The communication has specifically two purposes: purposes: Macro (general) - To inform or persuade Micro (specific) - Precise objective

to be communicated

Any draft contains three things: Title of talk General purpose Specific purpose

TITLE:

An International Barrier Language

GENERAL PURPOSE: To Inform SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To note three berries of speaking in a second language: Definite articles, tenses and preposition

Informative Speaking

Variations

Persuasive Speaking

Vague Specific Purpose

Better Specific Purpose

INFORMATIVE SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Process As Purpose

Policy As Purpose

Chronological Organization

Topical Organization

VAGE SPECIFIC PURPOSE: UnUn-composed Incomplete Indistinct/ Ambiguous BETTER SPECIFIC PURPOSE: Composed Complete Clear

FOR EXAMPLE: Health Care

FOR EXAMPLE: XAMPLE: To review the various funding options for a national health care program. program.

Vague Specific Purpose

Better Specific Purpose

INFORMATIVE SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Process As Purpose

Policy As Purpose

Chronological Organization

Topical Organization

PROCESS AS PURPOSE: PURPOSE: Systematic steps needed to bring about the desired result. result. Two organizational formats are frequently used: used: Chronological Organization Topical Organization

1) CHRONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION: ORGANIZATION: ‡ Systematic steps would be given from the beginning to the end ‡ Used for short messages

FOR EXAMPLE
TITLE: TITLE:

Our Employees Overseas
GENERAL PURPOSE: PURPOSE:

To Inform
SPECIFIC PURPOSE: PURPOSE:

To Suggest the procedures in preparing for overseas work. work.
MAIN POINTS: POINTS:

I. Contact with personnel office II. Visit to overseas location III. Debriefing with previous personnel in overseas location

1) TOPICAL ORGANIZATION: ORGANIZATION: ‡ Only headings would be given ‡ Used for long messages

FOR EXAMPLE
TITLE: TITLE:

Learning Microsoft Word
GENERAL PURPOSE: PURPOSE:

To Inform
SPECIFIC PURPOSE: PURPOSE:

To introduce users to the basic process of learning Microsoft Word
MAIN POINTS: POINTS:

I. II. III. IV.

Word disk MS Word manual Word Pocket guide Quick Help

POLICY AS PURPOSE: PURPOSE:

Policies are the general statements or understandings that guides or channel thinking in decision making.

PERSUASIVE SPECIFIC PURPOSE Phrasing your specific purpose in infinitive form channels your thinking into a precise goal statement Gaining willing acceptance of your central objective is a core purpose of persuasive speaking

PERSUASIVE SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Vague Specific Purpose

Better Specific Purpose

VAGE SPECIFIC PURPOSE: UnUn-composed Incomplete Indistinct/ Ambiguous BETTER SPECIFIC PURPOSE: Composed Complete Clear

FOR EXAMPLE: M.B.A.s

FOR EXAMPLE: XAMPLE: To suggest that at the M.B.A. level there be compulsory requirements for a second language. language.

Informative Speaking :There are four types of informative situation in business communication : ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reports Goodwill Briefing Instruction

REPORTS :Report writing in an essential skill at all levels of business. Writing clear, concise reports is a key skill for effective business communication. An effective, well-written report can drive sales, create more cohesive and betterfunctioning teams, streamline processes, and improve financial operations.

Which Reports?
Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Reports Progress Reports White Papers
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Goodwill :Companies have always been concerned about their reputation. Their goal is to leave a positive company image in the community. Companies have speakers; bureaus i-e companies top level executives speaks in a variety of public settings. e.g. : company host a retirement party.

Briefings :Short problem solving sessions in the company are called briefings. Usually speakers present a problem to management and give all information about that problem then management can make an informed decision .

Instruction :A common belief is that the longer you are with a firm the more instruction you will give to younger employees . your goal as instructor is to have listeners follow your explanation, learn from your instruction, and then apply this knowledge with in the organization.

Persuasive Speaking
Persuasion as a whole may be classified into four major categories : ‡Policy ‡Procedure ‡Value ‡Fact

Policy :Policy refers to a course of action to be taken or not to be taken.

E.g.
What policy should a company follow regarding investment in any country.

Procedure :A procedure is required To implement the policy of the company. ‡ How will the policy be policed ? ‡ What steps should be followed in implementing the policy ?. ‡ What steps should be carried out /. Etc .

Audience Analysis For Informative and Persuasive Speaking
Knowing as much about your audience as you can decreases your chances of errors.

Degrees of Interest and Attitudes:-

Informative Speaking:
‡ How much do my listeners know about the topic ?. ‡ What is their level of comprehension ?.

Persuasive Speaking :
One factor which is relevant for persuasion is the attitude of being for(pro) or against(con) your position. Your assessment focuses on what you think the attitude of your audience is toward accepting your proposal. If they strongly agree with you, your task is easy, if they disagree, your task is more difficult.

Occasion : 
Most of your speaking will occur inside your company, either to members of your own group or to the other functional areas.  It is easier to speak when the audience is known and familiar.

Location:
Each location for your presentation has its own peculiar environment. Members of company speakers bureaus have spoken in large auditoriums, conference rooms and in lounges of local hotels.

SUPPORTS FOR INFORMATIVE AND PERSUASIVE SPEAKING:
Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian writer on oral communication in ancient world have been told good oral communication rests upon three bases: bases: Ethos Pathos Logos

ETHOS: ETHOS: It concerns your credibility as a speaker, what you do that suggests good sense or high moral character. character. PATHOS: PATHOS: Pathos is using emotion to support your ideas. ideas. LOGOS: LOGOS: It involves using evidence and reasoning, organizing supports into logical patterns of arguments. arguments.

SIX FORMS OF SUPPORT:
1) Example. 2) Illustrations. 3) Statistics. 4) Quotations, Testimony. 5) Comparisons. 6) Questions on forms of support.

EXAMPLE: You will use this form of evidence more than any other. It is a short, pithy item, representative of a group.

ILLUSTRATIONS: ILLUSTRATIONS: Illustrations are elongated examples; they lay examples; out in detail a specific situation, suggestion, for example, that your proposed solution has worked successfully elsewhere. elsewhere.

STATISTICS:
Many of the statistics you use in persuasion in the Business world are self-generated. They are therefore Dependent on self-generated. your method of collection and the inferences you draw from them. them. You will also use statistics from sources other than yourself. yourself. you should know what statistical measures to use to prove the validity of your data. data.

QUOTATIONS, TESTIMONY: TESTIMONY:
Using credibility source to improves the speaker s credibility. credibility. A literal quotation is using words of a well-established, wellaccepted expert, an individual, or a book genuinely informed on the topic. You will use this kind of citation often in your business topic. presentations. presentations.

COMPARISONS:
Comparisons estimates similarities and differences between two subjects.

DEFINITIONS:
Definitions are not exactly supports. Yet using them supports. help both speaker and audience to be at the same level of understanding.

QUESTIONS ON FORMS OF SUPPORT:
All listeners and readers come with their own biases on topics. So recall topics. what was said earlier. In collecting evidence we must be careful about the earlier. accuracy and neutrality of our source. One way an audience counters your source. arguments is to raise questions, like: like: Is the source reliable? Is the material taken from data considered valid by common standards of Honesty? And so on. on. Answering these and other questions better prepares you for responding. responding.