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Air pollution ± µThe presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as is injurious, or tends to be injurious, to human health or welfare, animal or plant life.¶ It is the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution can cause health problems and it can also damage the environment and property.
It has caused thinning of the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere, which is leading to climate change
refineries. and urbanization are some of the major factors responsible for air pollution. and mines . increase in the population. The following industries are among those that emit a great deal of pollutants into the air: thermal power plants. cement.Types Man Made ± Modernization and progress have led to air getting more and more polluted over the years. Industries. steel. petro chemicals. vehicles.
Natural ± Air pollution results from a variety of causes. Dust storms in desert areas and smoke from forest fires and grass fires contribute to chemical and particulate pollution of the air. not all of which are within human control. .
any sound may be noise if circumstances cause it to be disturbing. Harrell . ."Noise is an unwanted sound which increases fatique and under some industrial conditions it causes deafness". is a noise to him. The sweeted music. if it disturbs a person who is trying to concentrate or to sleep. What is pleasant to some ears may be extremely unpleasant to others. In other words.Noise The Encyclopedia Americana defines ± "Noise by definition is unwanted sound. just as the sound of a pneumatic riveting hammer is noise to nearly everyone. depending on a number of psychological factors.
rivers. Natural and man-made.Noise Pollution Noise by definition is unwanted sound Noise pollution can be divided into two categories viz. exchanging voices of living organs including man and animals. . seas. volcanoes. noise. Natural causes of noise pollution are air.
Man made noise pollution are machines and modern equipment of various types. trains. automobiles. aero planes. use of explosive. bursting of firecracker .
Pollution Effect on Living Things 1) Psychological effects 2) Physiological effects 3) Effect on Law and Order and National Integration.Effects of Noise. .
Pollution Noise affects human life in many ways It affects ± Sleep and hearing. ± Communication ± Mental health and physical health ± Accelerating the rate of cardiac ailment ± Increase in the cholesterol level ± Neurosis and nervous breakdown .Effects of Noise.
These sound waves are known as sonic booms. When these booms hit the grounds they cause rottling of window panes or even damages to building structures. trains etc. leaves waves of sound like waves left behind by motor boats on water surface. The noise created by moving jet planes.Effects of Noise. .Pollution Effect on Non-Living Things ± The high intensity of noise can have the adverse effect on non-living things like buildings.
WHO has fixed 45 decibels as the safe noise level for a city Mumbai is rated as the third noisiest city in the world.Noise Pollution Noise is measured in decibel Continues noise level is excess of 90 decibels can cause loss of hearing and irreversible changes in nervous system. .
Noise Pollution An important component of air pollution An inescapable by product of industrial environment The Industries located in the residential areas such as the printing press. grinding mills etc are the main sources of community noise affecting public continuously living in the vicinity. automobiles repairing. agro based industries. .
.Legal Remedies The Common Law remedy against nuisance was the only means available to curtail excessive noise. and this was wholly based on the discretion of the judge.
19 grants fundamental right to every citizen to freedom of speech and expression. protects the free profession of one's religion. Article 25. security of State. incitement of offence etc. .The Constitution The Indian Constitution under Art. morality. defamation. with reasonable restriction of decency.
1939 ± The Aircrafts Act. ± The Railways Act.Laws Laws addressing the issues of noise pollution. 1948 . 1934 ± The Factories Act. is limited specific to certain activity. 1890 ± The Motor Vehicles Act.
Factories Act 1948 The problem of industrial noise as a cause of disease has been covered under third schedule of the Factories Act 1948. 11 of this Act which provides that the factory shall be kept clean and free from effluent arising from any drain. . It contains a list of noticeable diseases including the disease of hearing loss caused by noise. privy or other nuisance. the noise pollution has not specifically been included in the definition of "hazardous process" under section 2. wherein the noise. The problem of noise can indirectly be covered under S. being an act of nuisance may also be covered. In this Act also.
tape-recorders. . The states are also empowered under S.110(h) of the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 empowers the Central Government to enact rules for the reduction of noise emitted by vehicles.Motor Vehicles Act 1988 S. Act also deals only with noise pollution caused by motor-vehicles. 111(b)(c) & (g) of the Act to make rules for regulating the audible signals. appliances likely to cause annoyance. audio-visuals etc. radios.
operation. But three of India¶s busiest airports are located close to residential localities. possession. as well as the regulation of air transport services. ± In this regard it is suggested that aerodromes be constructed far away from the residential areas of a city in order to protect residents from the noise created by frequent take-offs and landings. use.The Aircrafts Act. sale. . import or export any aircraft. 1934 ± The Central Government has the power to make rules for manufacture. ± The Act has many provisions but none for the control of noise.
. creates the liability of employers to pay compensation to their workers in case of injuries caused in the course of employment.Workmen's Compensation Act 1923 S. But this Act provides for compensation only and no provision for control is there. The injuries include absolute deafness and hearing impairment caused by noise. 3 of the Workmen's Compensation Act 1923.
hospitals. ± Establish zones of silence (100 meters) near schools.Noise regulation Rules 2000 The Noise regulation Rules 2000 under Sec. 1986. . etc. courts.3 of Environmental Protection Act. The rules regulate noise levels in: ± Industrial [75 decibels] ± Commercial [65 decibels] ± Residential zones [55 decibels].
Regulatory authority The rules also assign regulatory authority for these standards to the local district courts.00 PM for functions within closed premises.00 PM. No exception is possible.00 pm is violation of the law and the person can be prosecuted under the provisions of the EPA 1986. : ± No permission can be granted by any authority for use of public address system in the open after 10.00 AM.00 PM and before 6. Any person or organization making noise on amplified system after 10. District Magistrates cannot grant permission for use of any amplified public address system after 10. Only District Magistrates can grant permissions after 10. .
Regulatory authority Only District Magistrates can grant permissions after 10. This can be measured on a sound meter. .00 PM for functions within closed premises After permission has been procured the sound must fall within the sound limits prescribed in the Noise Rules. Any person violating the Rules is liable to be arrested under the stringent provisions of the EPA.
. Police and ambulance sirens are still used in ordinary transport vehicles as horns. which is regulated by the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 (although the prohibition against the use of multi-toned horns is hardly enforced).Regulatory authority The rules are silent on noise from vehicles. and mufflers are disengaged or absent even in Euro-I certified vehicles.
Indian Scenario In India. . The Supreme Court in Subhas Kumar v. respectively. State of Bihar has declared pollution free air and water as fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution. there is no law which exclusively deal with problems of noise and its control The Indian Constitution embodies the provisions under Articles 48-A and 51(A) (g) which deals with the improvement and protection of environment under Directive Principles of State Policy and the Fundamental Duties.
± New York City Noise Control Code 1972. ± Chicago Noise Control Act 1971. Noise Abatement Act 1960 and part of the Control of Pollution Act 1974. ± Connecticut Highway Noise Control Act 1971. ± the Federal Environment Policy and Noise Control Act.K. Japan ± Japanese Noise Regulation 1968 . United States of America. U.World Scenario In other countries the comprehensive laws to deal with the problem of noise pollution have been enacted. 1972.
Therefore. the Industries department grants the licenses for factories. For example. the planning department of the city sanctions the plans for construction of residential houses and on the other hand. the coordination among various departments of Govt. must be ensured under a Central law . in the same areas..Conclusion and Suggestions In the absence of a comprehensive law there is lack of coordination between various departments of the Government. As a result the inhabitants are facing lot of difficulties in such areas due to industrial pollution.
Conclusion and Suggestions It is difficult to place produced by and aeroplanes as these public. ± Railway tracks should restrictions on noise railway engines are to be used by the not pass through the residential areas especially for shunting ± Aerodromes should be constructed far away from the residential areas. .
The equipment of industries and vehicle should be so designed that it may control the noise pollution at the starting point.Conclusion and Suggestions Awareness programmes about the effects and control of noise pollution should be launched at national level. The educational institutions and voluntary organizations should be involved in this important issue. .
The design of the buildings etc. should be so made to minimize the effect of noise pollution in such houses.Conclusion and Suggestions The services of media should be taken for educating the people regarding effect and control of noise pollution. The bursting of crackers should be regulated .
A separate Industrial Complex outside the cities should be earmarked and no residential accommodation should be allowed near this Area. .Conclusion and Suggestions The industrial units in the residential areas should be closed.
.Conclusion and Suggestions The playing of loudspeakers at religious places and ceremonies should be restricted to the compounds of such places. The implementing machinery of the Government should be strict and honest in implementing the law's effectively.
THE END .
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