Gas Turbine Power Plant

By

Mr.B.Ramesh, M.E.,(Ph.D)
Research Scholar, CEG, Anna University, Chennai. Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph¶s College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119

 Then fuel and compressed air are mixed in a combustion chamber and ignited. 24 March 2011 2 . Part of it drives the generator/machinery.  Most of the turbine¶s power runs the compressor.  Hot gases are given off.Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant Gas turbine: Working principle :  Air is compressed(squeezed) to high pressure by a fan-like device called the compressor. which spin the turbine wheels.

 nature gas and pulverised(powdered) coal. as in steam turbines. gas turbines use the hot gases directly to turn the turbine blades. Instead of using the heat to produce steam.Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant« Gas turbine: Description:  Gas turbines burn fuels such as oil. Gas turbines have three main parts: Air compressor Combustion chamber 3  i) ii) iii) Turbine 24 March 2011 .

thereby increasing its pressure.Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant« Gas turbine: Air compressor:  The air compressor and turbine are mounted at either end on a common horizontal axle(shaft). part of the turbine¶s power runs the compressor.  Gas turbines are not self starting. later. A starting motor initially drives the compressor till the first combustion of fuel takes place. 24 March 2011 4 .  The air compressor sucks in air and compresses it. with the combustion chamber between them.

natural gas or gas produced artificially by gasification of a solid fuel. the compressed air combines with fuel and the resulting mixture is burnt. but they may also use gaseous fuel.  The greater the pressure of air.  Modern gas turbines usually use liquid fuel.Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant« Gas turbine: Combustion chamber:  In the combustion chamber. Note :  The combination of air compressor and combustion chamber is called as gas generator. the better the fuel air mixture burns. 24 March 2011 5 .

Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant« Gas turbine: Turbine: o The burning gases expand rapidly and rush into the turbine. o The shaft of the turbine is coupled to a generator or machinery to drive it. where they cause the turbine wheels to rotate. o Hot gases move through a multistage gas turbine. o The stationary blades guide the moving gases to the rotor blades and adjust its velocity. o Like in steam turbine. the gas turbine also has fixed(stationary) and moving(rotor) blades. 24 March 2011 6 .

 Power generation(used for peak load and as stand-by unit).  Research is underway to use ceramic components at turbine inlet temperature of 13500C or more.Unit III ± Power plant engineering Gas turbine power plant« Applications of gas turbine:  Gas turbines are used to drive pumps. and reach thermal efficiencies over 40% in a 300 kW unit.  The thermal efficiency of gas turbine made of metal components do not exceed 36%.  Used in aircraft and ships for their propulsion. 24 March 2011 7 . Note :  Gas turbines run at even higher temperatures than steam turbines. They are not suitable for automobiles because of their very high speeds. compressors and high speed cars. the temperature may be as high as 1100 ± 12600C.

Layout of a gas turbine power plant 24 March 2011 8 .

The intercooler is circulated with cooling water.Layout of gas turbine power plant« Starting motor:  Gas turbines are not self starting. They require a starting motor to first bring the turbine to the minimum speed called coming ±in speed. Low pressure compressor(LPC):  The purpose of the compressor is to compress the air. 9 24 March 2011 . Air from the atmosphere is drawn into the LPC and is compressed. for this purpose a starting motor is required. It is cooled by the intercooler. Intercooler: The air after compression in the LPC is hot.

pulverized coal. The compressed air passes through a regenerator.  The fuel along with the compressed air is ignited sometimes with a spark plug. 24 March 2011 Combustion chamber: The fuel(natural gas. kerosene or gasoline) is injected into the combustion chamber.Layout of gas turbine power plant« High pressure compressor(HPC):  The air from the intercooler enters the HPC where it is further compressed to a high pressure. The fuel gets ignited because of the compressed air. Regenerator(Heat exchanger):  The air entering the combustion chamber(CC) for combustion must be hot. 10 . The heat from the exhaust gases is picked up by the compressed air entering the combustion chamber.

Layout of gas turbine power plant« High pressure compressor(HPC):  The air from the intercooler enters the HPC where it is further compressed to a high pressure. The heat from the exhaust gases is picked up by the compressed air entering the combustion chamber. 24 March 2011 Combustion chamber: The fuel(natural gas. The compressed air passes through a regenerator.  The fuel along with the compressed air is ignited sometimes with a spark 11 plug. The fuel gets ignited because of the compressed air. pulverized coal. Regenerator(Heat exchanger):  The air entering the combustion chamber(CC) for combustion must be hot. kerosene or gasoline) is injected into the combustion chamber. .

Note :  About 66% of the power developed by the gas turbine power plant is used to run the compressor.  It is important to note that when the HPT shaft rotates it infact drives the compressor shaft which is coupled to it.  The hot gases(products of combustion) expands through the high pressure turbine.Layout of gas turbine power plant« High pressure turbine (HPT):  In the beginning the starting motor runs the compressor shaft. 24 March 2011 Only 34% of the power developed by the plant is used to generate electric power. Now the HPT runs the compressor and the starting motor is stopped. 12 .

   The heat from the hot gases is used to preheat the air entering the combustion chamber. The hot gases(products of combustion) after leaving the HPT is again sent to a combustion chamber where it further undergoes combustion. The shaft of the LPT is directly coupled with the generator for producing electricity.Layout of gas turbine power plant«   Low pressure turbine (LPT): The purpose of the LPT is to produce electric power. The exhaust gases after leaving the LPT passes through the regenerator before being exhausted through the chimney into the atmosphere. This preheating of the air improves the efficiency of the combustion chamber. 13 24 March 2011 .

condenser and other accessories as in the case of steam power plants. Disadvantages of gas turbine power plant :  66% of the power developed is used to drive the compressor.  Cheaper fuel such as kerosene . There is no need for boiler.000 rpm) and the operating temperature is as high as 1100 ± 12600C.  Less pollution and less water is required. 24 March 2011 14 .000 to 100.  The running speed of gas turbine is in the range of (40. paraffin.  Gas turbine plants can be used in water scarcity areas. benzene and powdered coal can be used which are cheaper than petrol and diesel.Gas turbine power plant« Advantages of gas turbine power plant :  Storage of fuel requires less area and handling is easy. Therefore the gas turbine unit has a low thermal efficiency. For this reason special metals and alloys have to be used for the various parts of the turbine.  It is simple in construction.  High frequency noise from the compressor is objectionable.  The cost of maintenance is less.

Videos and Animations 1. 3.swf . Gas turbine working principle 3 Gas turbine power plant. How a gas turbine engine works 2.

Thank You 24 March 2011 16 .

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