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Farnoush H. Davis
© 2009, Ed Tech Department, BSU
Table of Contents:
3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22 23-24 25-26 27-28 29-30 31-32 33 History of ID Definition of ID Notion of "Systematic" Use of Models The Gentry ID Model The Smith and Ragan ID Model The Seels and Glasgow ID Model The Bergman and Moore Model The Morrison, Ross and Kemp ID Model The Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell ID MOdel Constructivism Empiricism Behaviorism Information-Processing Theory ID and Ed Tech Relation APA Refrences
History of Instructional Design (ID)
According to A History of Instructional Design article (Reiser, R.), the instructional design process came to exist in World War II. During this time, American military employed experienced educators and psychologists to research and improve training for the military services. For this purpose, training materials developed based on ³instructional principles´ and followed by psychological testing to evaluate trainees¶ trained skills which decreased the failure rate in military service performance. Therefore, training became a system which needs analysis, design, and evaluation. The image implies that the modern (new) structure of the ID is a reflection of its background.
Definition of ID
Instructional design is an organized plan in which learning and teaching procedure ± including materials, instruction process, learning activities, and testing - develops methodically. The image implies that designing an instructional plan is like weaving a rug, the more knots(details) in it the better it is.
Notion of Systematic
Systematic means an organized and methodical structure from basic to complex order. There are advantages in using systematic ID such as learner-center instruction, improve designer and instructor cooperation, and outline to solve probable learning problems. (Smith and Ragan) The arrangement and symmetric order of the drawing and the way it pieces together to make a united image implies to me a systematic format.
Models simplify and identify the concept of the instructional plan and assist the instructional designer to apply appropriate instructional tools and techniques (Gustafson & Branch). The image implies that model is a sample of a reality around us.
The Gentry Model
Instructional Project Development and Management (IPDM) is a systems-oriented model which is created by Gentry (1994). IPDM focuses on ³what´, the concept, and ³how´, the procedure, of the ID process. (Gustafson & Branch, p.69)
The Smith and Ragan Model
Smith and Ragan created a systems-oriented model which is popular in the field of instructional technology. The importance of this model in ID process is for its perspective in cognitive psychology. (Gustafson & Branch, p.77)
The Seels and Glasgow Model
ISD Model 2 is a product-oriented model presented by Seels and Glasgow. Based on this model, instructional design happens in the context of project management (Gustafson & Branch, p.63).
The Bergman and Moore Model
Bergman and Moore published this product-oriented ID model which focuses on managing the instruction process through interactive multi-media products. Basically, this ID model is suitable for today¶s high technology interactive tools (Gustafson & Branch, p.52).
The Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model
This popular ID model is a classroom-oriented model, created by Morrison, Ross, and Kemp. The focus of this model is on curriculum planning and students¶ needs (Gustafson & Branch, p.48)
The Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell Model
The Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell presented PIE model which is a classroomoriented ID model. PIE is an acronym for Planning, Implementing and Evaluating. PIE has a learner-centered environment in which the learner¶s role for each phase of PIE is defined. Using media and technology tools to assist learners is considered (Gustafson & Branch, p.44).
The philosophical notion of the constructivism is ³rationalism´, means, reason is the source of knowledge and also there is not a certain reality to discover, but for the number of each individual there is a personal reality (Smith and Ragan, p.19). Each pieces of a jigsaw puzzle are individuals but in collaboration with others they make a better picture.
Empiricism or Objectivism is another philosophical approach which states that reality is objective and knowledge is obtained through experience. Empiricism is also characterized by ³reductionism´, that tries to simplify complex components, and ³associationism´, that relates ideas which experienced repeatedly (Smith and Ragan, p.22). Empiricism is about experience and makes me think of chemestry laboratories where they discover new facts through experience and trial-and-error mode.
Behaviorism was the dominant school of thought for about 50 years. It believes that behavior is an observable experience that should be studied. This learning theory emphasized on environment impact on learning process (Smith and Ragan, p.25). The flood re-form the shape of the rocks, this implies to me the influence of behaviorism in human's behavior.
Information-processing theory explains the cognitive development in the process of learning. The result of learning should make changes in the information-processing system of human, e.g. memory improvements (Smith and Ragan, p. 30). The infinite concept of cognitive approach implies to me the endlessness of the sky where you think it goes on forever.
ID and Ed Tech Relation
The procedures of analysis, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating (ADDIE) prepares an instruction design to identify learner¶s needs and also provide solutions for learner¶s problems. In the process of learning, educational technology tools ± including electronic devices, new methods and techniques, etc ± are integrated to facilitate and enhance learning. Since technology tools have become part of the education system, the coordination between instructional design (ID) and educational technology (Ed Tech) is essential for an effective and productive learning process. The emerging mode of today¶s technology applications requires a closer collaboration between ID and Ed Tech for a more supportive and systematic educational environment, because both components attempt to meet learner¶s needs and goals. This image visualizes technology to me which is less face to face interactions and more machine involvements in all aspects of life.
Gustafson, K.; Branch, R., (2002), Survey of Instructional Development Models. Reiser, R., A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. Smith, P.; Ragan, T.,(2005), Instructional Design.