ADELECT/ELENG12/ ELECTRIC CIRCUITS 2

TOPICS IN TRANSFORMERS 1. 4. 5. 2. Voltage Regulation of Transformers . 3. Definition of transformers Types and uses of transformers General Transformer Voltage Equation Ratio of Transformation Equivalent Parameters of A Transformer in Primary and Secondary Terms 6.

DEFINITION  A passive electrical device that transforms and transfers alternating current energy from one circuit to another through magnetic induction. Electrical conversion can be in terms of voltages and/or current. A device consisting of two or more circuits or winding coupled by a common magnetic circuit  .

DEFINITION OF PARTS .

toroidal (copper nonwire wrapped around a cylindrical core). The core can be made with laminated steel (laminated or insulated using non-conductive materials such as varnish). For further readings on CORES see lecture 5 .CORES are made up of ferromagnetic materials usually silicon 1.DEFINITION OF PARTS The two major parts of the transformer are the CORE and WINDINGS. A new type of core is the AMORPHOUS STEEL CORE. This is presently used for smaller distribution transformers due to its high cost of production but the amorphous steel core boasts to have zero losses. 1. Making it cheaper in terms of total ownership cost.CORES steel because of its high permeability to reduce magnetizing current. solid cores (also made-up of madesilicon steel usually used for instrument current transformers) and air core.

For further readings on windings see Lecture 5 . Each turn of the windings is individually insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn of the winding.DEFINITION OF PARTS 2. WINDINGS. Made up of conductive materials that induces magnetic induction from the primary to the secondary side of the transformer.

TERMINALS. Bushings are usually rated according to the voltage level of the terminal to ensure that there is enough creepage distance between phases. Large transformers have heavy bolted terminals. bus bars or high insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. For further readings on terminals see Lecture 5 . 3.DEFINITION OF PARTS Other parts of the transformer are the TERMINALS and the COOLING SYSTEM.

This is the FA or forced air rating of the transformers. For further readings on cooling systems/coolant see Lecture 5 . COOLING SYSTEM. power transformers (rated in several hundred kVA or MVA) are cooled by natural convective cooling by the use of fans. Some power transformers are immersed in highly refined mineral oils that remain stable at transformer operating temperature. Increase in oil temperature can be detected using Buchholz relays. To avoid the breakdown of the varnish. Large transformers generate enough heat and high temperatures that may damage the winding insulation.DEFINITION OF PARTS 4.

the two major types of transformers are 1. This is the more common Irontype of transformer using ferromagnetic material as core to increase permeability and concentrate the path of the magnetic flux in the circuit. In terms of the type of cores used. Using air as the medium of Airmagnetic induction to transfer the electric energy between circuits 2.TYPES AND USES There are many ways to classify the transformers. Most common type of ferromagnetic material used today is the silicone steel. Air-core transformers. . Iron-Core Transformers.

the two major types of transformers are 1. One of the most important use is in power generation plants to increase voltage before transmission. 2. The general function of this type transformers is to increase (step-up) the transformer (stepof the input voltage from the primary side to the secondary side. The general function of this type transformers is to lower (step-down) the transformer (stepof the input voltage from the primary side to the secondary side. One of the most important use is in power generation plants to lower the voltage for safer distribution voltage. Step up transformers.TYPES AND USES In terms of the function in power transformers. Step down Transformers. .

The whole core and winding components are immersed mineral oil which act as coolant and insulation. Oil immersed transformers. . One of the most important use is in power generation plants to lower the voltage for safer distribution voltage. 2. Dry Type Transformers.TYPES AND USES In terms of the type of cooling system in power transformers. The general function of this type transformers is to lower (step-down) the transformer (stepof the input voltage from the primary side to the secondary side. This type of transformers use oil as coolant. the major types of transformers are 1.

TYPES AND USES       1. Polyphase Transformers 3. Audio Transformers 6. Autotransformers 2. Instrument Transformers . Resonant Transformers 5. Leakage Transformers 4.

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