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y In the 19th century an underwater bell was used as an

ancillary to lighthouses to provide warning of hazards.
y The world's first patent for an underwater echo

ranging device was developed at the British Patent Office by English meteorologist Lewis Richardson ,and a German physicist Alexander Behm obtained a patent for an echo sounder in 1913.


is an abbrevation for

SOUND NAVIGATION And RANGING. It is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in Submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect other vessels.

GENERAL CONCEPT ABOUT SONAR y Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. y The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). .

Simple block diagram. .BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SONAR Block diagram using waves.


SONAR equipment mounted at the base of ship. .

. y The echo-ranging equipment on a submarine is used most often for navigation and only as required for target ranging.WORKING OF THE SYSTEM y When a target is detected. the bearing is determined by the listening equipment. y The echo-ranging transducer is trained to the target bearing and a single short ping is emitted.

ynext SWAPNIL .



The transmitter consists of a ultrasonic transducer which emits ultrasonic waves in water.TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT The Transmitter circuit emitts sound waves in the water. .this transducer is controlled by a digital circuit consisting of IC s & other electronic components.

The receiver consists of a ultrasonic transducer .this transducer is driven by a digital circuit consisting of IC LM567 which acts as a Tone decoder . .RECEIVER CIRCUIT The receiver circuit receives sound waves in the water which are reflected from the obstacle.

ynext AKASHY .

MAINLY TWO TYPES yActive Sonar emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. . yPassive Sonar is essential only listening for the sound made by vessels.

ACTIVE SONAR y Active sonar uses a sound transmitter and a receiver. . y Most sonars are used monostatically with the same array often being used for transmission and reception. it is multistatic operation. y When the transmitter and receiver are separated it is bistatic operation. y When more transmitters (or more receivers) are used. again spatially separated. y When the two are in the same place it is monostatic operation.

. power amplifier and electro-acoustic transducer/array. y This pulse of sound is generally created electronically using a sonar Projector consisting of a signal generator. and then listens for reflections (echo) of the pulse.ACTIVE SONAR y Active sonar creates a pulse of sound. often called a "ping".

. detecting fish for presence/absence studies in various aquatic environment. . e. y It is often employed in military settings.PASSIVE SONAR y Passive sonar listens without transmitting.g. although it is also used in science applications.

y The radiated spectrum comprises a continuous spectrum of noise with peaks at certain frequencies which can be used for classification.PASSIVE SONAR y Passive sonar detects the target's radiated noise characteristics. .

though the difference is small. . particularly in the vertical plane. The speed is determined by the water's bulk modulus and mass density. Sound travels more slowly in fresh water than in sea water.SOUND PROPAGATION Sonar operation is affected by variations in sound speed.

ECHO SOUNDING y The value of underwater acoustics to the fishing industry has led to the development of other acoustic instruments that operate in a similar fashion to echo-sounders but. . because their function is slightly different from the initial model of the echo-sounder.

Sonar Systems y Generally. the electro-acoustic transducers are of the Tonpilz type and their design may be optimised to achieve maximum efficiency over the widest bandwidth. . in order to optimise performance of the overall system.

or with an array of hydrophones. To measure the bearing.y To measure the distance to an object. . and the set measures the relative arrival time to each. the time from transmission of a pulse to reception is measured and converted into a range by knowing the speed of sound. several hydrophones are used. by measuring the relative amplitude in beams formed through a process called beamforming. Use of an array reduces the spatial response so that to provide wide cover multibeam systems are used.

the 60 Hz sound from the windings can be emitted from the submarine or ship. vessels usually operate 60 Hz alternating current power systems. U. If transformers or generators are mounted without proper vibration insulation from the hull or become flooded.S. For example.y Identifying sound sources y Passive sonar has a wide variety of techniques for identifying the source of a detected sound. .

APPLICATIONS y Warfare y 1. Torpedoes-Modern torpedoes are generally fitted with an active/passive sonar. y 5. Submarine navigation-Submarines rely on sonar to a greater extent than surface ships as they cannot use radar at depth.A conventional hull mounted sonar is used y 2. localize and recognize the y 4. Underwater security-Sonar can be used to detect frogmen and other scuba . Anti-submarine warfare. divers. This may be used to home directly on the target. required target y 3. Mines-Mines may be fitted with a sonar to detect.

Acoustic technology is especially well suited for y 2. Ship velocity measurement-Sonars have been developed for . y 1. Fisheries. transducer mounted on the headline of the net rather than on the bottom of the vessel.y Civilian applications underwater applications since sound travels farther and faster underwater than in air. measuring a ship's velocity either relative to the water or to the bottom. Net location-The net sounder is an echo sounder with a y 3.

Wave measurement y 3. Water velocity measurement y 4. Biomass estimation y 2. Synthetic aperture sonar y 8.y Scientific applications y 1. Parametric sonar . Sub-bottom profiling y 7. Bottom type assessment y 5. Bottom topography measurement y 6.

. Physical Oceanography. M. y Hill. Allan R. Taylor & Francis. Frank (1998). y H O Berktay. Some Finite Amplitude Effects in Underwater Acoustics in V M Albers "Underwater Acoustics" 1967 .Refrences . y Fahy. Robinson. John Gerard Walker. N. (1962). Fundamentals of noise and vibration. Harvard University Press.

links Washington y External links y Sonar Tutorial for Robots . y Fisheries Acoustics Research (FAR) at the University of y Sonars and the marine environment by Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) y Single Beam Sonars ..Refrences & extern.


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