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. which farmers can take up for additional income generation. Honey and wax are the two economically important products of bee keeping.Introduction To Bee keeping Bee keeping is an agro based enterprise. The growing market potential for honey and its products has resulted in bee keeping emerging as a viable enterprise. Honey bees convert nectar of flowers into honey and store them in the combs of the hive. Collection of honey from the forests has been in existence for a long time.
Honey and beeswax can be produced from an area of little agricultural value 3. Bees play an important role in the pollination of many flowering plants. This can be prevented by raising bees in boxes and producing honey at home. thus increasing the yield of certain crops such as sunflower and various fruits. Bee keeping requires less time. The market potential for honey and wax is high . 6. Beekeeping can be initiated by individuals or groups 7. 4. 2.Advantages of beekeeping as an income generation activity 1. Beekeeping has positive ecological consequences. By the traditional method of honey hunting many wild colonies of bees are destroyed. 5. The Honey bee does not compete for resources with any other agricultural enterprise. money and infrastructure investments. Honey is a delicious and highly nutritious food.
Equipment requirements for bee keeping 2. Management of colonies 6. 1.Production process Honey bees can be raised in boxes at the farm or home. Establishing a bee colony 5. Species of honey bees 3. Harvesting of honey . Establishment of hives 4.
5 cm is sufficient to support a heavy honey comb.We use the smoker to protect ourselves from bee stings and to control the bees. Cloth: to protect our eyes and nose from stings at the time of work near the apiary. This can be made from a small tin . Knife: It is used to loosen the top bars and to cut of the honey bars. Equipment requirements for bee keeping Hive: It is a simple long box covered with a number of slats on top. The slats (top bars ) must be as long as the hive is wide in order to fit across and the thickness of about 1. 45 cm of width and 25 cm in height. The width of 3.1. Smoker : It is the second important piece of equipment.3 cm needs to be given to give the bees the natural spacing they need to easily build one comb to each separate top bar. The rough measurements of the box should be around 100 cm of length. Feather: To sweep the bees from the comb. The box should be 2 cm thick and the hive must be glued and screwed together with entrance holes of 1 cm wide. Queen Excluder Match box .
They yield 300-400 g of honey per year. Species of honey bees There are four species of honeybees in India. European bee [Italian bee] (Apis mellifera): The average production per colony is 25-40 kg. They are efficient pollinators. Indian bee (Apis cerana indica): They yield an average honey yield of 6-8 kg per colony per year. . They are: Rock bee (Apis dorsata): They are good honey gathers with an average yield of 50-80 kg per colony. but sting is poorly developed. Stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis): In addition to the above. another species is also present in Kerala known as stingless bees. They are not truly stingless.2. Little bee (Apis florea): They are poor honey yielders and yield about 200-900 g of honey per colony.
ROCK BEE INDIAN BEE LITTLE BEE EUROPEAN BEE .
The colonies must be directed towards east. . other animal. pollen and water. preferably near orchards.3. Ant wells are fixed around the hive stand. busy roads and streetlights. Keep the colonies away from the reach of cattle. with profuse source of nectar. Establishment of hives The apiary must be located in well-drained open area. Protection from sunlight is important in order to maintain an optimum temperature in the hive. with slight changes in the directions of the bee box as a protection from rain and sun.
Establishing a bee colony To establish a bee colony. Before putting a swarm or even a colony in a prepared hive. the Queen bee can be captured from a natural swarm and placed under a hive to attract the other bees. Feed the hived swarm for a few weeks by diluting a half cup of white sugar in half a cup of hot water as this will also help in building the comb along with the bars rapidly.4. Avoid over crowding . bees can be obtained by transferring a wild nesting colony to a hive or attract a passing swarm of bees to occupy it. If possible. it would be beneficial to make the hive smell familiar by rubbing old brown comb pieces or some bee wax.
brood development. Look for the infestation by any of the following bee enemies. Mites: Clean the frame and floorboard with cotton swabs moistened with freshly made potassium permanganate solution.5.): Collect and destroy the adult beetles. Repeat until no mites are seen on the floorboard. brood chambers and floorboard. presence of queen cells. Clean the hive in the following sequence. Wax beetles (Platybolium sp. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella): Remove all the larvae and silken webbings from the combs. bee strength and growth of drones. super/supers. storage of honey and pollen. Management during lean season . Management of colonies Inspect the beehives at least once in a week during the honey-flow seasons preferably during the morning hours. corners and crevices of bee box. the roof. Observe the colonies regularly for the presence of healthy queen.
Examine the colony once in a week and frames full of honey should be removed to the sides of the super. . Destroy queen cells and drone cells. Provide sugar syrup (1:1) @ 200 g sugar per colony per week for Indian bees. The combs. which are three-fourth filled with honey or pollen and one-fourth with sealed brood should be taken out of brood chamber and in its place empty combs or frames with foundation is added. Place queen excluder sheets in between brood and super chamber to confine the queen to brood chamber. if noted. if necessary. Provide maximum space between the first super and the brood chamber and not above the first super. or two-third capped may be taken out for extraction of honey and returned to supers after honey extraction. Management during honey flow season Keep the colony in sufficient strength before honey-flow season. Feed all the colonies in the apiary at the same time to avoid robbing. which are completely sealed. The frames.Remove the supers and arrange the available healthy broods compactly in the brood chamber. Provide division board.
6. namely October/November and February-June . . A ripe comb is light in colour and filled with honey. Harvesting of honey Harvest the honey by smoking the bees off the parts which needs to be harvested and cut the combs carefully. Harvests are normally possible during and shortly after the two main flowering seasons. More than half of the honey cells on both the sides are sealed with wax.
PRODUCTS OF HONEY BEE 1.Propolise 6.BeeWax 4.Pollinate Services . Bee Venom 3. Honey 2. Pollen 5.
her primary duty is to lay eggs.There are 3 kinds of honey bee in the Hives-- 1. .drone. Throughout their life they will be nursery bees.Queen. storage bees.Workers. 3. construction bees.The drones only duty is to fly out and find a queen from another hive to mate with once mated. the drone dies. guard bees. queen bee can live for 3-7 years. 2. She also secrets pheromones that keep the workers happy. They are non-fertile female bees and they have a very structured life from the moment they emerge from there cocoons.As the name implies the workers do all of the work. up to 1500 a day (possibly more). They live on average only 2030 days from the time emerge from cocoon.
CONCLUSION 1. .
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