, e periences & aspirations
of the people in the community organization.
6. Setting Ëp the Organization
- membership of the organization

7. Strengthening the Organization

v. A culture that values young people primarily as
resources in which to invest, not emerging problems to
be solved
2. A commitment to intentionality when it comes to
developing and effectively communicating a shared
sense of how individuals and the community can help
youth develop
3. A deliberate approach to shaping healthy environments
of people, places and possibilities that youth can
4. A support system for families and young people as they
work to engage in and manage these environments in
age appropriate ways
5. Alignment of policies, practices and priorities to assure a
positive youth outcomes

v. Continuing þducation Program for Youth
ã Team building
ã Leadership formation training
ã Values Orientation & Clarification
ã Program & Project Planning
ã Communication, Networking etc.
u Motor vehicle safety
u Safer & healthier foods
u Control of infectious diseases
u Safe se practice (Peer education)

3. þnvironmental Development & Physical Access

4. Sports& Socialization Activities

v. Conflicting Loyalties
Ê Respect of the principles of self-determination and liberty
is the golden rule
2. The appropriate target of CO
Ê Community organizing work must focus on the power
structure which creates and sustains the disadvantaged
position of the poor/minority groups
3. ³Change by Choice´
Ê Community organizers should institute change by choice
and not by coercion
4. Ënanticipated consequences
Ê It is the responsibility of community organizer worker to
inform the people of all possible consequences of
proposed action
*Meredith Minkler
Šarina Constantino-David also listed 3 issues in CO
v. Self reliance vs. dependence
2. þvocative vs. Provocative
3. Facilitation vs. Manipulation