Print the Library [Online

Is Google Playing Fair, or Just Out to Make a Buck?

In December of 2004, Google announced a partnership with several major libraries to make digital copies of their collections and permit the text of the literature to be searched online by the Google search engine.

Google was providing its partnering libraries with a digital copy of the donor institution¶s collection.

It was known as Google¶s ³Print Library´ project.

According to the Print Library Project :

When we click on a search result for a book from the Library Project, we¶ll see the Snippet View which, shows us information about the book plus a few snippets

We may also see the Sample Pages View if the publisher or author has given the permission or the Full Book View if the book is out of copyright.

In all cases, we¶ll see µBuy this Book¶ links that lead directly to online bookstores where we can buy the book.





searchable.What is the goal of this project? To make it easier for people to find relevant books to work with publishers and libraries to create a comprehensive. virtual card catalogue of all books Goal .

.The Dispute over ³Project Library´ ‡ Later some academic and commercial publishers objected to the Library Project. ‡ The general rule of copyright law requires a prospective user to seek permission for use. ± Google has reversed the process by announcing its intention to digitize entire collections of the contributing libraries unless a content owner opts out by acting to withhold permission. ‡ After that Google took a brief break from scanning to allow publishers time to identify works that they do not want to be included in the digital database. ‡ This has been referred to an ³opt out´ plan.

Google argues that its activity is protected by copyright¶s fair use doctrine. ‡ By digitizing copyrighted works without permission. if infringement were found. ‡ But.‡ The publishing industry disagrees with Google and two lawsuits were immediately filed in federal court of New York by publishers. Google is alleged to violate the copyright holders¶ exclusive rights to copy and/or display protected work. ‡ Defendant Google essentially contends that its opt out program negates any infringement liability. ‡ The complaint filed by publishing companies (the Publishers) accuses defendant Google of massive copyright infringement. .

try to devise a solution that would eliminate or lessen the harm ? . and for each group.Who is harmed by Google·s Library Project ? Make a list of harmed groups.

.Groups harmed by the Library Project and why: Author missing out on the royalty fee Publishers lesser number of people will buy books from book stores they get for every purchase of there book instead they would prefer reading them online without paying a single penny.

not-for-profit system that will also locate rights holders collect and maintain accurate rights holder information and provide a way for rights holders to request inclusion in or exclusion from the project. The distribution of payments earned should take place through a newly created independent. .What should be done ? Google should acknowledge the rights and interests of copyright owners & authors provide efficient means for them to control how their intellectual property is accessed online and enable them to receive compensation for online access to their works.

Q2: If you were a librarian. would you support Google's Print Library program? Why or why not? .


. 2) It is a very cheap alternative.1) Number of copies of a particular book is limited. 4) The accessibility to data is easy. 3) The effort involved is less. 6) Off the hand and on the go information. 5) Free exchange of information.


1) May lead to copyright infringement. 3) The already existing libraries will become obsolete. 5) Would be a better alternative than the public library due to its extensiveness and accessibility. 2) Free exchange of information is a similar model to a public library. 4) The users of libraries will reduce. .

part of which can be given to the Author/Publisher as royalty.‡The E-Books can be made available by asking for a minimal charge. ‡The E-Books can be made available in educational institutes and other libraries by charging the students/readers with a token fee. .


The amount and Substantiality of the portion taken The effect of the use upon the potential market .³YES´ IT FITS WITHIN THE CONCEPT OF³FAIR USE FOUR FACTORS OF FAIR USE The purpose and character of your use The nature of the copyrighted work .

preventing the user from viewing too much of the book for free.LIBRARY PROJECT Google will not display any only a for certain reference Users will be able to browsesnippetsfew sentences of text books. such as dictionaries. where the display of even around the search term in books still covered by copyright snippets could harm snippets which GOOGLE callsthe market for the work. Google¶s Opt-Out Policy . In response to no query the user will only Google will display a more than three snippets. thus receive bibliographic information.

of the photographs was a fair use .REFERENCE CASE Kelly vs. Arriba Ninth Circuit stated with respect to Everything the soft Arriba it fits within the equal forceof ³FAIR USE´ The lower applied with concept to the Hence can becourt found that Arriba¶s reproduction Library Project.


. ± Eg Boston Public Library and libraries in the north east.PROBLEMS FACED BY GOOGLE ‡ Two lawsuits were filed against Google. ‡ Some libraries having problems with Google. ‡ Copyright infringement ‡ Not contacting the publishers.

the National Archive in England and other institutions announced the Open Content Alliance. Yahoo! and the Internet Archive got together and with support from Microsoft . . with the explicit goal of offering resistance and an open alternative to Google Books project.Open Content Alliance On October 2005. 10 months after Google Books was announced.the University of California. the University of Toronto.

± Downloading of Public Domain Books ± Embedding of Public Domain Books ± Allowing any site to search Google Books ‡ For OCA-Multiple media formats.ADVANTAGES OF THE TWO ‡ For Google-Coolness And Ease of Use ± Availability of All Books. not just old stuff. collaboration with other projects and searches available by multiple sources ± Distribution by multiple providers ± Multiple formats .

it will disable printing and downloading in the user's browser. Content made available for free through the Internet Archive and its partners and is index able by any search engine (Yahoo!. .GOOGLE LIBRARY PROJECT Opt out policy OPEN CONTENT ALLIANCE Opt in policy When Google digitizes public-domain books. Commercial Google will pay the costs of scanning Will deliver full open access to its texts whenever it has permission. ruling out redistribution and offline reading. Non commercial OCA expects the donating institutions to bear these costs --at the unprecedented low rate of 10 cents/page. More useful for researchers and historians More open to these More useful for leisurely web-surfers looking for suggestions on books to purchase Less open about its equipment and sharing the resulting files as compared to OCA Content available only through the Google Books service. Microsoft's and even Google).

‡ The OCA is consciously surpassing Google ± in the openness of its content. and has a standing invitation for more. . ‡ Google Library has signed up five significant research libraries. ± or the generosity of its gift. ± but it's also consciously surpassing Google in the legal stability of its business methods. now has a dozen. ‡ The OCA started with two.

SIMILARITIES ‡ Firstly. both projects contribute to creating durable digital copies of materials. although both will also include books under copyright. floods and other disasters damage or destroy the hard-copies of books. . ± Microsoft had initially joined the Open Content Alliance with an estimated $5 million promise to digitize approximately . ± which can be used as backups of brittle and deteriorating items. ± While Google Books is funded and administered by the search engine giant. ± Through digitization. ‡ Both the OCA and Google Library will give priority to public-domain books. and can be invaluable in cases where fires. both benefit from the financial backing and technological expertise of large corporations. ‡ The second similarity between the two initiatives is their archival function.

Why is Google pursuing the Library Project Program? What is in it for Google? Make a list of benefits to Google? .

searchable.Interests of Google To make it easier for people to find relevant books to work with publishers and libraries to create a comprehensive. virtual card catalogue established giant basic revenue model for Google is through advertising on its websites Have deep pockets filled with cash for carrying out such a project large storage servers and an advanced search algorithm .

Revenue addition access to ³all the worlds information Monopoly over the library format Benefits Monopoly over the online library format Already existing infrastructure .


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful