MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT 

is a process of coordinating actions and allocating resources to achieve organizational goals.

MANAGEMENT THEORIES
- Evolved from earlier theorist - Theorist of management were introduced in the 1800 during the industrial age as factories developed

HUMAN RELATION THEORY Introduced by Mary Follet Presence of proper relationship between manager and members. The individual worker as the source of control, motivation and productivity in organization.

a. Classical/scientific approach 

1930 labor unions became stronger and were instrumental in advocating for the human needs of employee

HAWTHORNE EFFECT 

the phenomena of being observed or studied, resulting in changes in behaviour.

Frederick Winslow Taylor 

, was an American mechanical

engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants.[1]

A. CLASSICAL APPROACH 
FREDERICK W. TAYLOR- acknowledge as

the father of scientific management for his use of scientific method.  He was focusing his attention on the operation within an organization by exploring production at the worker level.  PRODUCTIVITY was the area of focus

Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles 

Replace rule-of-thumb work

methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. 

Scientifically select, train, and

develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. 

Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" 

Divide work nearly equally

between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

Henri Fayol 

was a French mining engineer, director of

mines, and management theorist, who developed independent of the theory of Scientific Management, a general theory of business administration[1] also known as Fayolism. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.

Henri Fayol
known as the father of the management process school described this as: Planning Organizing Issuing orders/ commanding Coordinating Controlling 

Recommended centralization through the use of a scalar chain, responsibility accompanied by authority, and unity of command and direction. 

He advocated a place for everything and everything in its place.  Esprit d Corp/ team spirit the positive act of one is the benefit of the team. Likewise, fault of one is fault of all. 

Respondeat Superior/Command

Superior the master shall always be accountable.  Subordination of personal to the general interest good of majority before yourself.  Renumeration of personnel

Lillian Gilbreth

Lillian Gilbreth and franck 
focused on inefficiency and waste

- not only the waste of time and motion but also the waste of potential human satisfaction and fulfillment that could be derived from work. 

One of her studies is motion, which could "make visible the invisible.  She believed that satisfaction comes from using one s skills, that standardized work could also be skilled work. 

She believed that poorly planned

jobs made work tiresome and destroyed enjoyment of the task. Her theory was that managers and owners needed to structure authority in the workplace and that each employee deserved basic human dignity

Henry Laurence Gantt 

he advocated a scientific approach to industrial efficiency. The processes and tools he created remain essential to our modern business world. 

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project

Max Weber 

German lawyer, politician, historian, sociologist and political economist, who profoundly influenced social theory and the remit of sociology itself.[1

] Weber's major works dealt 

with the rationalization and socalled "disenchantment" 

Antipositivism (or non-positivist sociology)

is the view in social science that academics must necessarily reject empiricism and the scientific method in the conduct of social theory and research 

empiricism is a theory of knowledge which

asserts that knowledge arises from sense experience. Empiricism is one of several competing views about how we know "things,"

Mary Parker Follett 

was an American social worker, management consultant and pioneer in the fields of organizational theory and organizational behavior. 

Mary Parker Follett pioneered the understanding of lateral processes within hierarchical organizations (which recognition led directly to the formation of matrix-style organizations,

b. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

Elton Mayo 

was an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist. 

Formulate job satisfaction and

hawthorne effect

Chester Barnard 
was an American business

executive, public administrator, and the author of pioneering work in management theory and organizational studies. 

Barnard looked at organizations as systems of cooperation of human activity, and noted that they are typically short-lived. It is rare for a firm to last more than a century, and the only organization that can claim a substantial age is the Roman Catholic Church

Rensis Likert 
was an American educator and

organizational psychologist best known for his research on management styles. He developed his eponymous Likert Scale and the linking pin model.

Likert scale 
is a psychometric scale commonly used in

questionnaires, and is the most widely used scale in survey research. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement. The scale is named after its inventor, psychologist Rensis Likert.[2] 

The format of a typical five-level Likert item     

is: Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree

Linking pin model 
The linking pin model is an idea

developed by Rensis Likert. It presents an organisation as a number of overlapping work units in which a member of a unit is the leader of another unit

Douglas Mc Gregor 

Discuss about the theory x and theory Y

Theory x 
McGregor argued that the

conventional approach to managing was based on three major propositions, which he called Theory X:

1. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, and people-in the interests of economic ends. 

2. With respect to people, this is a

process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. 

3. Without this active intervention by

management, people would be passiveeven resistant-to organizational needs. They must therefore be persuaded, rewarded, punished, and controlled. Their activities must be directed. Management's task was thus simply getting things done through other people.

Theory Y 

Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, and people in the interests of economic ends.

2. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. 

3. The motivation, potential for

development, capacity for assuming responsibility, and readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in peoplemanagement does not put them there 

. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves.

4. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts toward organizational objectives.

Henry Mintzberg 

Formulate organizational

structure

Robert blake and jane mouton 
Proposed the manegerial grid

Alvin toffler 
Adhocracy is a type of organization being

antonymous to bureaucracy. The term was first popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler[1], and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations), further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg. 

The word is a portmanteau of the Latin ad

hoc, meaning 'for purpose', and the suffix cracy, from the ancient Greek kratein ( ), meaning 'to govern'[1], and is thus a

c. Management science approach

Herbert Simon 

was an American political scientist,

economist, and psychologist, and professor most notably at Carnegie Mellon University whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, philosophy of science, sociology, and political scienceof the 20th century 

. With almost a thousand very

highly cited publications, he is one of the most influential social scientists 

A polymath (Greek polymath s,

,

"having learned much")[1] is a person, with superior intelligence, whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath (or polymathic person) may simply refer to someone who is very knowledgeable. Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards.[2]

Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as a "Renaissance Man" and is one of the most recognizable polymaths.

Theory Z 
is a name applied to two distinctly different psychological theories. One was developed by Abraham H. Maslow in his paper Theory Z and the other is Dr. William Ouchi's so-called "Japanese Management" style popularized during the Asian economic boom of the 1980s. 

Maslow's Theory Z' In contrast toTheory X, which stated that workers inherently dislike and avoid work and must be driven to it, and Theory Y, which stated that work is natural and can be a source of satisfaction when aimed at higher order human psychological needs. 

For Ouchi, Theory Z focused on

increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job 

. According to Ouchi, Theory Z

management tends to promote stable employment, high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction.

Principles of management 
Unity of command Hierarchical organization principle

that no subordinate should report to more than one boss; or, 'Two bosses are not better than one.' 

they should be responsible to only one superior

esprit de corp 
solidarity, rapport, team spirit,

camaraderie, mutual support, common bond, fellow feeling, community of interests, group spirit He enjoyed the friendship, comradeship and esprit de corps of the army.

Division of labor or economic specialization is the specialization of cooperative labor in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase the productivity of labor.

Span of control 
is a term originating in military

organization theory, but now used more commonly in business management, particularly human resource management. Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has.

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