³Consists of all organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.´

‡ Made up of two important parts: ± BIOTIC FACTORS ± ABIOTIC FACTORS

‡ Definition: LIVING components of the ecosystem which includes plants, animals and microorganisms. ‡ Biological relationships may be between individual of the same species (intraspecific) or between animals of different species (interspecific) or between plants and animals

‡ Intraspecific relationships ± it includes
mating behaviors and competition.

. commensalism and competition.BIOTIC FACTORS ‡ Interspecific relationships ± it involves associations such as mutualism. predation.

± WATER ± SOIL ± SUNLIGHT ± TEMPERATURE . ‡ Factors such as.ABIOTIC FACTORS ‡ Definition: NON-LIVING components in an ecosystem.

‡ In science.WATER ‡ The most important ecological factor ‡ It brings about changes in the life forms of plants and animals. it is the universal solvent for biological processes .


protozoan. ‡ Soil is made of particles of inorganic and organic matters such as bacteria. algae.SOIL ‡ The character of soils determines largely the character of vegetation and the types of animals that maintain themselves upon it. fungi etc. ‡ The decomposing matter in soil is called humus .


.SUNLIGHT ‡ An important physical factor ‡ Without light. life on earth would not be possible. ‡ PHOTOSYNTHESIS = organisms depend for the manufacture of food.

the ultimate source of energy in the ecosystem .

.TEMPERATURE ‡ The effects of temperature on the presence or absence of animals in different habitat are varied.

‡ Biotic ± biotic = relationship among biotic factors in the community. ‡ Biotic ± abiotic = relationship between living and non-living things in a community. .INTERACTIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM ‡ Abiotic ± abiotic = relationship among physical factors in the environment.

ECOSYSTEM ‡ It involves two processes. ± ENERGY FLOW ± CHEMICAL CYCLING .

‡ Plants are either directly or indirectly eaten by animals ‡ Animals in turn are eaten by certain predators. .

‡ Finally the predators die and may be eaten by dendritus or decomposers ‡ All of them can be eaten in their turn .

‡ Transfer of energy from autotrophs to heterotrophs make a trophic pattern ‡ The position of an organism in the sequence is called trophic level .

‡ The first trophic level is the population of green plants which produces food and are called primary producers ‡ Organisms which are dependent on plants are called consumers .

CLASSIFICATIONS OF A CONSUMER ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Scavengers .

Trophic levels and energy flow .



.FOOD CHAIN ‡ It is the passage of energy in a community from one organism to another ‡ it can be defined as a sequence of organisms related to one another as prey and predators.

‡ A predator may feed on several different species and also a prey may be eaten by several predators . ‡ It is an attempt to describe the numerous alternative food energy pathways in a community.FOOD WEB ‡ It is a pattern of food chain that interlocks and forms a network.


Food web .



FOOD PYRAMID ‡ Productivity ± refers to the amount of energy stored in chemical compounds among plants. ‡ Ecological Pyramid ± Pyramid of Productivity ± Pyramid of Numbers ± Pyramid of Mass .

.PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY ‡ A diagram that explains the loss of energy from a food chain.

. about 10% of energy at a particular trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level. ‡ This rapid loss loss of energy explains why a food chain rarely has five links.10% Law of Energy Transfer ‡ In general.


Why is Energy transfer not a hundred percent? .

.PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY ‡ 1stLaw of Thermodynamics ± Energy is neither created nor destroyed. there is always some loss of energy from the system. ‡ 2nd Law of Thermodynamics ± Disordered randomized state of energy that is unavailable to do work ‡ There is a loss of some energy in the form of heat. this form of energy is no longer available to do work. ‡ Thus. ‡ When energy is transformed from one form to another. usually as low grade heat.

some energy is transformed to heat and lost as a less useable energy form. and human society? Implication: No energy conversion is 100% efficient. . ecosystems.What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics? If energy cannot be destroyed. why isn¶t energy just recycled in bodies.

if caterpillar consumed leaves containing 200 Joules of energy. passing the rest as feces. 100 J would be lost in feces .PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY ‡ Caterpillars digest and absorb only about half of what they eat. ‡ Thus.

. which degrades food molecules to inorganic waste products and heat. would be used in maintenance. or 67 J .PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY ‡ Approximately two-thirds of the absorbed material. as fuel for cellular respiration.

PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY ‡ The remaining 33 J would be converted into caterpillar biomass. and therefore would be available to the next trophic level .

fewer herbivores at the middle and even fewer carnivores at the top. ‡ Which decreases in size from bottom to top ‡ A community has many producers at the base of the pyramid. .PYRAMID OF NUMBERS ‡ The number of producers at the base is greater than the number of consumers.

‡ If the size of the individuals at a given trophic level is small. their numbers can be large and vice versa.PYRAMID OF NUMBERS ‡ Small animals are more numerous than larger ones. .


PYRAMID OF NUMBERS ‡ Pyramid of numbers will often be pyramid-shaped like this ± BUT NOT ALWAYS .

‡ It is best to draw the pyramid of biomass .PYRAMID OF NUMBERS ‡ If the producer is too large. the second level represents a lot of consumers.

PYRAMID OF BIOMASS ‡ Refers to the total weight of dry material present in the ecosystem. ‡ Pyramids of Biomass are ALWAYS pyramid shaped. .

dry weight.Pyramid of Biomass ‡ Biomass is a quantitative estimate of the total mass (amount) of living material«or «the amount of fixed energy at a given time. ‡ Measuring biomass: total volume. or live weight ‡ A 90% reduction occurs between each trophic level .

Pyramid of Biomass ‡ Biomass also diminishes with the distance along the food chain from the autotrophs which make the organic molecules in the first place. .

‡ What happens to the amount of energy as it travels through an ecosystem? .Energy Flow ‡ Energy enters ecosystems from an external source. What is it? ‡ Energy flows linearly and exits an ecosystem through ___________.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful