Lecture 8 Land Application

Land Use/Land Cover:  Land use is the use of land by human with emphasis n the functional role of land in economic activity;  Land cover is the designation of land for vegetative and nonvegetative uses;  RS is used accurately map land use and land cover information because visual interpretation can be made

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Land Use Classification:  The most common application of remotelysensed images in land evaluation is that of land cover classification, also called a land use map;  Spectral characteristic in a multi-band image can be used to separate different land uses; - Satellite-based land cover classification is often the only practical ways to do this over large areas;  The spectral characteristics of the different land covers must be associated with each land cover class, then the entire image can be classified.
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Why is land cover classification important in land evaluation?  Many uses depend on the presence or absence of certain land cover;  The present land cover can itself be diagnostic for suitability, e.g. natural vegetation indicative of a certain hydrologic status;  Predictive models for land evaluation may require land cover information; e.g 'C' factor in the USLE. Also, predicting runoff from storms using the SCS Curve Number method depends heavily on current land cover;

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The USGS system was prepared specifically for use with remotely sensed imagery;  Appropriate for information interpreted from aerial images;  Hierarchical structure can be used with images of different scales and resolution;  Level I: For use with broad-scale, coarseresolution imagery (Landsat imagery or high-altitude aerial photograhy - general kind of land use (urban, agricultural, rangeland, forest, water, wetland, barren land, tundra, and perpetual

snow & ice),
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Level II and III: More detailed classes that can be interpreted from large-scale, fine-resolution images; - major land use (e.g., residential, cropland) ± Level II; - specific kind of land use (e.g., single-family detached dwellings, winter small grains) ± Level III:  Each level is appropriate to a particular spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution of the supporting imagery.

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Land-Cover Mapping by Image Classification: Image Selection: Selection of images with respect to season and date; - i.e. what season will give the optimum contrast between the classes being mapped ± two or more seasons might be required to separate all classes of significant; Preprocessing: Accurate registration and correction for atmospheric and systematic errors; - Subsetting of the region to be examined

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Selection of classification algorithm: Should be made on the basis of local experience; - Local experience and expertise are a more reliable guide for selection of classification procedures; Selection of training data: Training data must be carefully selected fro each class to ensure good representation of spectral subclasses; Assignment of spectral classes to informational classes: Aggregation of spectral classes and their assignment to informational classes; Display and symbolization:
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RS in Plant Science: All solar radiant flux incident upon any object is either reflected, transmitted, or absorbed, vegetation is however unique in its threesegment partitioning of solar irradiance; In the visible part of the spectrum (0.4-0.7 µm), reflectance is low, transmittance is nearly zero, and absorptance is high In this part of the spectrum the fundamental control of energy-matter interactions with vegetation is plant pigmentation;

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In the longer wavelengths of the near-infrared portion of the spectrum (0.7-1.4 µm), both reflectance and transmittance are high whereas absorptance is very low; - the physical control is internal leaf structures;  The middle-infrared sector (1.4-2.5 µm) of the spectrum for vegetation is characterized by transition;  As wavelength increases, both reflectance and transmittance generally decrease from medium to low - Absorptance, on the other hand, generally increases from low to high;
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Spectral Behavior of Living Leaf: 
The dominant plant pigments are the chlorophylls;  Chlorophyll absorb as much as 70-90% of incident light mainly blue and red;  Chlorophyll-bearing vegetation appears green due to a minor reflectance peak in 0.5-0.6 µm wavelengths.  In the NIR portion of the spectrum, reflectance is controlled by the structure of the spongy mesophyll tissue not the pigmentation;  In longer IR wavelengths (beyond 1.3 µm) leaf water content control spectral properties;  The term equivalent water thickness (EWT) - thickness of a film of water can account for the absorption spectrum of a leaf at 1.4-2.5 µm;
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During stress or senescence, however, chlorophyll production usually declines and blue absorption (i.e. yellow reflectance) become obvious;  As plant senescence progresses, the changes in relative abundance of the various pigments are accompanied by shifts in spectral absorptance and reflectance; 

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