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# Chapter 7 Transportation, Assignment and Transshipment Problems

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**Applications of Network Optimization
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Applications Physical analog of nodes Physical analog of arcs Flow phone exchanges, Cables, fiber optic Voice messages, computers, Communication links, microwave Data, transmission systems relay links Video transmissions facilities, satellites Hydraulic systems Pumping stations Reservoirs, Lakes Integrated Gates, registers, computer circuits processors Joints Intersections, Airports, Rail yards

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Pipelines Wires Rods, Beams, Springs Highways, Airline routes Railbeds

Water, Gas, Oil, Hydraulic fluids Electrical current Heat, Energy Passengers, freight, vehicles, operators

**Mechanical systems Transportation systems
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Description

A transportation problem basically deals with the problem, which aims to find the best way to fulfill the demand of n demand points using the capacities of m supply points. While trying to find the best way, generally a variable cost of shipping the product from one supply point to a demand point or a similar constraint should be taken into consideration.

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. The associated supply of each plant and demand of each city is given in the table 1. The cost of sending 1 million kwh of electricity from a plant to a city depends on the distance the electricity must travel.7. 4 .1 Formulating Transportation Problems Example 1: Powerco has three electric power plants that supply the electric needs of four cities.

the demand. The transportation tableau implicitly expresses the supply and demand constraints and the shipping cost between each demand and supply point. 5 . So the relevant data can be summarized in a transportation tableau. . and the shipping costs.Transportation tableau A transportation problem is specified by the supply.

Table 1. and Demand for Powerco Example From City 1 City 2 Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Demand (Million kwh) 6 . Supply. To City 3 City 4 $10 $13 $16 30 $9 $7 $5 30 Supply (Million kwh) 35 50 40 $8 $9 $14 45 $6 $12 $9 20 Transportation Tableau . Shipping costs.

Solution 1. . Xij = Amount of electricity produced at plant i and sent to city j X14 = Amount of electricity produced at plant 1 and sent to city 4 7 . Decision Variable: Since we have to determine how much electricity is sent from each plant to each city.

Minimize Z = 8X11+6X12+10X13+9X14 +9X21+12X22+13X23+7X24 +14X31+9X32+16X33+5X34 8 . Objective function Since we want to minimize the total cost of shipping from plants to cities.2. .

3. . Supply Constraints Since each supply point has a limited production capacity. X11+X12+X13+X14 <= 35 X21+X22+X23+X24 <= 50 X31+X32+X33+X34 <= 40 9 .

Demand Constraints Since each supply point has a limited production capacity. X11+X21+X31 >= 45 X12+X22+X32 >= 20 X13+X23+X33 >= 30 X14+X24+X34 >= 30 10 . .4.

j= 1.4) 11 . . Xij >= 0 (i= 1.5.3.2.2.3. Sign Constraints Since a negative amount of electricity can not be shipped all Xij¶s must be non negative.

3. j= 1.2.2.3.T. 12 .4) .: X11+X12+X13+X14 <= 35 (Supply Constraints) X21+X22+X23+X24 <= 50 X31+X32+X33+X34 <= 40 X11+X21+X31 >= 45 (Demand Constraints) X12+X22+X32 >= 20 X13+X23+X33 >= 30 X14+X24+X34 >= 30 Xij >= 0 (i= 1.LP Formulation of Powerco¶s Problem Min Z = 8X11+6X12+10X13+9X14+9X21+12X22+13X23+7X24 +14X31+9X32+16X33+5X34 S.

13 .General Description of a Transportation Problem 1. A set of m supply points from which a good is shipped. Demand point j must receive at least di units of the shipped good. 2. 3. Each unit produced at supply point i and shipped to demand point j incurs a variable cost of cij. Supply point i can supply at most si units. . A set of n demand points to which the good is shipped.

m.t.2...2.... m) j !1 i !m §X i !1 ij u dj ( j ! 1..2..Xij = number of units shipped from supply point i to demand point j i!m j !n min §§ cijXij i !1 j !1 j !n s....2... n) Xij u 0(i ! 1.. . j ! 1....§ Xij e si (i ! 1. n) 14 .

. the problem is said to be a balanced transportation problem: i!m i i !1 j !n j j !1 §s ! §d 15 .Balanced Transportation Problem If Total supply equals to total demand.

16 . they are assigned a cost of zero.Balancing a TP if total supply exceeds total demand If total supply exceeds total demand. Since shipments to the dummy demand point are not real. we can balance the problem by adding dummy demand point. .

.Balancing a transportation problem if total supply is less than total demand If a transportation problem has a total supply that is strictly less than total demand the problem has no feasible solution. There is no doubt that in such a case one or more of the demand will be left unmet. Generally in such situations a penalty cost is often associated with unmet demand and as one can guess this time the total penalty cost is desired to be minimum 17 .

The reason for that is. 18 .2 Finding Basic Feasible Solution for TP Unlike other Linear Programming problems. a balanced TP with m supply points and n demand points is easier to solve. . if a set of decision variables (xij¶s) satisfy all but one constraint.7. the values for xij¶s will satisfy that remaining constraint automatically. although it has m + n equality constraints.

Minimum Cost Method 3.Methods to find the bfs for a balanced TP There are three basic methods: 1. Vogel¶s Method 19 . . Northwest Corner Method 2.

Your x11 value can not be greater than minimum of this 2 values). .1. 20 . will be the demand of demand point 1 and the supply of supply point 1. Northwest Corner Method To find the bfs by the NWC method: Begin in the upper left (northwest) corner of the transportation tableau and set x11 as large as possible (here the limitations for setting x11 to a larger number.

According to the explanations in the previous slide we can set x11=3 (meaning demand of demand point 1 is satisfied by supply point 1). 2 . 2 2 2 2 21 X .

we saw that we can go east (meaning supply point 1 still has capacity to fulfill some demand). 2 2 2 2 2 22 . 2 .After we check the east and south cells.

we saw that we can go south this time (meaning demand point 2 needs more supply by supply point 2). 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 23 .After applying the same procedure. 2 .

x23=2. x22=3. x34=2 2 2 2 24 . x24=1. x12=2. . which is: x11=3. we will have the following bfs.Finally.

It can yield an initial bfs easily but the total shipping cost may be very high. . Then assign Xij its largest possible value. To begin the minimum cost method. first we find the decision variable with the smallest shipping cost (Xij). Minimum Cost Method The Northwest Corner Method dos not utilize shipping costs. which is the minimum of si and dj 25 . The minimum cost method uses shipping costs in order come up with a bfs that has a lower cost.2.

26 . . Then we will choose the cell with the minimum cost of shipping from the cells that do not lie in a crossed-out row or column and we will repeat the procedure.After that. as in the Northwest Corner Method we should cross out row i and column j and reduce the supply or demand of the noncrossed-out row or column by the value of Xij.

An example for Minimum Cost Method Step 1: Select the cell with minimum cost. 2 2 2 27 . .

Step 2: Cross-out column 2 2 2 2 8 8 2 28 . .

.Step 3: Find the new cell with minimum shipping cost and cross-out row 2 2 2 2 29 .

Step 4: Find the new cell with minimum shipping cost and cross-out row 1 3 3 3 30 . .

Step 5: Find the new cell with minimum shipping cost and cross-out column 1 3 1 3 3 1 31 . .

.Step 6: Find the new cell with minimum shipping cost and cross-out column 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 32 .

X21=2. X31=5.Step 7: Finally assign 6 to last cell. X33=4 and X34=6 3 3 3 33 . The bfs is found as: X11=5. . X22=8.

Then assign the highest possible value to that variable. Vogel¶s Method Begin with computing each row and column a penalty. 34 . . The penalty will be equal to the difference between the two smallest shipping costs in the row or column. Compute new penalties and use the same procedure.3. and cross-out the row or column as in the previous methods. Find the first basic variable which has the smallest shipping cost in that row or column. Identify the row or column with the largest penalty.

.An example for Vogel¶s Method Step 1: Compute the penalties. Supply 6 7 8 10 15 80 78 7-6=1 Row Penalty 15 78-15=63 Demand Column Penalty 15 15-6=9 5 80-7=73 5 78-8=70 35 .

Supply 6 5 15 80 78 15 78-15=63 7 8 5 8-6=2 Row Penalty Demand Column Penalty 15 15-6=9 _ 5 78-8=70 36 .Step 2: Identify the largest penalty and assign the highest possible value to the variable. .

Step 3: Identify the largest penalty and assign the highest possible value to the variable. . Supply 6 5 15 80 7 5 78 15 _ 8 0 _ Row Penalty Demand Column Penalty 15 15-6=9 _ _ 37 .

Step 4: Identify the largest penalty and assign the highest possible value to the variable. Supply 6 0 15 5 80 7 5 78 15 _ 8 _ Row Penalty Demand Column Penalty 15 _ _ _ 38 . .

and X21=15 Supply 6 0 15 15 Demand Column Penalty _ _ _ 5 80 7 5 78 _ 8 _ Row Penalty 39 . X12=5.Step 5: Finally the bfs is found as X11=0. . X13=5.

3 The Transportation Simplex Method In this section we will explain how the simplex algorithm is used to solve a transportation problem.7. 40 . .

the following steps should be performed. Determine (by a criterion to be developed shortly. 41 . label them as even cells or odd cells. . for example northwest corner method) the variable that should enter the basis.How to Pivot a Transportation Problem Based on the transportation tableau. Step 1. Find the loop (it can be shown that there is only one loop) involving the entering variable and some of the basic variables. Counting the cells in the loop. Step 3. Step 2.

and an odd variable that has a current value of 0 will leave the basis. again a degenerate bfs will result . The variable corresponding to this odd cell will leave the basis. The variables that are not in the loop remain unchanged. Call this value . If =0. The pivot is now complete. decrease the value of each odd cell by and increase the value of each even cell by . In this case a degenerate bfs existed before and will result after the pivot. you may arbitrarily choose one of these odd cells to leave the basis. the entering variable will equal 0. Find the odd cells whose variable assumes the smallest value. To perform the pivot.42 Step 4. If more than one odd cell in the loop equals . .

43 . . Assignment Problems Example: Machineco has four jobs to be completed.5. Each machine must be assigned to complete one job.7. Machinco wants to minimize the total setup time needed to complete the four jobs. The time required to setup each machine for completing each job is shown in the table below.

.Setup times (Also called the cost matrix) Time (Hours) Job1 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Machine 4 14 2 7 2 Job2 5 12 8 4 Job3 8 6 3 6 Job4 7 5 9 10 44 .

t.The Model According to the setup table Machinco¶s problem can be formulated as follows (for i.j=1.2.3. X 11 X 12 X 13 X 14 ! 1 X 21 X 22 X 23 X 24 ! 1 X 31 X 32 X 33 X 34 ! 1 X 41 X 42 X 43 X 44 ! 1 X 11 X 21 X 31 X 41 ! 1 X 12 X 22 X 32 X 42 ! 1 X 13 X 23 X 33 X 43 ! 1 X 14 X 24 X 34 X 44 ! 1 45 Xij ! 0orXij ! 1 . .4): min Z ! 14 X 11 5 X 12 8 X 13 7 X 14 2 X 21 12 X 22 6 X 23 5 X 24 7 X 31 8 X 32 3 X 33 9 X 34 2 X 41 X 42 6 X 43 10 X 44 s.

. 46 .For the model on the previous page note that: Xij=1 if machine i is assigned to meet the demands of job j Xij=0 if machine i is not assigned to meet the demands of job j In general an assignment problem is balanced transportation problem in which all supplies and demands are equal to 1.

ij . j ! . n 47 Each demand is 1 xij ! . n § xij ! .The Assignment Problem In general the LP formulation is given as n n ij Minimize §§ c i! n j! xij Each supply is 1 §x j! n i! ij ! .K .K . or 1. i ! .

± 10 years ago. . Orlin solved a problem with 2 million nodes and 40 million arcs in ½ hour. Research on the assignment problem predates research on LPs. Yusin Lee and J. Comments on the Assignment Problem This is a classical problem. The Air Force has used this for assigning thousands of people to jobs. 48 . Very efficient special purpose solution techniques exist.

Construct a new matrix by subtracting from each cost the minimum cost in its row. Find a bfs. The steps of The Hungarian Method are as listed below: Step1. For this new matrix.49 Although the transportation simplex appears to be very efficient. there is a certain class of transportation problems. Construct a new matrix (reduced cost matrix) by subtracting from each cost the minimum cost in its column. for which the transportation simplex is often very inefficient. find the minimum cost in each column. Find the minimum element in each row of the mxm cost matrix. . called assignment problems. . For that reason there is an other method called The Hungarian Method.

Step2. Find the smallest nonzero element (call its value k) in the reduced cost matrix that is uncovered by the lines drawn in step 2. Draw the minimum number of lines (horizontal and/or vertical) that are needed to cover all zeros in the reduced cost matrix. proceed to step 3. Return to step2. If m lines are required . Step3. an optimal solution is available among the covered zeros in the matrix. If fewer than m lines are required. 50 . . Now subtract k from each uncovered element of the reduced cost matrix and add k to each element that is covered by two lines.

Fortunately. Sometimes there may also be points (called transshipment points) through which goods can be transshipped on their journey from a supply point to a demand point. shipments are allowed between supply points or between demand points. the optimal solution to a transshipment problem can be found by solving a transportation problem. In many situations.7. . 51 .6 Transshipment Problems A transportation problem allows only shipments that go directly from supply points to demand points.

In addition.Transshipment Problem An extension of a transportation problem ± More general than the transportation problem in that in this problem there are intermediate ³transshipment points´. . shipments may be allowed between supply points and/or between demand points LP Formulation ± Supply point: it can send goods to another point but cannot receive goods from any other point ± Demand point It can receive goods from other points but cannot send goods to any other point ± Transshipment point: It can both receive goods from other points send goods to other points 52 .

If necessary. Step1. Construct a transportation tableau as follows: A row in the tableau will be needed for each supply point and transshipment point. 53 . Step2. Let s= total available supply. add a dummy demand point (with a supply of 0 and a demand equal to the problem¶s excess supply) to balance the problem. . and a column will be needed for each demand point and transshipment point.The following steps describe how the optimal solution to a transshipment problem can be found by solving a transportation problem. Shipments to the dummy and from a point to itself will be zero.

we can be sure that the total amount will not exceed s. and each demand point will have a demand to its original demand.Each supply point will have a supply equal to it¶s original supply. Although we don¶t know how much will be shipped through each transshipment point. 54 . Let s= total available supply. . This ensures that any transshipment point that is a net supplier will have a net outflow equal to point¶s original supply and a net demander will have a net inflow equal to point¶s original demand. Then each transshipment point will have a supply equal to (point¶s original supply)+s and a demand equal to (point¶s original demand)+s.

Transshipment Example Example 5: Widgetco manufactures widgets at two factories. . Widgetco believes that it may be cheaper first fly some widgets to NY or Chicago and then fly them to their final destinations. 55 . The cost of flying a widget are shown next. The Memphis factory can produce as 150 widgets. and the Denver factory can produce as many as 200 widgets per day. one in Memphis and one in Denver. The customers in each city require 130 widgets per day. Widgetco wants to minimize the total cost of shipping the required widgets to customers. Because of the deregulation of airfares. Widgets are shipped by air to customers in LA and Boston.

**Transportation Tableau Associated with the Transshipment Example
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NY Chicago LA

Boston Dummy Supply

Memphis $8 $13 $25 $28 $0 150 Denver $15 $12 $26 $25 $0 200 NY $0 $6 $16 $17 $0 350 Chicago $6 $0 $14 $16 $0 350 Demand 350 350 130 130 90 Supply points: Memphis, Denver Demand Points: LA Boston Transshipment Points: NY, Chicago The problem can be solved using the transportation simplex method

**Limitations of Transportation Problem
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One commodity ONLY: any one product supplied and demanded at multiple locations

± Merchandise ± Electricity, water

Invalid for multiple commodities: (UNLESS transporting any one of the multiple commodities is completely independent of transporting any other commodity and hence can be treated by itself alone)

± Example: transporting product 1 and product 2 from the supply points to the demand points where the total amount (of the two products) transported on a link is subject to a capacity constraint ± Example: where economy of scale can be achieved by transporting the two products on the same link at a larger total volume and at a lower unit cost of transportation

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**Limitations of Transportation Problem
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± Difficult to generalize the technique to accommodate (these are generic difficulty for ³mathematical programming,´ including linear and non-linear programming

Economy of scale the per-unit cost of transportation on a link decreasing with the volume (nonlinear and concave; there is a trick to convert a ³non-linear program with a piecewise linear but convex objective function to a linear program; no such tricks exists for a piecewise linear but concave objective function) Fixed-cost: transportation usually involves fixed charges. For example, the cost of truck rental (or cost of trucking in general) consists of a fixed charge that is independent of the mileage and a mileage charge that is proportional to the total mileage driven. Such fixed charges render the objective function NON-LINEAR and CONCAVE and make the problem much more difficult to solve

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Chap er 8 Ne work Mode s 59 . .

g. . e..Networks are Everywhere Physical Networks ± Road Networks ± Railway Networks ± Airline traffic Networks ± Electrical networks. the power grid Abstract networks ± organizational charts ± precedence relationships in projects Others? 60 .

. Most OR models have networks or graphs as a major aspect Each representation has its advantages ± Major purpose of a representation efficiency in algorithms ease of use 61 .Overview: Networks and graphs are powerful modeling tools.

Maximum flow problems 3. . Minimum Cost Network Flow Problems 5.Description Many important optimization problems can be analyzed by means of graphical or network representation. Shortest path problems 2. CPM-PERT project scheduling models 4. In this chapter the following network models will be discussed: 1. Minimum spanning tree problems 62 .

airports and starting a new factory. CPM/PERT really falls into gray area that can be claimed by fields other than OR also. 63 .WHAT IS CPM/PERT FOR? CPM/PERT are fundamental tools of project management and are used for one of a kind. but this is not essential. Such decisions can be described via mathematical models. often large and expensive. Some would argue that CPM/PERT is not a pure OR topic. . decisions such as building docks.

The ALB deals with small repetitive items such as TV¶s while CPM/PERT deals with large one of a kind projects. ALB Assembly Line Balancing (ALB) are naturally not discussed in this text. Activity on node (AON) method of network precedence diagram drawing and the ALB diagram are identical looking at first. 64 . but it is important to be aware of the huge difference between the ALB and CPM/PERT concepts because the precedence diagrams look so similar. .General Comments on CPM/PERT vs.

through a network ± Transportation problem (already discussed) ± Transshipment problem 65 .Network Analysis and Their LP Connections Several Major Basic Classes of Network Problems ± How to recognize and formulate them? What are the features they can be used to model? What are their limitations? ± All can be formulated as an LP ± Several important ³ad-hoc´ algorithms and their rationales will be provided Most efficient transportation of goods. information etc. .

Network Analysis and Their LP Connections Most efficient way to go from one point to another in a distance network or networks representing non-distance phenomenon. e. . the ³cost network´ representing production. inventory..g. e..g. disallowing use of two particular links in the shortest path 66 ± An example application to non-distance contexts: Minimum production and inventory cost in the context of dynamic programming. . and other costs ± Shortest path problem: Find the shortest path between two points in a network Dijkstra algorithm Limitations: Breakdown of the Dijkstra¶s algorithm when ³side constraints´ are added LP formulation LP formulation to accommodate some side constraints.

no link carrying more than 30% of the whole flow so as to avoid drastic reduction of flow after failure of any one flow-carrying link 67 .g.Network Analysis and Their LP Connections ± Maximum amount of flow from one point to another in a capacitated network Maximum flow problem The flow-augmenting algorithm Limitations: breakdown of the flow-augmenting algorithm when ³side-constraints´ are added LP formulation LP formulation to accommodate some ³sideconstraints. ..´ e.

2 . Arc 1 68 .8.1 Basic Definitions A graph or network is defined by two sets of symbols: Nodes: A set of points or vertices(call it V) are called nodes of a graph or network. Nodes 1 2 Arcs: An arc consists of an ordered pair of vertices and represents a possible direction of motion that may occur between vertices.

Common vertex between two arcs 1 2 69 . Chain: A sequence of arcs such that every arc has exactly one vertex in common with the previous arc is called a chain. .

2)-(2. .3)-(3. Path: A path is a chain in which the terminal node of each arc is identical to the initial node of next arc. which represents a way to travel from node 1 to node 4.3) is a chain but not a path. (1.3)-(4. 1 4 2 70 3 .2)-(2.4) is a chain and a path. For example in the figure below (1.

That is.) ± The algorithm stops when the shortest path to the destination is found 71 . (More than one such path and node may be found in one iteration when there is a tie.Essence of Dijkstra¶s Shortest. we obtain one new ³solved´ node in each iteration. .Path Algorithm Key Points regarding the nature of the algorithm ± In each iteration. the shortest path from the origin to one of the rest of the nodes is found. There may also exist multiple shortest paths from the origin to some nodes.

Path Algorithm General thought process involved in each iteration ± Let S be the current set of ³solved nodes´ (the set of nodes whose shortest paths from the origin been found). and N ± S be the set of ³unsolved nodes 1. Therefore.Essence of Dijkstra¶s Shortest. . 72 . The next ³solved´ node should be reachable directly from one of the solved nodes via one direct link or arc (these nodes can be called neighboring nodes of the current solved nodes). we consider only such nodes and all the links providing the access from the current solved nodes to these neighboring nodes (but no other links). N be the set of all nodes.

**Essence of Dijkstra¶s Shortest- Path Algorithm
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± 2. For each of these neighboring nodes, find the shortest path from the origin via only current solved nodes and the corresponding distance from the origin ± 3. In general, there exist multiple such neighboring nodes.The shortest path to one of these nodes is claimed to have been found. This node is the one that has the shortest distance from the origin among these neighboring nodes being considered. Call this new node ³solved node.´

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**Algorithm for the Shortest Path Problem
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Objective of the nth iteration: Find the nth nearest node to the origin (to be repeated for n = 1, 2, « until the nth nearest node is the destination) Input for the nth Iteration: (n ± 1) nearest nodes to the origin (solved for at the previous iterations), including their shortest path and distance from the origin. (These nodes plus the origin will be called solved nodes; the others are unsolved nodes) Candidates for the nth nearest node: Each solved node that is directly connected by a link to one or more unsolved nodes provides one candidate the unsolved node with the shortest connecting link (ties provide additional candidates) Calculation of nth nearest node: For each solved node and its candidate, add the distance between them and the distance of the shortest path from the origin to this solved node. The candidate with the smallest such total distance is the nth nearest node (ties provide additional solved nodes), and its shortest path is the one generating this distance.

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**The Road System for Seervada Park
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Cars are not allowed into the park There is a narrow winding road system for trams and for jeeps driven by the park rangers

± ± ± ± ± The road system is shown without curves in the next slide Location O is the entrance into the park Other letters designate the locations of the ranger stations The scenic wonder is at location T The numbers give the distance of these winding roads in miles

The park management wishes to determine which route from the park entrance to station T has the smallest total distance for the operation of the trams

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The Road System for Seervada Park 7 A D 2 5 O 4 2 4 1 B 3 1 E 4 C 76 . 5 T 7 .

A} 77 . Min {2. C} ± Step 2: Shortest path from O to neighboring nodes that traverse through the current set of solved nodes S. . S = {O. 4} = 2 (corresponding to node A). S = {O}. Ist iteration: ± Step 1: Neighboring Nodes = {A. B.Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths Oth iteration: Shortest distance from node O to Node O. ± Step 3: The shortest path from O to A has been found with a distance of 2. 5.

Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths A o ved Nodes O 2 5 B 4 C 78 . .

D} ± Step 2: Min (Min (2 + 2. 5). (2 + 7)) = 4.Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths 2nd Iteration: ± Step 1: Neighboring nodes = {B. C} Curren o ved Nodes (2) (0) O 79 . 7 A 2 B C 4 D 5 . S = {O. ± Step 3: Shortest path from B and C has been found. C. 4. A. B.

4+4)) = 7 ± Step 3: The shortest path to E has been found S = {O. A. E}. B. Min(4 + 3. BD. E} 7 Curren Nodes o ved A (2) B 4 3 (4) . BE. D O 80 E (4) C 4 . 4+4). and CE ± Step 2: Min(Min(2 + 7. C.Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths 3rd Iteration: ± Step 1: Neighboring nodes = {D. Only AD.

B.Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths Iteration 4 ± Step 1: Include (only) Nodes D and T. & ET ± Step 2: Min((min(2+7. A. BD. S = {O. 7+1). C. D 1 T . Include only arcs AD. D. (7+7))) = 8 ± Step 3: Shortest path from node O to Node D has been found. 4+4. E} 7 A (2) 4 O (4) Curren so ved nodes 81 (4) B E 7 C (7) . ED.

has been found. (7) . with a distance of 13 A (2) Curren so ved nodes (4) D (8) 5 T 7 O 82 (0) B C (4) E .Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths Iteration 5 ± Step 1: Include only node T and include arcs DT and ET ± Step 2: Min(8+5. the destination. 7+7) = 13 (no other competing nodes) ± Step 3: The shortest path from the origin to T.

(4) .Dijkstra¶s Algorithm for Shortest Path on a Network with Positive Arc Lengths Final Solution Incidentally. we have also found the nth nearest node from the origin sequentially A 2 2 4 O (0) 4 (4) B 3 E (7) 83 (2) (8) D 5 T 1 (13) C .

Shortest-Path Algorithm Applied to Seervada Park Problem n Solved Nodes Directly Connected to Unsolved Nodes Closest Connected Unsolved Node Total Distance Involved Nth Nearest Node Minimum Distance Last Connection 1 2. 3 4 O O A A B C A B E D E A C B D E E D D D T T . 2 4 2+2=4 2+7=9 4+3=7 4+4=8 2+7=9 4+4=8 7+1=8 8+5=13 7+7=14 A C B E 2 4 4 7 OA OC AB BE 5 D D T 8 8 13 BD ED DT 6 84 .

.LP Formulation of the Shortest Path Problem Consider the following shortest path problem from node 1 to node 6 (: denotes a link 3 2 4 1 3 2 3 1 4 3 5 5 3 2 6 2 7 6 4 2 Send one unit of flow from node 1 to node 6 85 .

. 2. 7.LP Formulation of the Shortest Path Problem Use flow conservation constraints ± (Outflow from any node ± inflow to that node) = 0 ± For origin = 1 ± For destination = -1 ± For all other nodes = 0 ± Let xj denote the flow along link j. j = 1. which can in turn be replaced by xj u 0 86 . .. xj = 0 or 1 ± It turns out that this 0-1 constraints can be replaced by 0 e xj e 1..

x1 + x2 =1 -x1 + x3 + x4 =0 . .x2 + x5 =0 . j = 1.x6 ± x7 = -1 Xj u 0.LP Formulation of the Shortest Path Problem Min 4x1 + 3x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 + 3x5 + 2x6 + 2x7 S. 2. 7 (xj integers) 87 . «.x3 + x6 =0 .x4 ± x5 + x7 = 0 .t.

Maximum Flow Problem Maximum flow problem description ± All flow through a directed and connected network originates at one node (source) and terminates at one another node (sink) ± All the remaining nodes are transshipment nodes ± Flow through an arc is allowed only in the direction indicated by the arrowhead. . all arcs point into the node ± The objective is to maximize the total amount of flow from the source to the sink (measured as the amount leaving the source or the amount entering the sink) 88 . where the maximum amount of flow is given by the capacity of that arc. all arcs point away from the node. At the source. At the sink.

.Maximum Flow Problem Typical applications ± Maximize the flow through a company¶s distribution network from its factories to its customers ± Maximize the flow through a company¶s supply network from its vendors to its factories ± Maximize the flow of oil through a system of pipelines ± Maximize the flow of water through a system of aqueducts ± Maximize the flow of vehicles through a transportation network 89 .

Maximum Flow Algorithm Some Terminology ± The residual network shows the remaining arc capacities for assigning additional flows after some flows have been assigned to the arcs The residua capaci for assigning so e f ow fro node B o node O 5 B O 2 The residua capaci 90 for f ow fro . node O o Node B .

Maximum Flow Algorithm ± An augmenting path is a directed path from the source to the sink in the residual network such that every arc on this path has strictly positive residual capacity ± The residual capacity of the augmenting path is the minimum of these residual capacities (the amount of flow that can feasibly be added to the entire path) Basic idea ± Repeatedly select some augmenting path and add a flow equal to its residual capacity to that path in the original network. This process continues until there are no more augmenting paths. . so that the flow from the source to the sink cannot be increased further 91 .

the net flows already assigned constitute an optimal flow pattern 2.Maximum Flow Algorithm The Augmenting Path Algorithm ± Assume that the arc capacities are either integers or rational numbers 1. Identify the residual capacity c* of this augmenting path by finding the minimum of the residual capacities of the arcs on this path. Increase the flow in this path by c* 92 . . identify an augmenting path by finding some directed path from the source to the sink in the residual network such that every arc on this path has strictly positive residual capacity. If no such path exists.

Maximum Flow Example During the peak season the park management of the Seervada park would like to determine how to route the various tram trips from the park entrance (Station O) to the scenic (Station T) to maximize the number of trips per day. 93 . The number at the base of the arrow gives the upper limit on the number of outgoing trips allowed per day. Each tram will return by the same route it took on the outgoing trip so the analysis focuses on outgoing trips only. strict upper limits have been imposed on the number of outgoing trips allowed per day in the outbound direction on each individual road. . To avoid unduly disturbing the ecology and wildlife of the region. For each road the direction of travel for outgoing trips is indicated by an arrow in the next slide.

9) T (0. capacity): (0.Maximum Flow Example Consider the problem of sending as many units from node O to node T for the following network (current flow.4) (0.4) (0.2) (0.4) C 94 .6) E .5) (0.3) A (0.1) (0. (0.5) D (0.1) B (0.7) O (0.

3) A (0.4) (0.1) B (5.1) (0. 6} = 5. 5.9) T (5. the resulting network is shown above (0.2) (0.4) (5.6) E .4) C 95 . (0. By assigning the flow of 5 to this path.7) O (0.Maximum Flow Example Iteration 1: one of the several augmenting paths is OpBpEpT.5) D (0. which has a residual capacity of min{7.5) (0.

6) E .1) B (5.5) D (0.1) (0.5) (0.9) T (5.4) C 96 . (3. The resulting residual network is (3.4) (0.2) (0.7) O (0.4) (5.3) A (3.Maximum Flow Example Iteration 2: Assign a flow of 3 to the augmenting path OpApDpT.

The resulting residual network is (3.5) (0.Maximum Flow Example Iteration 3: Assign a flow of 1 to the augmenting path OpApBpDpT.2) (0.4) C 97 .4) (0.6) E .1) (1.1) B (5.3) A (4.5) D (1.4) (5. (4.7) O (0.9) T (5.

The resulting residual network is (3.1) (3.5) D (1.4) C 98 .9) T (5.4) (0.Maximum Flow Example Iteration 4: Assign a flow of 2 to the augmenting path OpBpDpT.7) O (0.2) (0.3) A (4.1) B (5.6) E .5) (0. (6.4) (7.

1) (3.9) T (5.4) (7.4) C 99 .7) O (1. (7.2) (1.5) (0.3) A (4.Maximum Flow Example Iteration 5: Assign a flow of 1 to the augmenting path OpCpEpDpT.6) E . The resulting residual network is (3.4) (1.1) B (5.5) D (1.

**Maximum Flow Example
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Iteration 6: Assign a flow of 1 to the augmenting path OpCpEpT. The resulting residual network is

(3,3) A (4,5) D (1,1) (3,4) (7,7) O (2,4) (1,1) B (5,5) (0,2) (2,4) C

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(7,9) T (6,6)

E

**Maximum Flow Example
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There are no more flow augmenting paths, so the current flow pattern is optimal

A 4 13 O 7 2 C

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3 D 1 T 3 B 5 2 E 1 6 13 7

**Maximum Flow Example
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Recognizing optimality Max-flow min-cut theorem can be useful A cut is defined as any set of directed arcs containing at least one arc from every directed path from the source to the sink For any particular cut, the cut value is the sum of the arc capacities of the arcs of the cut The theorem states that, for any network with a single source and sink, the maximum feasible flow from the source to the sink equals the minimum cut value for all cuts of the network

102

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In these situations. it is often desired to transport the maximum amount of flow from a starting point (called the source) to a terminal point (called the sink).8. 103 . . Such problems are called maximum flow problems.3 Maximum Flow Problems Many situations can be modeled by a network in which the arcs may be thought of as having a capacity that limits the quantity of a product that may be shipped through the arc.

3) (3. The maximum number of barrels of oil that can be pumped through each arc is shown in the table above (also called arc capacity). .An example for maximum flow problem Sunco Oil wants to ship the maximum possible amount of oil (per hour) via pipeline from node so to node si as shown in the figure below. Arc a0 (1)3 Capacity 2 3 3 4 1 2 (so.2) so (2)2 1 (1)3 2 3 (2)2 si (1.1) (so.2) (1. 104 .si) (1)4 (1)1 The various arcs represent pipelines of different diameters.si) (2.

j) of pipeline.For reasons that will become clear soon. For a flow to be feasible it needs to be in the following range: 0 <= flow through each arc <= arc capacity And Flow into node i = Flow out from node i 105 . an artificial arc called a0 is added from the sink to the source. . To formulate an LP about this problem first we should determine the decision variable. Xij = Millions of barrels of oil per hour that will pass through arc(i.

1=X12+X13 Xso.1<=2 Xso.si+X2.si<=2 X13<=4 X3.1+Xso. Thus.si X3.si<=1 X0=Xso.si X13=X3.Let X0 be the flow through the artificial arc.2<=3 X12<=3 X2.si=X0 Xij>=0 (Arc Capacity constraints) (Node so flow constraints) (Node 1 flow constraints) (Node 2 flow constraints) (Node 3 flow constraints) (Node si flow constraints) .t. Max Z= X0 S. 106 .2 Xso. Xso. Sunco¶s goal is to maximize X0. the conservation of flow implies that X0 = total amount of oil entering the sink.2+X12=X2.

si=1. Xso.si=2.One optimal solution to this LP is Z=3. 107 . Xso. X3.1=2. X13=1.2=1. X2. . Xo=3. X12=1.

we want to determine the set of arcs in a network that connect all nodes such that the sum of the length of the arcs is minimized.8.6 Minimum Spanning Tree Problems Suppose that each arc (i. For example. arc(i. if each node in a network represents a computer in a computer network.j) might represent an underground cable that connects computer i to computer j. . Clearly. 108 .j) in a network has a length associated with it and that arc (i. In many applications.j) represents a way of connecting node i to node j. such a group of arcs contain no loop.

where the given information includes some measure of the positive length (distance. cost.) associated with each link Both the shortest path and minimum spanning tree problems involve choosing a set of links that have the shortest total length among all sets of links that satisfy a certain property ± For the shortest-path problem this property is that the chosen links must provide a path between the origin and the destination ± For the minimum spanning tree problem. time. etc. .Minimum Spanning Tree Problem An undirected and connected network is being considered. the required property is that the chosen links must provide a path between each pair of nodes 109 .

etc.Some Applications Design of telecommunication networks (fiber-optic networks. cable television networks. computer networks.g..) Design of lightly used transportation network to minimize the total cost of providing the links (rail lines. etc. leased-line telephone networks.) Design of a network of high-voltage electrical transmission lines Design of a network of wiring on electrical equipment (e. a digital computer system) to minimize the total length of the wire Design of a network of pipelines to connect a number of locations 110 . . roads.

For a network with n nodes.1) is a loop 7 (1.3)-(2.3)-(3. 12 1 4 2 (1.2)-(2. a spanning tree is a group of n-1 arcs that connects all nodes of the network and contains no loops. .3) is the minimum spanning tree 3 111 .

. and time) You wish to design the network by inserting enough links to satisfy the requirement that there be a path between every pair of nodes The objective is to satisfy this requirement in a way that minimizes the total length of links inserted into the network 112 . Instead you are given the potential links and the positive length for each if it is inserted into the network (alternative measures for length of a link include distance.Minimum Spanning Tree Problem Description You are given the nodes of the network but not the links. cost.

e. Repeat the step until all nodes have been connected ± 3.e. Identify the unconnected node that is closest to a connected node. Select any node arbitrarily..Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm Greedy Algorithm ± 1. add a link) to the nearest distinct node ± 2.. . Tie breaking: Ties for the nearest distinct node (step 1) or the closest unconnected node (step 2) may be broken arbitrarily. and then connect these two nodes (i. and then connect (i. Fastest way of executing algorithm manually is the graphical approach illustrated next 113 . add a link between them). and the algorithm will still yield an optimal solution.

1 2 4 2 6 2 3 3 .Example: The State University campus has five computers. What is the minimum length of cable required to interconnect the computers? Note that if two computers are not connected this is because of underground rock formations. The distances between computers are given in the figure below. 1 2 5 4 4 5 114 .

Iteration 1: Following the MST algorithm discussed before.2) will be in the minimum spanning tree. we arbitrarily choose node 1 to begin. and arc(1.Solution: We want to find the minimum spanning tree. 1 2 4 2 6 2 3 3 .2}.4. ={3.5}. 1 2 5 4 4 5 115 . The closest node is node 2. Now C={1.

4}. Then C={1. Iteration 2: Node 5 is closest to C.5} and ={3. 1 2 4 2 6 2 3 3 .5) or arc(1. we may include either arc(2. 1 2 5 4 4 5 116 . We arbitrarily choose to include arc(2.2.5) in the minimum spanning tree. since node 5 is two blocks from node 1 and node 2.5).

1 2 5 4 4 5 117 .3) in the minimum spanning tree. Iteration 3: Since node 3 is two blocks from node 5.3} and ={4}.2. 1 2 4 2 6 2 3 3 . we may include arc(5.5. Now C={1.

2).5). 1 2 5 4 4 5 118 . We now have a minimum spanning tree consisting of arcs(1. (2. (5. we add arc(5. Thus.4) to the minimum spanning tree.4). and (5. Iteration 4: Node 5 is the closest node to node 4. 1 2 4 2 6 2 3 3 . The length of the minimum spanning tree is 1+2+2+4=9 blocks.3).

PERT: If the duration of activities is not known with certainty. the Critical Path Method (CPM) can be used to determine the length of time required to complete a project.8. the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) can be used to estimate the probability that the project will be completed by a given deadline.4 CPM and PERT Network models can be used as an aid in the scheduling of large complex projects that consist of many activities. . 119 . CPM: If the duration of each activity is known with certainty.

highways and swimming pools Developing countdown and ³hold´ procedure for the launching of space crafts Installing new computer systems Designing and marketing new products Completing corporate mergers Building ships 120 . .CPM and PERT are used in many applications including the following: Scheduling construction projects such as office buildings.

Project Planning. estimates time and resources Scheduling: a time-phased commitment of resources ± identifies critical tasks which. Scheduling and Control Planning: organized approach to accomplish the goal of minimizing elapsed time of project ± defines objectives and tasks. represents tasks interactions on a network. Control: means of monitoring and revising the progress of a project 121 . . will delay the project¶s completion time. if delayed.

A path is a sequence of linked tasks going from beginning to end Critical path is the longest path 122 . .Network Representation Tasks (or activities) are represented by arcs ± Each task has a duration denoted by tj ± Node 0 represents the ³start´ and node n denotes the ³finish´ of the project Precedence relations are shown by ³arcs´ ± specify what other tasks must be completed before the task in question can begin.

In the following discussions the activities will be represented by arcs and the nodes will be used to represent completion of a set of activities (Activity on arc (AOA) type of network). The project is considered to be completed when all activities have been completed. 1 123 . A 2 B 3 Activity A must be completed before activity B starts .To apply CPM and PERT. For each activity there is a set of activities (called the predecessors of the activity) that must be completed before the activity begins. we need a list of activities that make up the project. A project network is used to represent the precedence relationships between activities.

it can be sometimes necessary to utilize a dummy activity that takes zero time. An arc should lead from node 1 to represent each activity that has no predecessors. . 124 . An activity should not be represented by more than one arc in the network Two nodes can be connected by at most one arc.While constructing an AOA type of project diagram one should use the following rules: Node 1 represents the start of the project. Number the nodes in the network so that the node representing the completion time of an activity always has a larger number than the node representing the beginning of an activity. A node (called the finish node) representing the completion of the project should be included in the network. To avoid violating rules 4 and 5.

**For u a ing he C M rob e
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Input Data: Precedence relationships and durations Decision Variable: ESi : Earliest starting times for each of the tasks Objective: Minimize the elapsed time of the project where node n is the last node in the graph

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Cons rain s

If tj is the earliest starting time of a task, ESi is the earliest starting time of an immediate predecessor and ti is the duration of the immediate predecessor, then we have ESj u ESi + ti for every arc (i, j)

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**Critical Path Definitions
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Earliest Start Time (ES) is the earliest time a task can feasibly start Earliest Finish Time (EF) is the earliest time a task can feasibly end Latest Start Time (LS) is the latest time a task can feasibly start, without delaying the project at all. Latest Finish Time (LF) is the latest time a task can feasibly end, without delaying the project at all

127

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128 .Critical Path Method Forward Pass ± Go through the jobs in order ± Start each job at the earliest time while satisfying the precedence constraints ± It finds the earliest start and finish times ± EFi = ESi + ti ± Earliest start time for an activity leaving a particular node is equal to the largest of the earliest finish times for all activities entering the node. .

. 129 .ti ± Latest finish time for an activity entering a particular node is equal to the smallest of the latest start times for all activities leaving the node.CPM: The Backward Pass Fix the finishing time Look at tasks in reverse order Lay out tasks one at a time on the Gantt chart starting at the finish and working backwards to the start Start the task at its latest starting time ± LSi = LFi .

These tasks are critical.CPM and Critical Path Theorem: The minimum length of the schedule is the length of the longest path. and are on a critical path. 130 . . The longest path is called the critical path Look for tasks whose earliest start time and latest start time are the same.

An activity with a slack of zero is on the critical path 131 . EF=LF) No flexibility in scheduling tasks on the critical path The makespan of the critical path equals the LF of the final task Slack is the difference between LS and ES.CPM and Critical Path Critical path are found by identifying those tasks where ES=LS (equivalently. or LF and EF. .

B D C. Predecessors A. A list of activities and the precedence relationships are given in the table below. Activity A:train workers B:purchase raw materials C:produce product 1 D:produce product 2 E:test product 2 F:assemble products 1&2 132 .An example for CPM Widgetco is about to introduce a new product. B A. Draw a project diagram for this project. E Duration(days) 6 9 8 7 10 12 .

Project Diagram for Widgetco C8 3 A6 1 B9 Dummy F 12 5 6 D7 E 10 4 2 Node 1 = starting node Node 6 = finish node 133 . .

26) 2 134 .6) A6 1 B9 (0.9) Node 1 = starting node Node 6 = finish node Dummy (9.16) 4 5 (26.17) C8 3 D7 E 10 (9.Project Diagram for Widgetco Forward Pass (ES. .EF) (0.38) F 12 6 (16.

LF) (18.26) 2 Node 1 = starting node Node 6 = finish node 135 .9) A6 1 B9 (0.38) F 12 5 6 E 10 (9.Project Diagram for Widgetco Backward Pass (LS. .26) C8 3 D7 Dummy (3.16) 4 (16.9) (26.

For Widgetco example ES(i)¶s and LS(i)¶s are as follows: Activity A B C D E F 136 . ES(i) 0 0 9 9 16 26 LS(i) 3 0 18 9 16 26 .

.According to the table on the previous slide the slacks are computed as follows: Activity B: Activity A: Activity D: Activity C: Activity E: Activity F: 0 3 0 9 0 0 137 .

. For Widgetco example B-D-E-F is a critical path.Critical path An activity with a slack of zero is a critical activity A path from node 1 to the finish node that consists entirely of critical activities is called a critical path. The Makespan is equal to 38 138 .

. 139 . i must occur and activity (i. before j occurs . we use an objective function of: Z=XF-X1 Note that for each activity (i.j) must be completed.Using LP to find a critical path Decision variable: Xij:the time that the event corresponding to node j occurs Since our goal is to minimize the time required to complete the project.j).

X4=16.4) constraint) (Arc (4.3) constraint) (Arc (1.6) constraint) (Arc (2. X5=26. X1=0.2) constraint) (Arc (3.Min Z =X6-X1 S. X6=38 140 . X3=9.T. X3>=X1+6 X2>=X1+9 X5>=X3+8 X4>=X3+7 X5>=X4+10 X6>=X5+12 X3>=X2 (Arc (1. .5) constraint) (Arc (3.5) constraint) (Arc (5.3) constraint) The optimal solution to this LP is Z=38. X2=9.

On variability of tasks Consider 10 independent tasks ± each takes 1 unit of time on average ± the time it takes is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2. Modeling Randomness The random schedule takes longer . CPM (uses expected value) 141 .

W2. Q.On Incorporating Variability Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) ± Attempts to incorporate variability in the durations ± Assume mean. and variance. . of the durations can be estimated Simulation ± Model variability using any distribution ± simulate to see how long a schedule will take 142 .

PERT requires that the project manager estimate the following three quantities: a : estimate of the activity¶s duration under the most favorable conditions b : estimate of the activity¶s duration under the least favorable conditions m : most likely value for the activity¶s duration 143 . PERT is an attempt to correct this shortcoming of CPM by modeling the duration of each activity as a random variable. this is clearly not applicable. PERT . For each activity.CPM assumes that the duration of each activity is known with certainty. For many projects.

PERT requires the assumption that Tij follows a beta distribution. it can be shown that the mean and variance of Tij may be approximated by a 4m b E (Tij ) ! 6 2 (b a ) var Tij ! 36 144 . According to this assumption.j).Let Tij be the duration of activity (i. .

PERT requires the assumption that the durations of all activities are independent. § E ( ij ) ( i . Thus. j )path : expected duration of activities on any path § var T ( i . . j )path 145 ij : variance of duration of activities on any path .

Let CP be the random variable denoting the total duration of the activities on a critical path found by CPM. PERT assumes that the critical path found by CPM contains enough activities to allow us to invoke the Central Limit Theorem and conclude that the following is normally distributed: P! § ij ( i . j )criticalpath 146 . .

5) (5.2) (1.6) 147 .3) (3.5) (3. a 5 2 3 1 8 9 b 13 10 13 13 12 15 m 9 6 8 7 10 12 . b and m for activities in Widgetco Activity (1.a.4) (4.

148 .According to the table on the previous slide: 5 13 36 (13 5) 2 E (T 12) ! ! 9. var T 34 ! !4 6 36 8 12 40 (12 8) 2 E (T 45) ! ! 10. var T 45 ! ! 0. var T 12 ! ! 1.78 6 36 2 10 24 (10 2) 2 E (T 13) ! ! 6. var T 13 ! ! 1. var T 35 ! ! 2. var T 56 ! !1 6 36 .44 6 36 9 15 48 (15 9) 2 E (T 56) ! ! 12.78 6 36 3 13 32 (13 3) 2 E (T 35) ! ! 8.78 6 36 1 13 28 (13 1) 2 E (T 34) ! ! 7.

44+1=7. the fact that arc (2. . E(CP)=9+0+7+10+12=38 varCP=1.69 149 .3) is a dummy arc yields E(T23)=varT23=0 The critical path was B-D-E-F.22)1/2=2.Of course.22 Then the standard deviation for CP is (7.13 2.78+0+4+0.69 2.69 And CP 38 35 38 P (CP e 35) ! P ( e ) ! P ( Z e 1. Thus.12) ! 0.

150 . .PERT implies that there is a 13% chance that the project will be completed within 35 days.

used for the big dig Other issues ± Tasks take resources. which are limited ± Task times are really random variables ± Unpredictable things happen . 151 .More on Project Management CPM ± Advantage of ease of use ± Lays out the Gantt chart (nicely visual) ± Identifies the critical path ± Used in practice on large projects e..g.

do not use more resources than are available at any time ± Makes the problem much more difficult to solve exactly.Incorporating Resource Constraints Each task can have resources that it needs ± 3 construction workers ± 1 crane ± etc In scheduling. 152 . . Heuristics are used.

153 . a firm assures that the mirrors are ground properly. By the time the mistake is discovered. the telescope is in outer space.Dealing with the unknown VERY hard to model How does one model totally unforeseen events? ± In the Big Dig. there is a leak in digging a tunnel despite assurances it would not happen ± In the Hubble telescope. .

Project Management Software Explosive growth in software packages using these techniques Cost and capabilities vary greatly Yearly survey in PM Network Microsoft Project is most commonly used package today ± Free 60 day trial versions: http://www.htm .com/office/98/project/ trial/info.microsoft. 154 .

. and we use the precedence constraints 155 .Summary Project management Simple model: we use estimates of the time for each task.