WTO

The Shrinking Globe
1500-1840
Best average speed of horse-drawn coaches and sailing ships, 10mph.

1850-1930

The Steam locomotives average 65mph. 1950s smaller world is getting Steamships average 36mph. and smaller, and the Propeller aircraft 1960s competition is300-400 mph. tougher getting Jet passenger every day. - Martha Layne Collins aircraft 500-700mph.
2010

To respond is positive, to react is negative.
Bit of a stretch: four minutes later the Dutchman saves United again.

- Zig Ziglar

Almost overnight, the Internet¶s gone from a technical wonder to a business must.
- Bill Schrader

Peter Drucker . distance has been eliminated. There is only one economy and one market. .In the mental geography of e-commerce.

.Thomas Alva Edison .Good fortune is what happens when opportunity meets with planning.

Every season« every person« every moment has a uniquely Divine reason. .

You need informed people around you. You need inspired people around you.You need good people around you. .

. WTO Doha round was launched 9 years ago.WTO G8 drops Doha mark 28 Jun 2010 World leaders have dropped a commitment to complete the troubled Doha trade round this year and vowed to push forward on bilateral and regional trade talks until a global deal could be done.

³India is willing to negotiate on commerce but not the livelihoods of poor farmers. . India fails to convince the developed world about protecting farmers. Former Commerce Minister Talks broke down largely on the issues of: SP (Special Products) SSM (Special Safeguard Mechanism). Farming failure.´ .The breakdown of the WTO ministerial talks in Geneva on 30th July 2009 has endangered the Doha Round.Kamal Nath.

The SSM protects farmers from sudden surges in imports and dips in prices though additional duties. The government cannot ignore their votes. With 650 million people engaged in agriculture in India. . and in most developing countries they are the majority of the population (60%). And Indian farmers have systematically voted out parties which ignore their survival demands for slogan like ³Shining India´ and ³Economic Superpower´ and ³The Corporate Agenda´. Half of humanity is farmers.SPs & SSM are the instruments the Doha framework provided for insulating developing countries poor farmers against large tariff cuts. SPs let developing countries take milder cuts.

. . Location of the WTO headquarters in Geneva .

the World Bank. . and the ITO (international economic cooperation).Founders Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes at the Bretton Woods Conference ± Both economists had been strong advocates of a liberal international trade environment. and recommended the establishment of three institutions: the IMF.

Pascal Lamy. . the WTO's Director-General.

a developing Country. in September 1986.The Uruguay Round The eighth and the latest Round of the multilateral trade negotiations held under the auspices of the GATT is known as the Uruguay Round as it was launched in Punta del Este in Uruguay. Because of the complexities of the issues involved and the conflicts of interests among the participating countries the UR could not be concluded in December 1990 as was originally scheduled. presented a Draft Act embodying what he thought was the result of the of Uruguay Round. Arther Dunkel the then Director General of GATT. This came to be known popularly known as the Dunkel Draft. . When the negotiations dragged on.

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1935) in the William Rappard Park .³The Human Effort´ (James Vibert.

Trees in the park: the location embodies peace and stability .

Depictions of ³Peace´ (left) and ³Justice´ (right) flank the main entrance to WTO¶s home (Luc Jaggi. 1925) .

The symbolic artwork of the Centre William Rappard. headquarters of the World Trade Organization Salle des Pas-Perdus. ground floor cafeteria .

Dispute Settlement panels. Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 3. etc. Council for Trade in Goods 2. Council for Trade in Services Fourth level: Subsidiary Bodies There are subsidiary bodies under each of the three councils. Highest level: Ministerial Conference Second level: General Council Third level: Councils for Trade 1. and Plurilateral committees. . except the Appellate Body.. committees.Formal structure According to WTO rules. all WTO members may participate in all councils.

specifically by lowering trade barriers and providing a platform for negotiation of trade. predictably and freely as possible". which are the foundation of the multilateral trading system. . The WTO/GATT system is founded on nondiscrimination. with its twin faces of Most-FavouredNation and National Treatment principles. Its main mission is "to ensure that trade flows as smoothly. This main mission is further specified in certain core functions serving and safeguarding five fundamental principles.Mission The WTO's stated goal is to improve the welfare of the people of its member countries.

these are regarded by analysts as the most important: It oversees the implementation. Additionally. the IMF and the World Bank.[ Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing. The WTO is also a center of economic research and analysis: regular assessments of the global trade picture in its annual publications and research reports on specific topics are produced by the organization.Functions Among the various functions of the WTO. the WTO cooperates closely with the two other components of the Bretton Woods system. Finally. least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training. . and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making. It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes. it is the WTO's duty to review the national trade policies. administration and operation of the covered agreements.

5. Binding and enforceable commitments. Reciprocity. Safety valves. it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games. . 3. Non-Discrimination 2.Principles of the trading system The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies. Transparency. it does not define or specify outcomes. 4. Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO: 1. That is.

Connectivity Connectivity is productivity.59% point of growth in GDP per person. . An extra ten mobile phones per hundred people in a typical developing country leads to an additional 0. If you connect people. they are more productive.

reduce farm subsidies and strengthen the international trading system.World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations in Geneva collapsed officially ending 9 days of discussion. . The failure ends any hope of a global deal to open markets.

.Encourages good government.10 Benefits of the WTO 1. Its rules increase efficiency 4. Helps promote peace 2. Its rules make functioning easier 5. Free trade cuts cost of living 6. Trade raises incomes 8. Shields governments from lobbying 10. Permits more choice of products 7. Handles disputes constructively 3. Trade stimulates economic growth 9.

9 % 4.3 % 5.0 % 3.0 % 4.8 % 2002 4.0 % 4.0 % 4.0 % .9 % 5.8 % 4.Average Tariff Rates on Manufactured Products 1913 France Germany Italy Japan Holland Sweden Great Britain United States 21 % 20 % 18 % 30 % 5% 20 % -44 % 1950 18 % 26 % 25 % -1% 9% 14 % 1990 5.9 % 5.0 % 4.0 % 4.4 % 5.9 % 5.9 % 4.

9% 3.3% 9.0% 5.7% 5.5% 3.1% 3.World Output and Trade Country United States Germany France Italy United Kingdom Canada Japan China Share of World Share of World Share of World Output 1963 Output 2004 Exports 2004 40.8% 4.4% 5.4% 9.7% 3.3% 3.8% 3.4% 6.9% 13.9% 4.5% NA 20.2% 10.9% .1% 2.3% 3.5% 6.7% 6.5% 4.

The current rise in food prices. the corporations have doubled their profits. Cargill's profits went up by 30% in 2007. which has led to the food crisis. Monsanto profits increased by 44%. Agriculture regulate Agribusiness .While millions go hungry. is a direct result of WTO rules including the removal of QR.

this beggar and her child do not have much hope in the future. .On the streets of Bangalore.

.Girls' education holds the key to creating demand for better health services at the grassroots level.

. ‡ Sources ± Ability/talent ± Schooling ± Training (on the job).Human Capital ‡ Human capital is any ³stock´ of knowledge or characteristics an individual possesses that contributes to his/her productivity.

Age/Earnings Profiles for Men by Educational Level .

Benefits and Costs of Five Years of College Education .

Present Value Present Value of investing in college : PV College Y C !§ (1 i ) 65 t t !18 HS C t t 18 Present Value of not investing in college : PV HS ! t ! 18 Y § (1 i ) 65 t HS t  18 Go to college if PV College " PV .

Technology is making higher education ± and economic opportunity ± available to more people. Now universities offer online lectures. examinations and degrees to students all over the world. regardless of their location. Bill Gates .I applied to study at Harvard University nearly 35 years ago. discussion groups. I was attracted partly by the chance to hear great lectures from Harvard¶s brilliant faculty.

. The house occupies 50. as of 2005.758.000 square feet on a 5.321. According to King County public records.169 and the annual property tax for 2006 is $1.15 acre lot. WA 98039. Garage space and outbuildings may occupy an additional 16. 73rd Avene. Property records indicate eight bedrooms and four building levels.012. The lot was purchased in December 1988 for $2 million. The address of the mansion is 1835. the total assessed value of the property is $135. and construction occurred over a period of seven and a half years with nominal completion in 1995.The house is a modern design in the Pacific lodge style.000 square feet. with classic features such as a large private library and a big dome-shaped room. Medina.

.Mohnish Pabrai.Success is about knowing what you do not know.000 for winning bid on eBay for the privilege of having lunch with Warren Buffett. paid $650. . who runs Berkshire Hathway.

There was a Good Samaritan in Barheta. Nirmal Prakash. is confident that Praksh is a bright kid. Sanjeev Dev. Country head Muehlbaur (India) a German RFID and Biometric solutions provider. asks his father for Rs. What Nirmal gets from his poor. a teacher in local school. 2. then IIT. an 11 year-old boy. . farmer father with four children is an angry rebuke. one of the 560 residential schools funded and run by the Central government in rural areas of as many districts of India. Prakskh wants to buy an application form for admission to JNV.Pushing People Up JNV (Javahar Navodaya Vidyalayas) : On an unremarkable day in 1990 in Barheta village of Bihar¶s Darbhanga district. 6-12 class.

Prakash. a Nasikheadquartered technology provider and a member of a consortium that has recently won a Rs 280-crore contract to provide smart cards to the beneficiaries of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in the state. 2008. visited his home state Bihar as Joint MD of Smarftech. . 29.In May.

± Swami Vivekananda .Life is short : Give it up to a Great Cause.

³Up India. rise and conquer the world with Your spirituality´ .

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