Computer Essentials




What is a Computer ?
An electronic device that can accept input, process instructions, produce output from the processing, and store the results for future use.




Data Storage
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Why is the Computer such a Powerful Tool?  Speed  Consistency  Reliability  Storage 3/27/2011 Rakesh 3 .

3/27/2011 Rakesh 4 . or software.How Does a Computer Know What to Do?  It must be given a detailed set of instructions that tell it exactly what to do.  These instructions are called a computer program.

Basic Computer Components CPU Input Control Unit ALU Memory Output Auxiliary Storage 3/27/2011 Rakesh 5 .

touch pads and joystick are examples of input devices. digital camera. Numeric. Keyboard ‡Used to type data into the computer ‡Most common input device today ‡Has Alphabet keys. Movement Keys. You can use input devices to enter information and issue commands. mouse.Input Devices An input device lets you communicate with a computer. A keyboard. scanner. Special Keys and Functions for giving the computer commands 3/27/2011 Rakesh 6 .

most common pointing device Joystick Game Controller 3/27/2011 Rakesh 7 .Pointing Devices - Mouse ‡Pointing devices move some object on the screen and can do some action ‡Common pointing devices ‡Mouse .

Scanner A scanner allows you to scan documents. ‡ Used to put printed pictures and text into a computer Converts an image into dots that the computer can understand called Digitization To scan text. or graphics and view them on the computer. optical character recognition (OCR) software is needed ‡ ‡ 3/27/2011 Rakesh 8 . You can also use software to edit the items you scan. pictures.

Microphone ‡Used to put sound into a computer Digital Camera/ Video Camera ‡Used to take electronic picture/ movie of an object / sequence ‡The pictures taken by a digital camera can be used directly by a computer 3/27/2011 Rakesh 9 .

Output Devices An output device displays information on a screen. printer. A monitor. creates printed copies or generates sound. and speakers are examples of output devices 3/27/2011 Rakesh 10 .

Monitors/ Visual Display Unit ‡Shows the processed information on a screen ‡A monitor uses a Picture Tube like a television with the image displayed on the front of the tube. ‡Displays are flat and use LCD or some other technology. When the device is turned off the information goes away. 3/27/2011 Rakesh 11 . which is called the screen. ‡A monitor or display produce a soft copy.

Printers Printers produce a hard copy an is called printout Dot-matrix printers Laser Printer Ink Jet Printer 3/27/2011 Rakesh 12 .

Speakers ‡used to output sound 3/27/2011 Rakesh 13 .

Central Processing Unit  interprets instructions  performs arithmetic and logical operations  controls input and output operations 3/27/2011 Rakesh 14 .

 Random Access Memory  Data lost when power is switched off Secondary Memory Stores data permanently or until you decide to clear it.Memory Stores data and instructions for processing or storage  Primary Memory / Main Memory  A series of electronic elements that temporarily holds data and instructions while they are being processed by the CPU. Also known as Auxiliary Memory/ Storage 3/27/2011 Rakesh 15 .

Storage Measurements  Byte = one character (anything which you type)  Kilobyte = 1024 characters (approximately 1000 characters)  Megabyte = approximately one million characters  Gigabyte = approximately one billion characters  Terabyte = approximately one trillion characters 3/27/2011 Rakesh 16 .

7 GB to 17 GB  Digital Video Disc-ROM (DVD-R)    Use a laser to read a Compact Disk (CD) or a DVD disk Size are 8 cm / 12 cm Rakesh 17 3/27/2011 .700 MB High capacity 4.44 MB ± 2.Auxiliary Storage Devices Floppy Disk 3½ floppy disk.88 MB  CD-ROM  Capacity approximately 650 . Capacity 1.

 Fixed in the system unit  The hard drive.  Has capacity to store 10 GB ± 2TB or more 3/27/2011 Rakesh 18 .Hard Disk  Primary device that a computer uses to store information. magnetically stores data on stacks of rotating disks called platters.

It is used as a small. 3/27/2011 Rakesh 19 . lightweight. removable and rewritable data storage device of up to 64 GB. "thumb drives".Flash drive A USB flash drive is flash memory integrated with a USB interface. "chip sticks". USB flash drives are also known as "pen drives". "flash drives" and "USB keys .

Hardware ± All Physical Components of System Software ± Set of instructions arranged in systematic way to solve a specific problem 3/27/2011 Rakesh 20 .

Complier)  Application Software  Programs that tell a computer how to perform a specific task or function ± Payroll.  all computers need an operating system ( Windows. Java. Tally. MS Office (Packaged software) 3/27/2011 Rakesh 21 . Autocad.Software Categorized into two types  System Software  Programs to control the operations of computer equipment  An important part of system software is a set of programs called the operating system.

Linux.Most Commonly used Software  Operating Systems  Windows. 3/27/2011 Rakesh 22 . ASP. Java. C++. .net etc. Unix  Office Suite     Word Processing ± MS Word Electronic Worksheet/ Spreadsheet MS Excel Presentation ± MS PowerPoint Database Management System ± MS Access  Application Software    Accounting ± Tally Design & Drafting Software ± AutoCAD Routing Office Applications  Languages C.

Looking at the CPU CD Rom drive 3 ½ inch floppy disk drive On/off button Restart button 3/27/2011 Rakesh 23 .

3/27/2011 Rakesh 24 .Thanks & Enjoy Computing.«..

Celeron Rakesh . 686 (Pentium)  Pentium II  Pentium III  Pentium 4 3/27/2011 1981 1984 1987 1989 1993 1997 1999 2001 25 Other chips -. 8086  286  386  486  586.AMD.CPU Models  8088.

66 MHz  300 MHz .capable of executing more than 250 million instructions per second Gigahertz (GHz) ± capable of executing close to a billion instructions per second.Processor Chips Megahertz allows the user to know the speed that the processor is working. 3/27/2011 Rakesh 26 .  Early Pentium chips .

Binary System  Computers recognize only two states (on and off)  These two states are represented by using two digits:  0 (absence of an electronic charge)  1 (presence of an electronic charge)  Each 0 or 1 make a value called a bit 3/27/2011 Rakesh 27 .

ASCII and EBCDIC ASCII 1000001 1000010 1000011 1000100 1000101 Two popular coding schemes ASCII uses 7 bits to make one byte. ‡ EBCDIC uses 8 bit to make one byte. SYMBOL A B C D E EBCDIC 11000001 11000010 11000011 11000100 11000101 ‡ One byte makes up a Character 3/27/2011 Rakesh 28 .

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