POTENTIALS OF BEE KEEPING IN INDIA

BY

Dr. JAYESH PASTAGIA

TAXONOMIC POSITION OF HONEYBEE
KINGDOM: ANIMALIA PHYLUM: ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM: MANDIBULATA SUPPERCLASS : HEXAPODA CLASS : INSECTA SUBCLASS : PTERYGOTA INFRACLASS: ENDOPTERYGOTA SUPERORDER: HYMENOPTEROIDEA ORDER: HYMENOPTERA SUBORDER:APOCRITA SUPERFAMILY : APOIDEA FAMILY: APOIDAE SUBFAMILY :APINAE GENUS : APIS

HONEY BEE
SPECIES:

Giant rock bee -Apis dorsata Little bee -Apis florea Indian bee -Apis cerena European bee-Apis mellifera

GIANT ROCK BEE Apis dorsata ‡ CONSTRUCT LARGE SINGLE COMB IN OPEN PLACE ‡ FURACIOUS IN NATURE ‡ DIFFICULT TO DOMESTICATE ‡ HONEY IS UNRIPE HAVING HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT ‡ CONTRIBUTE TO MAJOR PART OF INDIAN HONEY .

.LITTLE BEE -Apis florea ‡ CONSTRUCT PALM SHAPED SMALL COMB IN OPEN PLACE ‡ FREQUENT ABSCONDING HABIT ‡ LOW HONEY PRODUCTION ‡ HAVING UNRIPE HONEY.

INDIAN BEE ± Apis cerana INDIGENEOUS SPECIES CONSTRUCT PARALLEL COMBS IN DARK PLACE DOMESTIATED SPECIES STORE SEALED RIPE HONEY SUSCEPTIBLE TO WAX MOTH .

European bee-Apis mellifera INTRODUCED SPECIES FROM ITALY CONSTRUCTS PARELLEL COMB IN DARK PLACES HIGHLY DOMESTICATED STORES SEALED RIPE HONEY GOOD HONEY GATHERING CAPACITY .

The substance known as µBee Dammer¶ or µPive-nyet¶ is obtained from these bees. They are the smallest of the honey yielding bees.  Used for varnishing and for caulking boats to make them water proof. Trigona Spp. .  Due to smaller size useful.DAMMER BEES (NON APIS) Melipona Spp. for pollinating small flowers.

QUEEN ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PERFECTLY DEVELOPED FEMALE MOTHER OF COLONY ONLY ONE QUEEN IN A COLONY DEVELOPED FROM FERTILIZED EGGS RELEASE QUEEN SUBSTANCE GOES FOR NUPTUAL FLIGHT AFTER EMERGENCE FROM QUEEN CELL NEVER LEAVE COLONY PERFORM FUNCTIONS OF EGGLAYING ‡ ‡ .

DEVELOPED FROM UNFERTILIZED EGGS LAID BY FEMALE ONLY FUNCTION IS TO MATE WITH QUEEN DURING NUPTUAL FLIGHT THEY ARE FEWER IN NUMBERS ENJOY FRESH AIR AND SUNLIGHT PRODUCED WHEN REQUIRED DRIVEN OUT OF COLONY BY WORKERS WHEN NOT NEEDED .DRONE MALE .

WORKERS IMPERFECTLY DEVELOPED FEMALE DEVELOPED FROM FERTILIZED EGGS LAID BY QUEEN LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS IN COLONY HAVING MATERNAL INSTINCT PERFORM VARIOUS FUNCTIONS FOR THE WELFARE OF COLONY LIVE FOR SIX WEEKS ONLY .

INDOOR DUTIES (UPTO FIRST THREE WEEKS) Ù 1-3 DAYS : CELL CLEANINNG Ù 4-13 DAYS : SECRETION OF ROYAL JELLY (NURSE BEES) Ù 13-17 DAYS: CARPENTER BEES SECRETE WAX COMB CONSTRUCTION REPAIRING COMB MAINTAINING TEMP. OF HIVE RIPPENING OF HONEY Ù 18-20 DAYS : GAURD BEE OUT DOOR DUTIES(REST OF THREEWEEKS): SEARCHERS GATHEREARS .

.

Stinging: Protecting colonies .

Protecting colonies from outsiders .

Development of worker Worker Fertilized Egg Development of Queen Queen .

COMMUNICATION .

Table 1. 2003 . WORLD HONEY PRODUCTION PRODUCTION (IN 1000 TONNES) 1991 1995 138 183 105 365 319 27 1137 2000 144 208 141 457 286 29 1132 2001 145 205 131 465 288 29 1263 109 222 87 334 180 29 961 CONTINENTS AFRICA N¶& CENTRAL AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA TOTAL Anonymous.

2003 . ARGENTINA UKRAIN MEXICO INDIA CANADA AUSTRELIA BRAZIL HUNGERY PRODUCTION (IN 1000 TONNES) 1998 211 134 100 109 75 59 55 51 46 22 18 17 1999 236 132 94 117 93 55 55 51 37 19 19 16 2000 252 124 100 112 98 52 59 52 31 19 22 15 2001 256 125 100 111 90 52 56 52 32 19 20 16 Anonymous. WORLD HONEY PRODUCTION COUNTRY CHINA USSR USA U.E.Table 2.

Table 3 : Comparison of beekeeping in China and India (1993) Sr. 1 2 Parameter A. mellifera colonies Honey production China 5. mellifera Royal jelly production Pollen production Honey export - x .19 million 200 tonnes 40 kg 1800 tonnes 1000 tonnes 69958 tonnes thousand India 0. No.15 million 10 tonnes 15-20 kg thousand 3 4 5 6 Honey yield / colony of A.

A. dor s ata. flor e a.Fig 1. m e llife r a.T. A.000 M. ce r e na. Estimated honey production of India (2002-03) in M. 22000 Total 55.T. 5000 Forest Honey: 27000 M. A. A.T. 20000 Wakode. 8000 Apiary: 28000 M.T.2004 .

A..39 Kgs.2003 . A. mellifera Average : 18. W. Assam. A. Arunachal Pradesh Total 909474 -400 -15000 6500 921374 100000 (Bihar) 200000 25000 75000 51000 50000 (U.Table 4.P. Kerala.000 6500 10500 7730 5000 94730 Kerala.P.B. Meghalaya. Karnataka.070 -35 -2250 210 62565 A. Chattisghar.. Karnataka.P. cerena No. U. cerena and A. Maharastra.M.P. Sikkim. 6.N.of colonies Prod. Orrisa) 2.P. Rajasthan. mellifera colonies along with honey production in India Sr No 1 States A. Present position of A. Manipur Punjab Himachal Pradesh Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Other states: Rajasthan. 515000 Total colonies: 14. Tripura..36. cerena Average : 6. Bihar. T.Nagaland. mellifera No. 5. (q) 60. 3. Goyal. of colonies Prod (q) 25000 40.79 Kgs.374 A. 4. Jarkhand.

FIG 2. POTENTIAL AREAS (SHADED) OF BEEKEEPING IN THE COUNTRY .

Maharastra North East Apis mellifera Apis florea Punjab.Table 5.Species of honey bee in different states BEE SPECIES Apis dorsata STATE Andhra Pradesh. Tamilnadu. Jammu & Kashmir. Bihar Gujarat (Kutchh) Kerala. Karnataka. Haryana. Karnataka. North East Trigona iridepennis . Madhya Pradesh Karnataka. Bihar Apis cerena Kerala.

uncultivated areas. Bee keeping does not have any specific land requirement. along side the road.1995 . landless rural people and labour class Swaminathan . on the margin of field. The higher production will have to come from technologies that are eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable. Bee keeping is one of such technologies that generates income from multiple channels. This enterprise is capable of enhancing national production by utilizing natures gift which until going waste and that too without any suffering the nature or damaging the environment.India will have to produce more and more farm products from less and less land and water.. canals and railway tract etc Bee keeping can profitably integrated with agriculture/ intensive farming system without any competition for input resources and can proved to boon for uplift of unemployed. underemployed. bee colonies can be placed in waste lands. forests.

al.HIGHLY PROFITABLE AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATING ENTERPRISE MULTIPRONGED EMPLOYMENT GENERATING FIVE TIRE ACTIVITY: DIRECT PRODUCTION OF BEE PRODUCTS FROM BEE COLONIES MULTIPLICATION ACTIVITIES SUCH AS QUEEN BEE BREEDING. PACKAGING OF BEE PRODUCTS AND TRADE ACTIVITIES CUSTOM SERVICE / CONSULTANCY FOR CROP POLLINATION AND BEE MANAGEMENT ASPECTS GATORIA et.2002 . PRODUCTION OF NUCLEUS COLONIES AND PACKAGE FABRICATION OF BEE KEEPING EQUIPMENT PROCESSING..

600 persons throughout the year Gatoria et.500 MAN DAYS .900 MAN DAYS MEANS FULTIME JOB FOR 1.al.1998 58.000 BEE COLONIES: MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT& APPLIANCES 3.00.543 PERSONS THROUGHOUT YEAR If under National Commission for Agriculture aimed to establish six million bee colonies in the country. this would engage 9..62.400 MAN DAYS PROCESSING & PACKAGING ___________ (HONEY AND BEE WAX) 4.TO MAINTAIN 10.25.000 MAN DAYS COLONY MULTIPLICATION 6.000 MAN DAYS MAINTAINING APIARY 1.00.

If we consider 35 Rs.(later two units as migratory bee keeping).25 and 14. As the minimum rate of honey. He estimated cost of honey production to be Rs. . the net profit from 100 bee colony unit after first year was estimated Rs. 25. 81./4.‡ Mishra (2000) demonstrated economic modeling with profitability with 10.50.600 per annum.50 and 100 bee colony apiaries.60 per kg.

in million) 200 250 50 2000 2500 Sale of honey Sale of colony Sale of equipments Estimated pollination benefits Total Gatoria et. al.Table 6. Estimated annual contribution of bee keeping towards economy of the Punjab(2001-02) COMMODITY MONETORY CONTRIBUTION (Rs..2002 .

3. Qunty 100 400 1 100 3 4 4 4 3 60 cost cost cost 3900 2500 500 300 125 40 15 25 25 48 7.578 7800 5000 600 600 125 40 15 25 25 96 14326 78000 50000 1000 6000 375 160 60 100 75 960 136730 . Economics of bee keeping: Particulars Rate 5 colonies Rq.Table 7. 500 for 4. Qunty 10 40 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 6 100 colonies Rq. Bee hive with stand and bowl Bee colony Honey extractor Queen excluder Smoker Bee veil Hive tool Hand gloves Knife Honey Container Total 780(700+60+20) 125/frame 1000. Qunty.800.2 frame 60 125 40 15 25 25 16 5 20 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 10 colonies Rq.

14/Kg.23/sq.142. 10/hive 40/Kg.ft 175 1060. Qunty 20 2.00 14% 10% 0.6 10 200 400 2800 2030 31030 19.Particulars Rate (Rs.64 932. Qunty 300 50 100 100 cost 18000 6500 300 1000 Labour charge Wax foundation Jute mat Transportation Migratory Sulphur (100gm) Sugar( 2kg) Interest (12%) Half year Total Interest on investment Depreciation charges Land rent Total Overall total 60/day 130/Kg 3/ mt.25 1608.20 8673.5 5 5 cost 1200 325 15 50 10 colonies Rq.74 6442.97 3841.8 40.5 10 20 140 122.) 5 colonies Rq.74 3500 8050 28620 59650. 0. Qunty 35 5 10 10 cost 2100 650 30 100 100 colonies Rq.47 350 80.50 3018.92 507.20 .50 1872 1 20 40 280 224 3424 20005.

7.78 350 Kgs.25.76 3500 75 kg 400 12.25 5499.50 5000 17962.2000 .80 Soni. 125/ frame 175 Kg 3.75 Kg.25 2500 8981. 40 12550 712.00 7125 50.000 179625 119974.5 Kg.Annual income: Particulars Rate 5 colonies Produc tion Income 10 colonies Producti on Income 100 colonies Produc tion Income Honey (35kg/hive) Wax (750gm/ Colony) Sale of colony Total income Net profit 35/ Kg.50 11519. 20 6125 356. 95/ Kg.

8.515 12. 1. Brassica napus Brassica juncea Brassica campestris var toria Prunus persica Pyrus communis Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Honey potential ( Kg/ha) 54. 5.938 3.171 13.467 6. Honey potential of major nectar secreting plants Sr. 6. Plant species Trifolium alexandrium Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium arborium Cajanus cajan Helianthus annus Eucalyptus spp. 9.951 3.875 29.167/tree 35.135 8. 11.Table 8. 2. 7.2003 . No. 12.236 27. 4. 10. 13.898 13.642 Baljindersingh. 3.482 3.357 3.

al. Gatoria et.. Potential of Apis mellifera with 2 lakh colonies Honey Bee wax Queen bees Pollen Propalis Royal jelly Bee venom 3600 tonnes 72 tonnes 2 millions 200 tonnes 55 tonnes 3 tonnes 9 kg.Table 7.2003 .

HONEY BEE PRODUCTS .

Honey: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from the nectar of blossoms or secretion of other parts of plants which honey bee collect. convert in to honey and store in wax comb to ripen .

1998 .Table 9. Honey production from different bee species Apis cerena 8 to 10 kg / colony Apis mellifera 10-15 kg / colony Up to 40 kg in migratory bee keeping 10-25 kg / colony Apis dorsata Apis florea 500g to 2 kg/ colony Wakhle.

warnish etc. creams. To produce one kg of wax average 8. lipstick. Uses of bees wax : In cosmetic & pharmaceutical industries: Lotions. electronic and mechanical moulds . ointment. Industrial application of bees wax include dentistry.Bees Wax: It is a true wax secreted by four pairs of wax glands on ventral sides of the abdomen of the worker bee of about two weeks of age. polish.40 kg of honey is consumed by bees.

normalize the activity of intestine. pollen of date palm useful in curing sterility. . curing anemia. improving appetite.Bees pollen: Uses of pollen: & Plant breeding programme & Fruit pollination & Studying and treating allergic conditions such as hay fever & Producing pollen supplement for feeding to the bees & Feeding human being and domestic animals alone or with honey or royal jelly &n curing hypertension.

PROPOLIS: It is a sticky. Uses : It has antimicrobial activity Effective in healing wounds Good anesthetic in dental medicine Good veterinary medicine . A special plastic net are placed at the top in place of inner cover. A special plates with holes are used. the worker try to seal those holes and fill the trays with propolis. gummy. Only Apis mellifera collects propolis Apis cerena do not collect it. resinous material gathered by bees from trees and other vegetation either from bud or a bark.

getting rid of the feelings of in deposition and improper appetite. It is fed to the queen through out her grub and adult life and also to the grub of worker and drone. It is a tonic. restoring energy. aphrodisiacs and rejuvenator. It is useful in treating disorders of cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract .Royal jelly: It is a milky white secretion produced from hypogeal gland of young worker bee . A single queen cell of Apis mellifera produces250-300 mg of royal jelly It has reputation of being panacea( Ramban ilaj).

ROYAL JELLY PRODUCTION .

ROYAL JELLY PRODUCTION .

3 mg of bee venom Bee venom is useful for the desensitization of hypersensitive individuals Useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. reducing blood pressure by lowering the level of cholesterol and deposition in blood vessels Bee venom collecting instrument . disease of iris.BEE VENOM: The venom is stored in the poison sac A bee can produce 0.

ROLE IN POLLINATION .

. season and at any place Ù Show behaviour of floral fedality/constancy Ù Purposely collect pollen for the brood and adult bees.HIVE BEES ARE BETTER AGENTS FOR POLLINATION BECAUSE: Ù Manageable in any number. Ù Pollen collected by bees also utilized for pollination of crop. Ù Because of being active foragers. Ù Body is profusely hairy thereby collecting higher pollen load than other pollinators do. the hive bees can also be utilized as pollen dispenser for increased crop pollination.

1998 .. OIL & FIBRE ALMOND MANGO APPLE MUSKMELON APRICOT NECTARINE AVOCADO PAPAYA BLACKBERRY OKRA CHERRY PEACH CRANBERRY PEAR CUCUMBER PEPPER DEWBERRY PLUM EGG PLANT PUMPKINS GRAPE SQUASH GUAVA STRAWBERRY LOQUAT WATERMELON BEANS(HORSE) BEANS(LIMAS) BUCKWHEAT CELERY COTTON FLAX MUSTARD RAPE RAI SUNFLOWER TORIA SEED CROPS FOR PROPAGATION ALFA ALFA ASPARAGUS BRUSSELSSPROUT CABBAGE CAULIFLOWER CELERY CLOVERS COLLARD COTTON CORIENDER CUCUMBER EGG PLANT ONION OKRA PEPPER PUMPKIN RADISH RAPE RUTABAGA SQUASH SUNFLOWER SWEET-CLOVER TREFOIL TURNIP VETCHES WATER-MELON Kumar et. al. CROPS KNOWN TO REQUIRE AND/OR ARE BENEFITED FROM INSECT POLLINATION FRUIT CROPS FOR FOOD.Table 11.

al. 1998 . INCREASE IN YEILD(%) BY BEE POLLINATION OVER SELF POLLINATION ORCHARD CROPS APPLE PEARS PLUMS CHERRY RASPBERRY LITCHI CITRUS ORANGE STRAWBERRY GUAVA LEGUME SEEDS ALFA ALFA BERSEEM & OTHERS CLOVERS BROAD BEANS KIDNEY BEANS RUNNER BEANS 23-19733 23-33 150 7-90 500-600 21-1100 180-6950 240-6014 7-2739 56-1000 191-463 4538-10246 21-411 471-900 38-68 70-140 VEGETABLES ASPARAGUS CABBAGE CARROT ONION RADISH TURNIP OILSEEDS BROWN MUSTARD LINSEED RAI RAPE SUNFLOWER TORIA WHITE MUSTARD MISCELIANEOUS CROPS BUCK WHEAT COFFEE EGYPTIAN COTTON FENNEL NIGER 12405 100-300 9-135 354-9878 22-100 100-125 13-222 2-40 18 12-139 72-82 66-220 128-152 63 17-83 16-24 100 24-173 Kumar et..Table 12.

00.283 80.500 62.000 ALMOND APPLE CITRUS COCONUT GRAPE GUAVA MANGO PAPAYA MUSTARD/ RAPE SESAMUM SUNFLOWER COTTON HIGHLY CROSS POLLINATED HIGHLY CROSS POLLINATED OFTEN CROSS POLLINATED POLLEN TRANSFER ESSENTIAL OFTEN CROSS POLLINATED CROSS POLLINATED BEE VISITS HELPFUL IN POLLINATION POLLEN TRANSFER ESSENTIAL MOSTLY CROSS POLLINATED OFTEN CROSS POLLINATED CROSS POLLINATED OFTEN CROSS POLLINATED Goyal and Gupta.82.050 37.82.133 30.000 38.28.90.10. ESTIMATED NUMBER OF HONEYBEE COLONIES FOR PROPER/OPTIMUM POLLINATION OF IMPORTANT CROPS IN INIDA CROP POLLINATION REQUIREMENT NO.000 2. 1994 .75.80.473 4.Table 13.700 2.101 9.57.000 60. OF BEE COLONIES NEEDED/H A 5-8 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 3-5 2-3 2-4 2-6 TOTAL AREA UNDER CULTIVATION (HA) 17759 17305 382820 1510000 15389 176853 123913 32000 5720000 2433000 209600 74000000 ESTIMATED TOTAL NO. OF BEE COLONIES NEEDED 1.433 4.42.15.96.

4 15.7 128.1 3. al.5 2.5 26.. Station of CBR & TI Mohkampur.7 709. Size of fruits Pollination without insects Open Pollin.fruits weight (g) Av. Effect of different pollination treatments on yield of Nephelium litchi in Dehradun Treatments Av. % increase over PWI 1.fruits weight/inflor escence(g) Av.3 8.Table 14.9 11.7 237.No.4 16.1996 .Dehradun Kumar et.1 14.0 Field obsv.5 1313.5 14.0 3.0 39.9 535. of fruits/infl orescence Av.9 964. % increase over PWI Bee pollin.

64 8.76 Muzaffarpur. Total fruit weight/inflo 189. Effect of different pollination treatments on the yield characters of litchi (cultivar Shahi) Treatments Av. no.41 38.05 Av.Table 15.45 99. 11.80 4. Fruit weight 17. Of fruits/inflo.12 Apis cerana pollinated Open pollinated (unbagged) Pollination without insects 8.. Bihar Rao.77 11. et al.09 Av.1984 .

3 1. et. Bhubaneswar Panda.400 50.3 2.600 __ 0.Univ.200 33.100 22. Yield in % Av. Yield % Kg/plot increase in increase over PWI Kg/plot over PWI Bee pollination Bp Open Pollination OP Pollination without insects PWI 2.900 __ Central Farm Orrisa. Effect of different pollination treatments on the yield of Sesamum and Niger Treatments Sesamum Niger Av.0 1. of Agri.550 59.2 1.Table 16.al.1988 . & Technology .

50 96.99 1. Germina tion % Caged with bees Uncaged OP Caged without insects 14.55 24.99 Vegetable Res.36 3.13 17.61 2.60 5.D.1991 . Av. Solan Kakkar and Sharma.66 26.35 8.49 77.86 1.60 C. Weight Yield 1000 gm/plot seeds Av.61 0.Effect of insect pollination on cauliflower seed crop Treatments Av.no of seed/ pod Av.49 92. Station Bairty.73 1.50 22.83 71.Table 17.81 1. Seed set(%) Av.at 5% 2.34 16.

CONSRAINTS IN BEEKEEPING :
È LACK OF EDUCATION AND PROVERTY IS THE MAJOR HINDERANCE IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF BEEKEEPING IN INDIA È THE NUMBER OF BEE COLONIES AND COLONIES PER BEEKEEPER IS VERY SMALL È NON-ADOPTION OF MODERN BEE KEEPING TECHNOLOGIES BY BEE KEEPERS È PROPER SELECTION OF SPECIES È AVAILIBILITY OF BEE COLONIES IN SUFFICIENT NUMBERS È NON AVAILIBILITY OF AREA SPECIFIC BEE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES È DEPLETION IN BEE FLORA AND NON AVAILIBILITY OF REGION-WISE FLORAL CALENDER È NON AVAILIBILITY OF MODERN BEE KEEPING EQUIPMENTS È POOR QUALITY OF HONEY

È LACK OF STOCK IMPROVEMENT AND PEDIGREE QUEEN BEE BREEDING È LACK OF DIVERSIFICATION FOR OTHER BEE PRODUCTS È HUMAN RESOURSE DEVELOPMENT: LACK OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERTIZE EVEN AMONG THE SCIENTISTS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES LIKE INSTUMEENTAL INSEMINATION AND AT DOMESTIC LEVEL ALSO HRD FOR AUGMENTING THE SCIENTIFIC EXPERIZE. È MARKETING OF HONEY : PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION IS 8.4 GMS HONEY PER ANNUM IN INDIA IN COMPARISION TO 1.5 KG IN EUROPE È PROBLEM FACED DURING MIGRATION IN MIGRATORY BEE KEEPING BY BEE KEEPERS È PESTICIDAL POISONING È BEE DISEASES AND BEE ENEMIES

Table 18.Estimated losses in honeybee, bee products and pollination due to use of pesticide in U.S.A.

Loss in
Colony losses from pesticides Honey bee wax losses Loss of potential honey production Rental loss for pollination Pollination losses Total

Monitory loss (Million $ /year)
13.3 25.3 27.0 4.0 200.0 319.6 Oka,1995

Punjab Northern hill region Shilong South India H. A. 1998 . Mahabaleshwe r Castlerock(Kar ) H. Punjab Punjab Thai sac brood virus disease Virus Morator aetatulus (Thai strain) Scattered cell with punctures capping often with two holes ---Do--Brood become hard chalk like. ropy symptom Dull white dead brood turning yellow to dark brown 1961 1971-74 1998 1999 Nainital U. Cerena A. mellifera 1978 1979-86 1991-92 2000 2001 2001 Sac brood Chalk brood Virus Morator aetatulus Ascopharea apis Abrol. mellifera Year of report Locations Brood diseases American foul brood European foul brood Bacillus larvae Melissococcus pluton Dull white brood.P. mellifera A.P.Table 19. Cerena A.Occurrence of bee diseases in India (brood diseases) Disease Causative agent symptoms Bee species affected A. Cerena A. mellifera A.P.

H. Occurrence of bee diseases in India (adult bees) Disease Causative agent symptoms Bee species affected Year of Location report s Adult diseases Clustering disease Iridescent bee virus Bees leave comb and form cluster on the wall of hive or outside hive .P. Punjab Maharast ra Jeolikote Assam Nosema disease Protozoa Nosema apis A. mellifera 197475 1994 Abrol.Table 20. become sluggish . queen stop egg laying Shining swollen abdomen A. 1998 . cerena Mid 1950s J. cerena A.&K.

American foul brood disease .

European fowl brood disease .

CHALKBROOD INFECTED BROOD Chalk brood µmummies¶ on hive floor .

florea A. laboriosa A. mellifera A. cerena A. cerena A . mellifera A.Table 21. mellifera A. adult bee Brood cell. A.1998 . adult bee Brood cell. cerena Mode of living Endoparasite External External Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Habitat Trachea of adult bee Thorax region of adult bee Neck region of adult bee Brood cell. adult bee T. mellifera A. adult bee Brood cell. dorsata A. cerena A. A. cerena A. cerena A. pollen storage cells Garg and Kasyap. adult bee Ault bee. koenigerum Pyemotes herfsi Neocypholaelaps indica Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Phoretic Brood cell. dorsata. florea A. adult bee Brood cell. laboriosa A. Mites associated with honey bees Mite Acarapis woodi Acarapis dorsalis Acarapis externus Varroa jacobsoni Varroa underwoodi Euvarroa sinhai Tropilaelaps clareae Hosts (Apis) A. mellifera.

Honey bee mite Varroa jacobsoni .

Bufo sp. apiaster. Anomala sp.Table 22. Nuphilia sp.. orientalis. V. V. V. Picus sp.1998 . veluntina. Dicrurus sp. grisella V. Merops orientalis M. V. And Honey guides Frogs and toads Lizard & snake Rana tigrina. Calotes sp. class Insecta Insecta Order Lepidoptera Hymenoptera status Major Major Assassin bug Praying mantis Beetles Black ants Spiders Birds Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Arachnida Aves Aves Himiptera Dictyoptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Araneida Minor Minor Minor Major Minor Major Minor Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Anura Squamata Carnivora Minor Minor Minor Bears and pine martins Garg and Kashyap.. Etc. Componotum sp. basalis Acanthaspis siva Odontomantis micans Protaetia sp.. Hemidactylus sp. mellonella. mendarina.Enemies of honey bee in India Common name Wax moth Wasps Scientific name G... cypselus spp. Dorylus sp. Apus spp. Lanius sp. A. tropiaca.

Wax moth .

Bee keeping with appropriate bee species should be taken up according to local floral and agro climatic conditions and with available technical know-how. Loan and subsidies to be given to bee keepers to purchase bee keepind equipment and bee colonies. roadsides.  Maintenance and conservation of all bee species and their value as pollinators should be assessed. . training. Diversification of bee keeping for producing other bee products and appropriate market for these products should also be worked out. Change in cropping pattern or mass production of bee flora should be undertaken on waste lands. Selection and breeding of queens of high yielding races for increasing honey production should be given priority. Co-operative societies should be formed for processing and sale of honey. Extension and marketing should be brought under one umbrella.Future thrust areas/ strategies for balanced growth of apiculture Apiculture should be consider as a special discipline at the national level for generating know how and setting up of National bee board and all activities like Research. Bee keeping should be advertised as recreation and employment generating activity. and along the railway tract to make bee keeping a profitable venture.

helps in increasing crop yields through bee pollination and also proved to be boon for uplift of rural masses without any competition for input resources. in areas having plenty of bee flora A. fits well in diversification of agriculture.Conclusion: Development of bee keeping in India has great scope as apart from direct benefits from bee products. . mellifera can be taken advantage. bee keeping is an employment generating. However. Both Apis cerena and Apis mellifera can be utilized for bee keeping in the country.

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