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‡ ³It is an enduring expression of significant
in  well-chosen and

‡ Human experience= Life of the  

-members of the society

‡ Words=symbolic language
- culture of the people





‡ - Cirilo Bautista
‡ It is a group of people occupying a
„ „ñ
territory, with a common

 , and interacting with each other.
‡ It is is the total and  
 „   „of any society. It
encompasses learned ñ ,  
of certain societies.

‡ It starts with the conviction that
 and that these
relationships may organize and
deepen one¶s aesthetic response to a
work of art.

‡ Art is not created in a vacuum; it is
the work not simply of a person, but
of an author fixed in time and space,
answering to a community to which
he is important



‡ Taine (1863), History of English








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‡ ³Sociological critics argue that   
ñ       ñ

in which they are embedded´
(DiYanni 1571).

‡ They focus on the values of the society and ñ 

 in literary works.

‡ They emphasize the ways power relations are

paved out by varying 
Y   "
‡     ññ
affecting man's impulses, feelings, thoughts, and actions.
‡ (a) Climate; (b) Soil; (c) Physical configuration,²
mountains, valleys, etc; (d) Water supply; (e) Flora; (f)
‡ Y

 affecting man as a social
‡ (a) Presence or absence of other groups.
‡ (b) Attitude of other groups, ² hostility or friendliness.
‡ (a)   hunger, thirst, and sex appetite.
‡ (b)  
aversion to pain, love of warmth, ease, and
sensuous pleasure.
‡ î ñ  ² centering on measures
intended to conserve the group and contribute to its
‡ (c) „ 
ambition, shame, envy, pride, vanity, love of
liberty, of power, and of glory.
‡ (d) 
 ² sympathy, sociability, love, hate, spite,
jealousy, anger, revenge.
‡ (e) !
 ² play impulses, desire for self-
‡ (f) ! „ desire for relationship with the Unknown
either through ecstasy or through relations of patronage
and submission.
‡ (g) ñ
² love of fair play, sense of justice.
‡ (h) ñ
desire for enjoyment of the pleasures of
perception, or the beautiful.
‡ (i) 
 " curiosity, love of knowing, learning, and
‡ growing out of combinations of human
desires in large part socially conditioned and directed
towards the objects presented by physical stimuli and the
external social factors.
‡ î ñ ñ ² directed towards securing
‡ î ñ  
 ² looking towards protection
in the exercise of complete, individual self-expression.
‡ î
ñ „  ² looking toward alliance
with the Unknown for release, protection, or advantage.
‡ î ñ 
  ² yearnings for
diversified experience, for interpretation of the mysterious,
release from fear and control through understanding.
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‡ ³Sociological critics argue that literary works
should not be isolated from the social contexts in
which they are embedded´ (DiYanni 1571).

‡ Sociological critics attempt to analyze literature

from one of these two lenses:
Ł Conditions of production, such as schools,
magazines, publishers, and fashions.
Ł The applicability of a given work²fiction
especially²in studying the dynamics of a given
Sociological critics examine expressions of specific
areas in literary works, including:


  during which a piece
was written


å   ñ : What are the women doing
in the story? How do they interact with men?
What is the woman¶s role in society?
å  ñ : developed in the 1930s and
often advocates Marxism. In what social class
does each character belong? How does the
assigned social class impact the character? How
do characters of different social classes


‡ Sheldon Grebstein (1968), Prespectives in

Contemporary Criticism
‡ Literary work cannot be fully
understood apart from the
milieu or culture or civilization
in which it was produced.
‡ Society can impinge upon a work in
two ways: either as a specific material
factor or a force or as a tradition of
collective spiritual and cultural
trends- conventions.
‡ The critic is responsible to the
literature of both past and present-
because the need of each generation
needs various emphasis; a critics
work is simultaneously transient and

‡ What socio-political constructs evolve out of the
events in the novel?
‡ How did the author utilize these socio-political
constructs in the novel?
‡ How do the characters delineate their social
and political roles in the novel?
‡ What social forces and institutions are
represented in the work? How are these forces

‡ What political and economic elements influence
the lives of the characters?
‡ What economic issues appear in the piece of
work? To what extent are the lives of the
characters influenced by these issues?
‡ To what extent are the decisions of the characters
influenced by social, political and economic

‡ This is a story of how wrong decisions become

greater burdens to a family. Mario¶s family
happens to be in the lower bracket of society. He
cannot even provide for his family¶s basic
needs. Albeit all this hardships, his wife Gloria,
still manages to keep her good virtuous. She insists
that the way they are living is a much better than
the one they will have if they do wrong acts.

‡ But Gloria¶s entire constant reminder to Mario

did not prosper. Mario decided to come back to
his old life of crime when he lost his job when he
tried to steal an apple for his daughter. He keeps
on insisting that his priority is to provide what
his wife and daughter needs. He left with Pablo,
his old crime buddy, even if Gloria pleaded very
hard for him not to go with the man.
6 ’ ë #
‡ 1. Poverty
³Mario: Yes, she did. (Pause) Do you remember that
day I took her out for a walk? On our way home we passed
a grocery store that sold ³delicious´ apples at seventy
centavos each. She wanted me to buy one for her, but I did
not have seventy centavos. What I did is to buy her one of
those small, green apples that they sell on the sidewalk but
she just threw it away, saying it was not a real apple. Then
she cried. So when I saw this apple roll out of the broken
crate, I thought that Tita would love to have it.
6 ’ ë #
‡ 2. Unemployment
Mario: (Stares at the ground): Gloria, I¶ve lost my job.
Gloria: (Rises shocked) Oh No!
Mario: (Looks up at her) It is true, Gloria.
Gloria: What about your pay for the whole week?
Mario: I lost my job a week ago.
Gloria: And you never even told me!
6 ’ ë #
‡ 3. Malnutrition
Pablo: See what happened to your daughter. This is
what honesty has done to her. And how can honesty help
her now? She¶s not sick and she needs no medicine. You
know that. You know very well what she needs: food. Good
food. She¶s undernourished, isn¶t she?
6 ’ ë #

‡ 4. Crime
Mario (Turns around and holds her arm,
stammering): Gloria, « you«. You must try to
understand« I tried« I tried long and hard« but could not
lift us out of this kind of life«

Ô Y „

SCENE: An improvised home behind a portion

of the Intramuros walls. Two boxes plan the
doorway. At left is an acasia tree with a wooden
bench under it.

Ô Ô 


Gloria (Pulls away from him): You¶re going! I can

see that you want to go with him.
Ohhh« (cries) You¶ll leave me here
again, wondering weather you¶ll be
shot in the head or sent to jail.


Mario: Why did God create apples for the rich

alone? Didn¶t he create the world for
everyone? That¶s why I tried to bring apple for
Tita. When we brought her into the world, we
sort of promised her everything. She had a
right to have life.


Gloria: That¶s the trouble with you, when you think
of your own stomach, you think of nothing
Mario: I was not thinking of myself!
Gloria: Whom were you thinking of- me? Did I ever
ask you to bring home apples? I am not as
crazy as that.
Mario: I was thinking of our child.


Pablo: How can you be sure? When he and I were
pals we could go to first-class air-conditioned
movie houses every other day. I¶ll bet all the
money I have here now that he has not been to
one since you ³liberated´ him from me. And that
was four years ago.
Pablo: You call this living? This, Gloria, is what you
call dying- dying slowly- minute by minute.

‡ Dishonesty
Gloria: What about your pay for the whole week?
Mario: I lost my job a week ago.
Gloria: And you never even told me!

‡ Faith in God
Gloria: I knew God won¶t let us down. He never lets
anybody down. I¶ll pray tonight and ask him to let
you have that job.

‡ Love for family

Mario: They¶ll do anything to keep me out. But don¶t

worry. I¶ll find another job. It isn¶t really so hard to
look for a job nowadays. (From this point he avoids
her eyes) You know, I¶ve been job-hunting for a week
now. And I think I have found a good job.
 Y  % 

ë  ( ) %*  &

by Shiela Perez Amparo (March1997)





‡ No continuity of presidential policies

‡ The foregoing scenarios in the Philippine history
brings about a certain socio-political issues
o   % 

‡ Y
$ Larry with the military when
he was unjustly incarcerated in Camp Crame
after a quarrel with Wilfred Teodico.

³ You may come out now, he said to the young man. As you can see,
the door is open.´
³Is there one set of rules for senators and another set for ordinary
people? ³He asked again sarcastic.
³You should be thankful you¶ve got a senator to speak to you,´ said
the lieutenant.
And if I didn¶t? He challenged. You¶d let me rot here invoking your
suspension of the privilege of the writ?
o   % 

‡ Prison cell scene- %  

³Look Ramon« I¶ve been thinking over what you just said about
losing the fight from sheer indifference. And yet, we¶re letting
Teotico go scot-free« What was uppermost in my mind while
I was being hauled off was what if I had no one influential to
help me? I was brave- cocky, even-only because I know that
safety was just a phone call away. And I thought of all the
youngsters caught in demos and spirited away, and all those
who had crossed the military or the powerful and had no one
to help them« You¶re right, Ramon, help must be made
available to them. ³
‡ $ most significant major character
‡ ³«Larry plodded ahead, eager to finish what he had
come to say. They are not influential people, Benny
like you are. The police3 had them tied up in
technicalities Benny they are underpaid and they are
not your enemies.´
‡ ³ Benny.. these people work with their hands and
have very little opportunities. It becomes our duty to
protect them and see that they get just
compensation for their labor.
‡ ³We are the squatters of the land papa. And it is the
tenats who have a real right to it?´
‡ ! $ ³ My idea is to establish a 24 hr, round the
clock aid office which anyone victimized by the
military or the police may call«It seems to me« that
because of the suspension of the privilege of the writ
of habeas corpus, people changed with anything
from subversion to jay-walking are held
incommunicado by the authorities, invoking the
suspension of the privilege of the writ.
‡ when he was offered by American friend of Sylvia in
her party, a research grant, an offer with an
apparent hidden agenda ³You son of a bitch!´
‡   $ activist
‡ ³What have you got to do with this business in Sapang
Bato? Her father sized her up as she stood frowning before
him.´ Don¶t gloss over it, father«I already know the facts. I
just want to find out whether you¶re going to pull my leg, or
you¶re going to be honest with me²and she added
meaningfully, for once.
‡ ³ Now, just wait a minute, young lad, her father spoke
indignantly. And when did I start owing you an explanation
for my actions?
‡ ³ Starting right now, father, because I will not be
embarrassed and I will not be ashamed, and I refuse
to feel guilty for what you do with people who are
too helpless to defend themselves against you.
‡ ³He rose, livid with rage. Are you calling me a bully?
‡ ³Worse, her daughter answered, a scoundrel.
‡ Father- government needs the land
‡ ³ The government father, or the people running the
government ? People like you. That is what makes
this country so rotten. People like you have
consistently confused you personal interest with the
interest of the nation.
X  , ,   

‡ Characters- search for identity in the order of
things during the martial law
‡ Filipino character showed in the lines by Larry -
³ We have been used to an abusive colonial
government, Kevins. And we have to pretend
meekness in order to survive« I guess we¶re
really like the bamboo. We don¶t fight the wind.
We bend with it- but«we never break.´
‡ Every literary piece that is set in socio-political
perspective yields some constructs that help
define the new Filipino identity.

‡ Human dimensions presented in Uranza¶s novel

sustain the hypothesis and the new Filipino
identity emerges in the order of things as treated
in the novel.