# Solidification and Precipitation

Chapter 22 & 23 (Kinetics of Materials)
Rommel Paulo B. Viloan MSE 233

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Solidification
 we restrict ourselves to two cases: when the liquid/solid interface is stable and plane-front solidification is achieved, and when the interface is unstable and cellular or dendritic growth occurs.

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3 .1 Plane-Front Solidification in One Dimension 22. The bar is progressively cooled from one end. 22. a liquid binary alloy initially of uniform composition co is placed in a bar-shaped crucible of length L.1 Scheil Equation In Fig.1.22. so it solidifies from one end to the other with a stable and planar liquid/solid interface.1a onedimensional solidification is depicted.

1 Scheil Equation 4 .22.1.

1. the flux relative to an origin at the interface moving at velocity v is.22. General solution 5 .1 Scheil Equation At a relatively short time after the establishment of the quasi-steady-state concentration spike. The diffusion equation in the liquid is.

Therefore. 6 .1. is defined as the ratio of the concentration in the solid being formed over the concentration in the bulk liquid.1 Scheil Equation Substituting CL(x) and using The effective partition ratio.22. k .

1. the amount of solute that must be rejected into the liquid is The slowly changing concentration in the bulk liquid is represented by The change in concentration in the liquid is then (Scheil Equation) Distribution of solute after the solidification 7 .1 Scheil Equation If the concentration spike moves by dx.22.

1.1 Scheil Equation Two limiting forms of the Scheil Equation.1.22. Lack of convection High solidification rate Slow rate of diffusion in the liquid cSL = co the composition of the solid being formed and the composition of the bulk liquid are the same 8 .

and there can be a large difference between the compositions of the solid being formed and the bulk liquid. depending on the factor k.1 Scheil Equation Two limiting forms of the Scheil Equation.1.22. 2. the diffusion barrier is nonexistent. 9 . There is then rapid mixing in the liquid.

1. 10 .22.1 Scheil Equation Two limiting forms of the Scheil Equation.

22. 11 .2 Zone Melting and Zone Leveling Heating from one end A melted zone of length l is produced The zone is then moved along the entire specimen at a constant rate while keeping l constant.1.

When the zone moves a distance dx.. Because the initial composition of the liquid in the zone is co. 1 >> 6). the amount of solute gained by the zone is (cO .1.e.2 Zone Melting and Zone Leveling The zone is generally much longer than the width of the liquid boundary layer (i.22.csL) dx. and therefore cL is the concentration in the liquid in the zone. 12 .

2 Zone Melting and Zone Leveling 13 .22.1.

2 Zone Melting and Zone Leveling When the zone length is relatively short. a technique known as zone leveling.22. k is large. 14 . the bulk of the specimen solidifies at very nearly a uniform composition corresponding to CO. Zone solidification can be used in this manner to produce compositional uniformity. and when the number of passes is small.1.

2 Cellular and Dendritic Solidification 22. 15 . called cells. advance perpendicular to the interface.2. When the degree of instability is relatively low. an array of protuberances develops on the interface. For <100> liquid/solid interfaces in cubic metals.1 Formation of cells and dendrites When the liquid/solid interface is unstable (undercooling) a cellular or dendritic structure is developed. These protuberances.22.

16 . When the degree of instability is increased by increasing the rate of solidification.22. for a <110> interface.2.1 Formation of cells and dendrites However. fully formed dendrites develop. the cells take on a corrugated configuration of long hills and furrows.

22.2.1 Formation of cells and dendrites 17 .

extensive solute segregation occurs in the interdendritic spaces. The segregation occurs because of the tendency of the solidifying solid to reject excess solute into the remaining liquid and can be understood using the model developed to analyze plane-front solidification 18 .2 Solute Segregation during Dendritic Solidification During dendritic growth. this phenomenon is a serious problem in the casting of alloys.2.22.

3 Structure of Castings and Ingots Castings are typically produced by pouring liquid into a relatively cold mold and allowing solidification to take place. 19 . Heat is removed from the solidifying material by conduction out through the mold.22.

Precipitation  Precipitation occurs when a new phase forms discontinuously within a homogeneous metastable phase to form a two-phase mixture of lower energy. 20 . The process occurs by the nucleation and growth of particles (precipitates) of the new phase embedded in the original phase.

1 General Features of Precipitation 21 .23.

The critical nucleus can then form with a coherent interface and is therefore of relatively low energy. When there is no near lattice matching between precipitate and matrix structures in any dimension.23. 22 . In such cases.2 Nucleus Morphology and Energy Simplest case: and -phase crystals have different compositions but still match almost exactly in all three dimensions. the interfacial energy will be relatively high. homogeneous nucleation will be slow to occur and the nucleation will be inhomogeneous.

2 Nucleus Morphology and Energy 23 .23.

However. 24 . its total interfacial energy increases linearly with its area. Its strain energy increases linearly with its size. interfacial energy dominates at small sizes where the interface-to-volume ratio is large. On the other hand.23. Nuclei and small-sized precipitates therefore tend to be coherent because this minimizes the interfacial energy (and the total energy).3 Loss of Precipitate Coherency During Growth Just after nucleation. a small coherent precipitate generally possesses both interfacial energy and strain energy. the strain energy becomes dominant as the size increases.

...Thank you for listening! 25 .-The End .