Akhileshwar Kumar, 31060 Aneesh Gulati, 31063 Ankit Saxena, 31065 Neelam Bharti, 31087 Pritam Singh, 31092

‡ An informal name given to social movement originated in the village Naxalbari, West Bengal in 1967. ‡ Initiated by the leaders of CPI(Marxist) Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal, Jangal Santhal ‡ Initiated against local landlords, adopted armed struggle to redistribute land to landless people. ‡ This movement was joined by tribes and other lower castes . ‡ Movement spread into less developed rural areas of central and eastern India. ‡ Presently spread over more than 200 districts of 20 states
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Rural Society and Polity


Spread and Growth
1.Ideological Differences emerged 2.Organizational Transformation occurred in the Naxal Movement
CPI ( M L) Liberation ‡BELIEVED IN PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM ‡CONTESTED ELECTIONS ‡ Peaceful road to non-capitalist Development


3. Unlike other movements, remained disintegrated
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Spread and Growth
‡ ‡ The Liberation, with its changed modus operandi, reduced to a small political party. PWG registered its presence outside Andhra Pradesh gaining strongholds in different areas of Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra Peoples War Group (PWG) and Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) Armed group in the same area created some organizational conflict . The tribals of the Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh are uprising against the State . The tribal belt are rebelling against the industrial developmental policies of the Government .
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‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

People s Discontent: Support for Naxalism
Land Related Factors Displacement and forced evictions Livelihood Social Oppression Issues arising out of Mal or Non governance

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Rural Society and Polity


Naxalism is the biggest challenge to our internal security Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India ‡Holistic Manner Political Security, Development and Public perception management ‡State s responsibility to protect innocent people s property & life
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Armed Response
‡ Operation Greyhound, Andhra Pradesh, 1988 ‡ Salva Judum (Peace March or Purification hunt), Chhatisgarh, 2005 ‡ CoBRA & Operation Green Hunt , 2009 (Commando Battalion for Resolute Action) ‡ Unified Command, 2010
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Developmental Tasks
‡ Security Related Expenditure ‡ Public Participation
(Social Infrastructure, NREGA, IRB, PESA)

‡ Forest Rights Bill, 2006 ‡ Security
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Current Scenario
‡ Things have changed since Lalgarh siege . ‡ Awareness regarding the Naxal problem increased due to media attention and coverage of every incident. Central government taking it seriously. ‡ Increase in the rate of violent clashes happening across the red corridor increased in recent times. ‡ Total 10,268 death reported between 2005 and 2010, out of which 2,372 in 2009 only and as many as 439 have already lost their lives in between January and May this year. ‡ Major incidents in recent times are clashes in Dantewada, Narayanpur, Silda(West Midnapore) etc. ‡ Recent initiative in the direction of talks failed. ‡ Government is planning to handle with multi pronged strategy. ‡ No signs of dialogue process in near future amid the arrest of top leaders of Naxals.
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‡ Banerjee, S. (2008), On the Naxalite Movement: A Report with a Difference , Economic and Political Weekly, May 2008, pp. 10-12 ‡ Singh, P. (2007), Naxalite Movement in India , Yojana, A Development Monthly , February 2007, pp. 23-28 ‡ Walker, K (2008), Neoliberism on the Ground in Rural India: Predatory Growth, Agrarian Crisis, Internal Colonization, and the Intensification of Class Struggle , Journal of Peasant Studies, 2008, pp. 557-620 ‡ Development Challenges in Extremist Affected Areas, Report of an Expert group to Planning Commission, Govt of India, New Delhi, 2008 ‡ Press Information Bureau

‡ Frontline, Volume 27-Issue 09, April 24, 2010

Rural Society and Polity



Rural Society and Polity


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