Marketing Tourism

Hillary Jenkins, Otago Polytechnic

Marketing Concept
µMarketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.¶ (Chartered Institute of Marketing, UK)

The Traditional Marketing Mix ‡ Set of controllable variables blended by organisations for selected market segments ‡ The Price ‡ Place (distribution) ‡ Product ‡ Promotion Queenstown .

4P¶s of Marketing Product ‡ Design ‡ Quality ‡ Range ‡ Brand name ‡ Features Price ‡ List price ‡ Discounts ‡ Commissions ‡ Surcharges ‡ Extras Promotion ‡ Advertising ‡ Sales promotion ‡ Salesmanship ‡ Publicity The Marketing Mix Place ‡ Distribution channels ‡ Methods of distribution ‡ Coverage ‡ Location .

expectations and budget of the target market .Product Tourism products and services are designed for and continuously adapted to match changing needs.

I-site. accommodation.Place Not only the location of the tourist attraction or facility but the location of points of sale that provide customers with access to tourist products eg. cafe .

Price ‡ Used to achieve predetermined sales volume and revenue objectives ‡ Price gives a product or service a perceived value in the eyes of the consumer ± How would you use price to counteract demand exceeding supply? .

youtube.Promotion ‡ The most visible of the 4p¶s ‡ Promotional techniques aim to increase awareness and demand for products ‡ .

Marketing Services ‡ Tourism is a service. ± This needs to be taken into account when marketing them . ‡ Services differ from physical products.

Characteristics of Services ‡ Intangibility ‡ Heterogeneity ‡ Temporary ownership ‡ Perishability ‡ Inseparability .

Intangibility ‡ Not the physical portion (tangible) of the product ± Performance or experience rendered by the service provider to the service consumer ‡ Most tourism products are a mixture of tangible and intangible .

Inseparability ‡ Services are usually produced and consumed at the same time ± Think of a restaurant meal ‡ This can make it difficult to separate the provider of the service from the service itself. .

Perishability ‡ Services cannot be saved or stored as they expire during the simultaneous production and consumption process ± Aircraft seat ± Restaurant meal ± Amusement park ride .

Heterogeneity ‡ Standardisation ± Difficult to achieve in a people based service industry ‡ Quality control plays an important part ± What forms of standardization can you think of? .

Ownership ‡ Service customers usually only have access to or use a facility where a service is performed ± Use of a hotel room for a holiday ± you occupy the space only and have temporary use of the facilities .

‡ Tourism product might involve the co-operation of several suppliers.g. e.How Tourism Differs ‡ Tourism is more supply-led than other services All ready have the product then research which market might be interested in purchasing it. ± Dunedin the destination is already here who wants to visit. Package holiday .

Pre trip anticipation and post trip reflection While trips to the same destination may be the same different variables can make the trip different ± and hard to evaluate against . extended product experience with no predictable critical evaluation point.How Tourism Differs ‡ Tourism is a complex.

How Tourism Differs ‡ Tourism is a high-involvement. high-risk product to its consumers ± Involves committing large sums of money to something reasonably unknown ‡ Tourism is a product partly constituted by the dreams and fantasies of its customers. tourism is not consumed for rational. ± Unlike banking and car repair. functional purposes. .

price reductions or promotional damage limitation. .How Tourism Differs ‡ Tourism is a fragile industry susceptible to external forces beyond the control of its suppliers ± Tourism organisations sometimes have to make rapid responses to crises in the form of product redesign.

7 P¶s of Tourism Marketing ‡ Price ‡ Place ‡ Product ‡ Promotion ‡ People ‡ Process ‡ Physical Evidence .

com/photos/wolfgangstaudt/2242014640 .People ‡ Know who your target market is ± traveller or ± tourist? ± what do they expect? http://flickr.

knowledge and attitude has a powerful impact on customers perception of the tourism product ± Ensure uniform.Employees ‡ A tourism organisations most valuable resource ± Physical appearance.People . behaviour. grooming etc. conform to branding and target market .

People . ‡ Employees physically embody the product and are walking billboards from a promotional point of view ± Zeithaml & Bitner (1996) .Employees ‡ Ensure staff are trained to ensure the product is delivered in accordance with the marketing strategic plan.

it could result in a negative evaluation of the whole product.Process ‡ Process is inseparable product ± If any part of the process is found to be unsuitable by the consumer. .

layout and signage ‡ Communicates messages about quality. positioning and differentiation .Physical Evidence ‡ Defined as the built environment owned and controlled by a tourism organisation ‡ The tangible aspect of the tourism product ‡ May be used to facilitate the service delivery process e.g.

com/photos/jamespaullong/940934988/ Think about the layout. sound systems at an airport . colours . furnishings.Physical Evidence http://flickr.

Marketing Tourism ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Product and service Tangible and intangible People led and operated Market orientated .