Industrial Training Institute Amreli

C.O.E. MODULE-ECBT: 2. ³BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING´ DURATION: 8 Week
Prepared by - : Shree D.M.Chauhan

Theory syllabus
WIRE AND CABLE Types, grades, shapes and sizes of insulation. Their proper selection & uses. Different types of joints e.g. Britannia, straight, tee western union.  Care in making a good joint. 2 SIGNS &SYMBOLS  Letters, signs and symbols used in electrical terminology. 3 OHM¶S LAW  Ohm¶s law & its application. 1.   

Theory syllabus
3.ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT:  Concept of ele. Circuit  Series, parallel & mixed circuits. 4.METERS:  A.C. meters  D.C. meters 5.RESISTANCE:  Law of resistance.  Problems on law of resistance. 6.KIRCHHOFF LAW:  Laws.  Their application.

WHEAT STONE BRIDGE: Laws. I.Theory syllabus 7.E. . 9 EARTHING: Its purpose & types. Common faults. rules regarding earth & earth resistance. their causes & remedies. 8 WIRINGS: Testing of wiring Installations. 10 MEGGER: Measurement of earth resistance by use of Megger. Its application.

dry cell. alkaline.Theory syllabus 11.  Battery charging.  Construction & working of lead acid. BATTERY:  Electrolysis. properties.) .  Methods of magnetization & demagnetization. standard cell. 12.  Grouping of cells.MAGNETS:  Their types.  Faradays law & Lenz's law (self & mutual indu. ELECTROMAGNET:  Their advantages over permanent magnets. B-H curves.  Primary & secondary cell. 13. shapes.

A. capacitance.reactance Power & power factor & improving method. 1-phase. 15. ave. ELECTRICAL: R. impedence.s.C. 16. Inductance. value.value. 17. CAPACITOR: Working & types.C.Theory syllabus 14. max. Capacity of capacitor & energy stored in capacitor.value. A. . 3-phase. TRANSFORMER: Working principle Types as per core.m. CIRCUITS: Single phase & three phase.

Theory syllabus Parts of x¶mer. 19. . neon lamp. 18. discharge lamp. fluorescent lamp. mercury vapor lamp. ALARM CIRCUIT: Study of simple contactor & alarm circuit. Different methods used for cooling. ILLUNIMATION:  types & laws. Losses of x¶mer (hysterias & eddy current). Parallel operation of x¶mer. Construction & working of incandescent lamp.

2. . now single & double braided wires are mostly in a uses. Rubber coating vulcanized on its. But Its lower tensile strength. It is used in a11kv. 1.chamical reaction & bed insulation so its uses low in today. Its uses in house wiring & industrial wiring.VIR wire: It is called vulcanized insulation rubber wire.WIRE & CABLE Varies types of wires. Copper & aluminum conductor are used in its. Hard & good rubber coating on copper wire in this wire. CTS & TRS wire: It is called crab tyre sheath wire & tuff rubber sheath wire.

It is very good in moisture condition but less tensile strength so low uses now. But it is flammable so no in use now. And After copper coating is coated on its. 4. MICC wire : It is called mineral insulated copper covered wire. It . 5. Weather proof wire: No any weather reaction . In this types wire copper conductor coated with magnesium oxide. Led pipe on rubber insulation &its coating on conductor. In case of moisture weather PVC coating (serving) is coated on its.WIRE & CABLE 3. Because it has cotton breeding with water proof. in this types of wire. LC wire: It is called led covered wire.

furnace. boiler. factory.WIRE & CABLE is uses in mines. magnesium oxide is used for avoiding moisture problems. PVC coating on copper conductor so its so many advantages as follows. 6. rolling mills etc. (a) High die electric strength (b) High tensile strength (c) More defense against moisture (d) High life (e) No disturb in vibration . PVC wire: It is called poly venial chloride wire.

Its P. tube wiring etc. Fan wiring. There is two core wire. of wire Its used for temporary wiring. insulation wire.V. .FLEXIBLE WIRE This is flexible wire. It is also Called 32\20 wire.C. its means 32 is gauge & 20 is no. A red Wire is use for phase & black For neutron wire.

. It is pvc insulated wire. yellow wire for neutral & brown wire for earth. Its used for 1-phase. There is blue wire for phase. There is color code wire used for wiring &supply.THREE CORE WIRE This is three core wire.

1.oil duct 4.rubber insulation . Its Use for power transmit ion.metallic screen 5.pvc insulation 3.core 2.CABLE STRUCTURE There is cable wire.

WIRE & CABLE .

CABLE Introduction Under ground cable is used electricity distribution & street light in mega and big cities and area in place of over head line. General construction & main parts of cable Core: Insulation: Metallic sheath: Bedding: Armoring: Serving: . Its looking so wonder & beautiful but also so costly.

CABLE STRUCTURE .

Belted cable 3. SL type cable (separate lead sheath cable) 5. Screened or H type cable 4. Low tension cable 2.CABLE Classification of cables as construction 1.Super tension cable (a) Oil field cable (b) Gas pressure cable . HSL type cable (H+SL) 6.

DIFFERENT CABLES .

TYPES OF WIRES .

3. Paper insulated. 4. 2. 5. PVC insulated. Varnish cambric insulated. Rubber insulated. Polyethylene insulated.CABLE Classification of cable as insulation: 1. .

Extra super voltage cables. 2. .core cable. 3.CABLE Classification of cables as voltage rating 1. Extra high tension.core sheathed cable. Supertention cable. High voltage cable. Grading of cables. Insulation resistance of a 1. 5. 4. Low voltage cable. Methods of laying of underground cables. R =pLoger2/2 lr1 capacitance & dielectric stress of 1.

CABLE .

CABLE .V.T.

High dielectric strength. Non inflammable. 10. 3. Low water absorption 5.CABLE Properties. P. 1. High resitivity.R. 4. Low thermal co-efficient.V. 9. High tensile strength. . High mechanical strength. 11.C. 8. Varies insulating materials. V. 7. 2. 6.I. Rubber.

CABLE side view .

WIRES IN NO. OF CORES .

WIRES .

(standard wire gauge) Introduction A Instrument which is use for measure Cross Area (gauge) of wire varies types of gauges (a) 1/18 (b) 3/20 (c) 32/20 Varies uses of its  To measure Cross area of wire  To measure gauge .G.S.W.

G.W. Gauge Table .S.

1) A. = 3) Power = w 4) Voltage = v 5) Current = I 6) Resistance = R 7) Inductor = L . = ~ 2) D.SIGNS & SYMBOLS Introduction: In electrical. Different types of sign & symbols of ele.C. so many signs & symbols are used for drawing electrical circuits also use for short identification.C.

= 14) impedance = Z 15) Inductor = L 16) Winding = 17) Capacitor = 18) Earth = .SIGNS & SYMBOLS 7) Neutral = N 8) Positive polarity = + 9) Negative polarity = 10) delta connection = 11) Star connection = Y 12) Resistor = 13) Variable Resi.

= 30) Lamp = X 31) Fluorescent lamp = o .SIGNS & SYMBOLS 19) Fault = 20) Going up wiring = 21) Going down wiring = 22) 1-pole switch = o 23) 2. = 29) Socket 15.amp.pole switch = o 24) 3-pole switch = o 25) Two way switch= o 26) Intermediate switch = 27) Push button switch = 28) socket 5.amp.

SIGNS & SYMBOLS 32) Heater 33) Bell 34) Siren 35) Ceiling fan 36) Exhaust fan = = = = = 37) volt meter = V 38) ammeter = 39) wattmeter = W 40) frequency meter= 41) Ohm meter = ohm I F .

C. Motor = 43) A. Generator= 44) D. Motor = M ~ G ~ M _ .C.C.SIGNS & SYMBOLS 42) A.

SIGNS & SYMBOLS .

I=V/R . I=current V=voltage R=resistance Equation solution Triangular equation symbols.OHM¶S LAW Introduction Defination ³For a fixed metal conductor. the temperature & other conditions remaining constant the current (i) through it is proportional to the potential difference (v) between its ends´ Equation . .

TO STUDY OF A. METERS Introduction Different types of meters (1) A. Meters (a) Ammeter (b) voltmeter (c) wattmeter (2) D.C.C. & D.C.C. meters .C. Meters (a) Ammeter (b) voltmeter (c) wattmeter Difference bet¶n A.& D.C.

VOLTMETER CKT. DIAGRAM .

DIAGRAM .AMMETER CKT.

Moving coil instrument .

D. D. ampere & resistance in ohms ranges. .C. voltages. Its also measure diode¶s value etc. voltage.C.MULTIMETER There is varies function able type meter. It is measure varies A.C.

Moving coil instrument .

VOLT & AMMETER IN CIRCUIT .

GALVANOMETER .

Circuits D.C.ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Introduction A. (1)Open circuits (2) Short circuits (a) phase to phase fault (b) phase to neutral fault (c) phase to earth fault .C. Circuits Different types of fault in ele. ele. ele.

RESISTANCE Introduction: Conductor. semi conductor. Unit of resistance: R=V/I Different metters effecting on resistance: (1) length of conductor (2) area of conductor (3) materials of conductor (4) temperature of conductor Kirchoff law & their application: 1) Voltage law 2) Current law Wheat stone bridge and its application . insulator.

Are taken as positive. the applied terminal voltage V is equal to the sum of the voltage drop V1+V2 and so forth." If all the generated volt. then it can be stated that. in each closed circuit the sum of all voltage is equal to zero. then we can state that. V=0 . I1+I2=I3+I4+I5 +I1+I2-I3-I4-I5=0 in the above example the sum of all the currents flowing at the junction (node) is equal to zero.Kirchoff law Kirchhoff¶s First law: ³At each junction of currents. the sum of the incoming current is equal to the sum of the outgoing currents.´ If all inflowing currents have positive signs. and all the consumed voltage are taken as negative. I=0 Kirchhoff¶Second Law: ³in closed circuits.

Testing of wiring installation. 2) P. .C.C. 1) wooden casing capping. 1) Metal conduits. 2) P. Conduit Wiring. conduits. Remedies its . casing capping. Their causes . Casing Capping wiring. 1) Open fault. 2) short circuits fault.WIRING Introduction.V. Common faults .V.

Connection of instrument with ground with help of wire is called ear thing.E. Rules regarding earth & earth resistance . It is used for grounding to short circuit current.EARTHING Introduction Its purpose Ear thing is used for protection and safety of instruments and our. Types (1) plate ear thing (2) pipe ear thing I.

5 mm diameter. The length of the rod & pipe electrodes shall not be less than 2. enamel or other poorly conducting material. if made of galvanised iron or steel and 100mm internal diameter if made of cast iron.5m. Electrodes shall as far as practicable be embedded in earth below the permanent moisture level. rod electrodes of steel or galvanized iron shall be at least 16mm in diameter and those of copper shall be at least 12. pipes and rods shall be driven to a depth of 2.EARTHING Rod & Pipe earthing: these electrodes shall be made of metal rod or pipe having a clean surface not covered by paint. Pipe electrodes shall not be smaller than 38mm internal diameter.5 m where rock is encountered at a . Except where rock is encountered.

joints between sections shall be made by means of a screwed coupling which should not be of a greater diameter than that of the rods which it connects together.EARTHING Depth of less than 2. Pipes or rods as far as possible shall be one piece. Deeply driven pipes and rods are however effective where the soil resistivity decreases with depth or where a sub-stratum of low resistivity occurs at a depth greater than those to which rods and pipes are normally driven.5m the electrodes may be buried inclined to the vertical. .5m and the inclination not more than 30º from the vertical. For deeply driven rods. In this case too the length of the electrodes shall be atleast 2.

Plate electrodes shall be of a size at least 60cm by 60cm. Plate electrodes of copper shall be not less than 3. Plate shall preferably be set vertically.5 m from the surface of the ground. Two or more plates shall be used in parallel. Plate electrodes shall be buried such that the top edge is at a depth not less than 1.EARTHING Plate earthing: Plate electrodes when made of galvanised iron or steel shall not be less than 6. Where the resistance of one plate electrode is higher than the required value. .3 mm in thickness. In such case the two plates shall be separated from each other by not less than 8m. Use of plate electrodes is recommended only where the current carrying capacity is the prime consideration for example.15 mm in thickness.

In no case.EARTHING In generating stations if necessary plates electrodes shall have a galvanize iron water pipe buried vertically and adjacent to the electrodes. . shall be such that it should be able to reach the centre of the plate. The internal diameter of the pipe shall be at least 5cm and need not be more than 10cm. if under the earth¶s surface. The length of pipe. and it need not be more than 10cm. however shall it more be than the depth of the bottom edge of the plate. One end of the pipe shall be at least 5cm above the surface of the ground.

there are ear thing. Megger have two or three terminals. Structure of megger Megger is one type of a D. Scale of megger is in ohms range. Megger use as a earth tester. ground and line.MEGGER Introduction Varies uses of megger 1) To measure insulation resistance of wire. It is generate about 500 volt. 3) Testing of continuities of circuits. 2) Testing of faults. It is rotate in 160 rpm with help of handle. 4) To measure earth resistance .C. . generator and used for measurement of insulation resistance of cable and earth.

ELECTROLYTE (BATTERY) Introduction Preparation of electrolyte Primary & Secondary cell Dry cell & Standard cell Grouping of cells Construction & working of lead acid & alkaline Common defects in accumulators Theirs causes & remedies Batteries charging .

BATTERY TESTING .

PRIMARY CELLS TESTING .

It is made in 1. Sign code pulse & minus also designed on its. Either it is chargeable or unchangeable . is increased in series position. .PRIMARY CELLS These are primary cells. It is also called dry cells.5 & 3 volt capaty. Capacitor in series: C1+C2+C3«« Its means total capacity of capa.

STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY CELL .

ELECTROPLATING .

EFFECT OF CELL .

MAGNETS Introduction Types of magnet (1) natural magnet (2) artificial magnet (a) permanent magnet (b) electromagnet Shapes of magnet (1) bar magnet (2) horse shoe magnet (3) ring magnet (4)cylindrical magnet Properties of magnet B-H curve of magnet .

RIGHT HAND RULE .

is equal to the rate of charge of flux linkage´ Lenz's law Eddy currents .f. an e.ELECTROMAGNETS Introduction Solenoids electromagnetic induction (1) self (2) mutual Electromagnet advantages over permanent magnets Faradays laws of electro.f. is induced in that conductor´ 2) second law: ³the magnitude of induced e.m. introduction 1) First law : ³whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux.m.

(1) paper capacitor. (2) oil capacitor.CAPACITORS Introduction. It consists of two conducting surfaces ( may be in form of either circular or rectangular plates or of spherical or cylindrical shape ) separated by an insulating material called a dielectric. . (4) Mica capacitor. (5) Ceramic capacitor. A capacitor is a device capable of storing electric charge. Working of its. (3) Air capacitor. Types of capacitors.

receivers . filters Small space requirement Loudspeaker cross-over High frequency High frequency Radio.TV.5 to 1. antenna. Broadcast.RF coupling General.47 -220 F 330pF -0.01 -18 F 4 -60 F 0.1 -1000 F 0. VHF Motors.01 -10 F 1 -500000 F 0.001 -0.100pF 0.001 -1 F 0. high stability General AC motors Coupling. RF filtering Power suppliers.2 -30pF 10.communication Oscillators.47 F 0.001 -1 F 0.polypropylene Polyester Polystyrene Polycarbonate Metallized polypropylene Metallized polyester Electrolytic aluminum Electrolytic tantalum Electrolytic non polarized Mica Silver Mica Variable ceramic Film air CAPACITANCE 1pF -10pF 1pF -1 F 0.8. RF Entertainment-electronics General. power supply TV vertical circuit.365pF VOLTAGE(WVDC) 50-200 50-500 200-1600 400-1600 100-600 100-200 50-200 400VAC 50 Hz 100-600 5-500 3-125 16-100 50-100 50-500 200 50 50 APPLICATIONS UHF.CAPACITORS Applications TYPE Monolithic Disc &tube ceramics Paper Film.05 F 5 -820pF 1 -5 to 16.001 -1 F 0.

. Energy stored in capacitor. Charging & Discharging of capacitors.CAPACITORS Capacity of capacitors.

 Inductance.  R.C.c. Advantages of poor power factor. Power & power factor in a.s.  Maximum value.  Average value.ELECTRICAL TERMS (A. . Improving methods of power factor. Dis. Xc = 1/2fC  Impedance  Reactance.Xl =2fL  Capacitance. value.) Introduction.m.

A.C.CIRCUITS
Introduction  Single phase a.c. circuits  A.C. series circuits.  A.C. parallel circuits. Comparison of series & parallel resonant circuits.  Three phase a.c. circuits.  Star- connected system.  Delta connected system. Comparison between 1-phase & 3-phase. 1. Voltage. 4 Measurement. 2. Power. 5 Faults. 3. Wave form. 6. Faults in circuits.

TRANSFORMER
Introduction. The function of x¶mer is to transform alternating current energy from one voltage into another voltage. Working principle of x¶mer. A x¶mer operates on the principle of mutual inductance, bet¶n two inductively coupled coils. Types of x¶mer. (1)shell type (2)core type (3) single phase (4) three phase Parts of power x¶mer. Voltage transformation ratio of x¶mer. Different methods of cooling. Parallel operation of x¶mer.

Internal Structure of X¶mer

TRANSFORMER Step up X¶mer: Step down x¶mer: .

TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER
Losses. (1)copper losses. ³It produces in winding of primary & secondary of transformer.´ W=I2R watt (2) hystersis losses. ³It produces in core of transformer.´ (3) eddy current losses. ³It is also produces in core of transformer´

ILLUMINATIONS
Introduction.  Terminology Laws of illuminations. Law of inverse squares.  Lambert¶s cosine law. Types of Lighting systems.  Direct Lighting.  Semi ± direct lighting.  Semi ±indirect lighting.  Indirect lighting. General reflection. (5) neon sign

ILLUMINATIONS Construction & working of following lamps. (1) incandescent lamps (2) fluorescent lamps (3)mercury lamps (4) sodium vapour lamps .

the gases inside gets ionise & start conducting when once the ionization take place & current is conducted from one to . A glass shall with two electrodes apart is connected through lead in wires to the voltage source. especially at atmospheric & higher pressures. but application of suitable voltage( known as ignition voltage) between two electrodes in a sealed envelope containing gas at low pressure ionises the gas and current passes from one electrode to the other. Gasses are normally poor conductors. When the voltage applied to the electrode is increase to a certain value . The space within the shall is filled with low pressure vapor .FLUORESCENT LAMP Principle of a discharge lamp: the basic principle of a gas discharge lamp is explained.

The UV radiation can not be perceived by the human eye.FLUORESCENT LAMP The other. certain phosphors have the property of emitting light in the visible spectrum when the phosphor is exposed to UV rays. . the resistance in the circuit drop very rapidly it causes heavy current drawl a device to limit the excess current must be provided the current flow through the low pressure gas is called discharged this causes the gas vapor to emit radiation ultra violet region.

FLUORESCENT LAMP .

Construction of Fluorescent Lamp .

ALARM CIRCUITS Introduction. fault & finding. At that time circuit had opened by adjective screw. It is working on electro magnetic law. Alarm circuit is a electro magnetic and mechanical both combination system. A bobbin fitting on soft iron core so a core become magnet and its attracted to sprig strip. bobbin coil becomes electromagnets. Alarm circuits. . When circuit getting supply. Working & structure of alarm ckts. A sprig strip hitting on the gang and voice produces a one time.

STUDY OF RESISTANCE TYPES CONFIGURATION TESTING .

STUDY OF CAPACITANCE TYPES CONFIGURATION TESTING .

STUDY OF INDUCTANCE TYPES CONFIGURATION TESTING .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL MESUREMENT DC BRIDGES AC METERS MESUREMENT SYSTEM DC METERS AC BRIDGES .

STUDY OF WIRING MAINTANANCE TESTING INSTALLATION TYPES .

E.STUDY OF EARTHING IMPORTANCE OF EARTHING I.RULES FOR EARTHING MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTANCE STUDY OF MEGGER .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CELLS PRIMARY CELLS SECONDARY CELLS GROUPING OF CELLS .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL BATTERY ELECTRICAL BATTERIES SOLID STATE LIQUID STATE TYPES OF BATTRIES SIZES OF BATTERIES CONFUGRATION OF BATTERIES METHODS OF BATTERIES CHARGING .

STUDY OF MEGNETS PERMANENT MEGNET TEMPORARY MEGNET ELECTRO MEGNET .

BASICS OF MEGNETS B-H CURVES OF MAGNETS SOLENOIDS TYPES OF MAGNETS RESIDUAL MAGNETISUM MAGNETIZATION HISTARISIS LOSS DEMAGNETIZATION MEGNETS EDDY CURRENT SHAPES OF MAGNETS LENZ¶S LAW ADVANTAGES FARADAYS LAWS DISADVANTAGES .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL TERMS RMS VALUE AC VALUES MAXIMUM VALUE AVERAGE VALUE .

STUDY OF POWER TERMS .

STUDY OF IMPEDANCE TERM .

STUDY OF AC CIRCUITS .

STUDY OF TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE TRANSFORMATION RATIO OF TRANSFORMERS PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMERS WORKING PRINCIPAL TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS PARTS OF POWER TRANSFORMERS LOSSES IN TRANS ORMERS DIFFERENT COOLING METHODS OF TRANSFORMERS TROUBLE OOTING IN TRANS ORMERS .

ILLUMINATION TECHNOLOGY LAWS OF ILLUMINATION WORKING PRINCIPALS OF ILLUMINATION METHODS OF ILLUMINATION TYPES OF ILLUMINATION CONSTRUCTION OF ILLUMINATION .

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL LAMPS FLUORESCENT LAMPS ELECTRICAL LAMPS FOR ILLUMINATION MERCURY LAMPS NEON LAMPS .

STUDY OF CONTACTORS TYPES OF CONTACTORS WORKING PRINCIPAL OF CONTACTOR OPERATION OF CONTACTOR IN CIRCUITS .

STUDY OF ALARMS TYPES OF ALARMS WORKING PRINCIPAL OF ALARMS OPERATION OF ALARMS IN CIRCUITS .

STUDY OF INSULATED WIRES TYPES GRADES INSULATED WIRES SHAPES SIZES .

STUDY OF INSULATED CABLES TYPES GRADES INSULATED CABLES SHAPES SIZES .