You are on page 1of 123

 

 |  


|
v  
v   a  
  
  


v  
v  

  *   +


 

  |!"#$%
 |   " 
 |  & '
 |  %( ')$

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v   ," $%1-, |1"2(.
  3 3"
 

D &, -* .,"


/0/"+
 )/0, |1""0.2310.
- 
 *,%10 0.3-  1
13 %(
KEY POINT
,0%10   453"0 %,.,0.30
.3-13 1$ -10 -1 0
0+3,.0"
0 "'0"

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
10.6  -, |!"*0.

D , |!"*0. 0/"3$0 


$$%-0, |1""0.2310.
-  
OSI Model Unit of
Layer Layer Function Information Address type

  
    


    



     


   



  ! "    "

 
 

a  
 
 
 



a 
#
  
 !


   



 




O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
10.6  -, |!"*0.

OSI Model Unit of


Layer Layer Function Information Address type

$
% a       %
  %
 

 %
  
% 
# 


(

% 
 
&  ' % a  # 
  
$ )
* 
 
      %
 
%+
 %

# 

 
  a  ! 
# ,
#   



O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,.0"&

D &3,.0"00"-00+
 70%00
 &030
 %( -008|
90
 !1&
 "8!&
90

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,.0"&

D &3,.0"0:- %(
$"10"."$ -10 0
'$  %( 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
, ,.0"*0.

D , ,.0"*0. ".0 1/0 


$/-1,3,.0"110 
 ;<,/0'0 = 
10  '-"30 ,00 0
D , ,.0"*0.303  ' ,
,  %(3"'.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,)00* (*0.

D 0 0'=3,.0"0-,
33- %( ' %' 0"
.3+
 &*&011 ".-  0 4, 
 ( # '*& $ 1 
 &0 7',>*$")00* (
 "
87)*
9-01"0. %(3"
0 '

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
*'0"&

D &"'0"0' 0"".13"1 0


0-%0 .0,,0 0,0%0
 .
D ,0%310..3-"'0"
00-""%+
 %(030,%(
*0.
 3030,
0 3*0.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,%(*0.

D †0"0.3"' 0/,0,
0 0 %(,.0""%/"
,0,0" %(
D , ,>*0.%(70,.)0'01
""0, 3

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,%(*0.

Three-Layer Network Hierarchy

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
, 0 3*0.

D ,"">? %  1/ 0/""


1-,111 ".
0 
)00'01 "8) 90

_ecimal Protocol-_escription

-. a a& 
-/ a a
-0 a a '$ a
-1 a a
10 a &&$
23 &,a&5 
24 &aa
/2/ &$

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
, 0 3*0.

D , 0 3*0.3 /"  ".


-033"0 0 '/0"-
3$ '"0/"11 0 $,
/--*0.3"
D , 0 3*0.3$+
 -"% "
  % '
 00:  '
 $.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
*0.,',

D ,10  ' |1""0.%(%,


,00"- ,"0."0$, >>
 000 3,"%-
"0.+
 ,  *0.
 ,  0 *0.
 ,&33"0 *0.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,  *0.

D ,  *0.+


 0/",10 0'0 1 0 
/% 033"0 
 3$$,  0 *0.
 . , =0"'/%   0 *0.
 0 10 0',005,0 '

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,  0 *0.

D ,  0 *0.+


  ,0 -10  /.,&33"0 
*0.- .1-10 010  
%,,, 0 .12&33"0 *0.
0 0
 0 0 "0/% 1"3"00
3 0 -10- 0.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
,&33"0 *0.

D ,&33"0 *0.+
 ,"0.",
 3$033"0 $033"0 
3, |1"230 
33,,"0.
  -0 0/",,  
11 0 30 0$0"0/".. , =
30 '033"0 0 0/",0'
3-033"0 $.0 00
 '. "
 1 %,,-- 5-
,  11 0 
O               
 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
& ' 110.

D ,1130 -011/
   '"'0"0,00"'0"
0%"" 0 1 -10 ; ,
/5<
D  ".,3,.0"0%,,0
/001"08'39 '"
 0 8 0900 013",
,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
&$

9 , |1" ,.0"*0.$%,,


310.33@
0 |3$3,.0"0-1$ '
 -10  ,/5
/ |/"-01,00.,',"0. )0
%('1 
 | %(0 ,0
30(0 %(
 |0 100 ,-1-/0,
3,.0"11

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,310.33-, |1"
 *0.@
0 |/"-01,00.,',"0. )0
%('1 
/ |/"0-"0 %(1"%, 0/"
3,.0"0
 |0/",10 0'0 1 00"'
/%   0 *0. 
 |- ,-10 %,,&33"0 *0.
 -10  0, %(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,310.33-, |1"
 0 *0.@
0 |0/",10 0'0 1 0 
/% 033"0 
/ |"'0"0 -.,',"0.
033"0 
 |/"0-"0 %(1"%, 0/"
3,.0"0
 |- ,-10 %,,&33"0 *0.
 -10  0, %(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
&$

9 , |1")00* (*0.$%,,


310.33@
0 |/"0-"0 %(1"%, 0/"
3,.0"0
/ |0 100 ,-1-/0,
3,.0"11
 |01"3" %(%,"'0"
0
 |0/",10 0'0 1 0 
/% 033"0 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
&$

9 , |1"&33"0 *0.$%,,


310.33@
0 |- %"">( % "'0"30-
11 0 /% 033"0 
/ | "0"'/% %1
 0 *0. 
 |0/",033"0 3-
$.0 00 '.
 |00,0,0"0 '1"-
1$ ' -10 0 %(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

9 0% %


" 06 6"
6"| , 01/5.3$ "
,$ %,,,30 '.1
 0""8.30"".
+9 ,*(| /5
| ,"% %/">"(, $
-"8, 5  9, 313-0
3'01%,%,,3 ,-",
3030%""3 ,-"A,-"
 0 0"",
0 ) %"">( % $
30- /.#6


O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
  



v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

9*0 , $-",-""% '$


0 ",3 1/
0 †
/
,0'
  
 
 / 018†|  019

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v   ," $130 030 3"-0
 
| .1
 

D &, -* .,"


/0/"+
 )/,|  3"
 *,&33"0 *0.3"
 *, 0 3*0.3"
KEY POINT
 *,%(*0.3"
40,
| 
0,"0.,0
03-33

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
$$%-,
|  " 

D ,
|  ")0'01,%0
0"3-,
| "0.

TCP/IP Protocols

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
$$%-,
|  " 

D ,
| 1""0.-  0-""%+
 %(| -0*0.
 |  %(*0.
 0 3*0.
 &33"0 *0.

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
%(| -0*0. "

D ,%(| -0*0.3"- 
",01 ,%0,00
*&
D ,"%>"$"3"- ,%0,
 , %(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
|  %(*0. "

D ,|  %(*0.3"- ,


/0 -0 -00 %(0 
3$33-0'"/0"0 '
,10  '
D |   $ 3$,
-""% '-  +
 &'"/0"0 '
 $.3:
 0(-0'1 0
 0(01/".

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
|  %(*0. "

D ,3"0,|  %(*0.


 "+
 &#"  "8&# 9 #$&# 
8#&# 9
 |  
 "!0' "8|
! 9
 |  B3!0 0'1  "8|B! 9

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
0 3*0. "

D , 0 3*0.2310.-  


3$11 0 -1 033"0 
3'010 ,
D
| 3$033"0 %-- 
"$"-$+


 )

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&33"0 *0. "

D & 033"0 3000, 0 3


*0.3"%,,: ,00 
10'/.01-0 3
0, %(
D ,
| 3" ",
-""% '&33"0 *0.3"+
 " 
 6" 0 - "86 9
 13"!0" 0 - "8 ! 9
 13"%(!0 0'1  "8 ! 9

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&33"0 *0. "
 )
 -- "8  9
 7.35 0 - "87 9
 %(% 0 - "8 9
 |C>>|C
3. '018
93"

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 

11 0  '
|

D
 0 5013" %,,.%,
 0 >10"10'0 ,, 
, %(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&33"0 *0.

D ,0 &33"0 *0.3"->


10"A 
|  ! 
D ,3"- 0-110 ,0
 13 0 ,
D ,0001,%  ,D!0"4>
!0"!0')0'0110(3,>10"
10'+

Your Mail E-Mail Message 1

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
0 3*0.

D
/0(0"0'>10"10' 
10 0'0/"30,%  ,D
!0"4>!0"!0')0'01

Your Mail E-Mail Message 2

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
0 3*0.

D &-/0(3,10' '1 



(30(-,3/.3"0 '0
,0 ,- -0,0,%  ,
D!0"4>!0"!0')0'01

Your Mail E-Mail Message 3

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
%(*0.

D | 2E/- 0-,00'01
0 '- 0" 0 
D | 3"00,0 0,'1  
, 03"0 '00'01 - 0"
 0 0,%  ,D!0"4>!0"
!0')0'01

Your Mail E-Mail Message 4

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
%(| -0*0.

D ,3,.0" %(3"0% ,0


 0,00'01
D |-%3 ,4, ,0/.0 
;4<0 ,4, ,(1%,0;
<
,>10"10' %13-,
-""% ',00'010,%  ,
D!0"4>!0"!0')0'01

Your Mail E-Mail Message 5

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
) 0  0

D , , 0 0 $,


30(,00'0103 
$/.,$03"0("0.
,4,  -0"(0,4, 
.3-"0 30,00'013| 
D | "(0, "-"0 30,
00'013


O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
) 0  0

D
"(0,:  1/0 ,
 -10 1/ ,'1  
,' 0">10"10'
D , 0 3*0., 30,10'
3,>10"033"0  , 0 
13

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9 ,
| 1"%(| -0*0.103
%,, |1""0.89@8
,0"",0
033".9
0 ,.0"
/ %(
 0 3
 )00* (

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,-,-""% '0-  -,



| |  %(*0.3"@8
,
,9
0 &'"/0"0 '
/ 0(-0'1 0
 4 >> 0001$
 $.3:

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,-,-""% '0
| 
|  %(*0.3"@8
,,9
0 |B!
/ |
 )
 &#

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,
| &33"0 *0.3"0""%
130 3/"".3 -10 $,
|  @
0 6
/ !
 

 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,
|  0 3*0.3"3$
0  >> 0 0 > />--
  "$@
0

/ )
 #
 # F

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

9B$ ,
| 
11 0 )0'01"0/"
0,"0. ,>10"3%,,
03330
| 1""0. 01

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
&$

TCP/IP Communications

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

9)% "00 $%,-""% '#6


0
,3+ %%%-' -;01&
0 #<))
"0(G".H

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 

v  
v  
 
 
45 &$
9#0,0 - ,/" (,0/
,0"-,-""% '
| 3"+
0 7
/ " 
 !
 6
 !
- )
'

, )
 |
E |  / 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v   ," 3 ,-| 0
 
 

D &, -* .,"


/0/"+
 )/| 0 '- 01 0"
 453"0 | 0 '0 /' '

KEY POINT
 :0 '
0"  %( '

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
| &

D ,|  


30 -&' 01
0 1/8|
&903$0
 '$ 1 '0 =0 0""| 
0
D | 0 '0>/&-"A,
/ ,&-"0 1/

D | 00(,-1-- 1
-"  '-,000,
300/.3

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 

"0&&

D &
"0& %(0,0,"0 '/
0>/ %( 1/0 0>/
"0",0
D ,-0 '-10",',
0 0$0 0 /0' 
 %(0 ,0,%  ,
"0
&%(&)0'01

Class A Network Address

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 

"0†&

D &
"0† %(0,0,%
,',>/>0>/ %(
1/0 0>/"0",0
D ,-0 '-1H0
,%  ,
"0†%(&
)0'01

Class B Network Address

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 

"0
&

D &
"0
 %(0,0,,
"0 '/>>0>/ %(
1/0 0 >/"0",0
D ,-0 '-1H0
,%  ,
"0
%(&
)0'01

Class C Network Address

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 

"0)&

D ,-,',/0>>>
0 ,10  '/3-.01"0
'3|)
D ,-0 '-1H ,
 3""0 ,
"0)%(
&)0'01

Class _ Network Address

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 

"04&

D ,-$,',/0>>>>
0 ,-0 '-1
0""0 ,
"04%(&
)0'01

Class E Network Address

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&610

D  0  ',-100 10  '-| 


00 130 30-
 0  '
|  %(0 / 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
))10"0

D | 00- % 0-10"


1/0,300/.0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
& '#"

D ,-""% '"30 0'  '| 


0+
 ,/,0- ,,3 -0 | 
0," /0""/
 ,/- , %(3 -0 
| 0," /0""/
 ,
"0& %( 1/0' ,
"3/0(-  
 ,|
&,0' 00 00 '
03$0$0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
013"%( '
"0&&610

D '1  /.%,,0,


01 %(-"%,",0$ '-- 
,-"
D '1   /.1
,0$--  %(-"0""0 
, 013"
"0&%()0'01

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
013"%( '
"0&&610

Sample Class A Network

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,0 3$0| 0@


0 
/ 
 H
 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,0,
"0 %( 1/5.=
' 0@
0 &3$0| 0
/ &1"00
 &"3/0(0
 & 531 0"0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,%01 0   '| 


0 '@8
,%9
0 ,,3 ," /0""
/ , %(3 /,"0""./0""
 ,| 00 '
03/"| 00 '
 , %(3 /," /0""

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

9| %,,,%0.'0 =0 / --1


 '3$0| 0@8
,,9
0 ,. $3$0| 0%, 
 : :
/ ,.'0 1 %(' -"5/".%,0
"0'00 '
 ,.3$ |  0"0,%, 
/0  ' ".010""0 '-|
&0' 
0
 ,. $3/"| 0%, 
 :  :

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,%-,-""% '0 


$| 0@8
,%9
0 5.=
/ .=
 5.=
 5.=

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

96"" ,/"0 (,',-0,0


0 '%,| 
"0
0 555...===,',555...===IIIIIIII
/ ,,,,,,,',H,,,,,,IIIIIIII
 ,,,,,,,,,,',,,,,,,,,,IIIIIIII
 ,',HIIIIIIII
 H,,,,',,,,IIIIIIII

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
&$

"0&

"0†

"0


"0)

"04

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

 
 
v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

9 .
3 0110 313! >) 
313% % .3,110 3 '
,3 
9| ,01110 313% %.33 '
"0",,3 7%,
130,-3 @
9  ',, 01,00330 5,
"3/0(| 0 ,-" -
323 ,0,3 @

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v   ," $%,111 -: ".
  %( '$
 

D &, -* .,"


/0/"+
 )/,111 ". %( '
$
 453"0 ,% "/000--
KEY POINT  453"0 ,%10(30(-%0 '
!0 . %($  
.3130
%(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 

11 %(
13  

D &.30" %(1',03300,%  
,%( ')$)0'01

Networking _evices
O               
 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
|

D 40, %( 0|




D ,|
, -0/% ,
130 , %(0 0 0(,
-1-0   0"530  00
0
0 $0" 0"†8 †9003

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
|

D ,%(&03)0'01""0
,$

Network Adapters

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#30

D &300 ,.0"*0.$,0
013"-0 30"0"' 0"
0$" '000/"'1 0,% 
 ,#30)0'01

¢epeater

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#30

D ,!0511 '1 * ', 0/""


$03"'0 ,105110/"
" ',
Maximum Segment Length

Topology Maximum Unrepeated Maximum ¢epeated


Cable Length Cable Length

/., 
- /71 4-1
/., 
1 1.. -"1..
/., 
a /.. $) +
/.., 
a /.. $) +
/.., 
6 -/.8 $

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
7/

D 7/0 |1"*0.$,0
 13 00> -'
%(,.0 5,0 ' -10 
D 7/-  0+
 1"3">330
 30 '0 ' 0 '/

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
7/

D !,/00$,/A ,%
,.' 00 30, %(2
" ' 0"
D ,%(7/)0'01""0010""
0$,/

Network Hub

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
†'

D †'0 |1"*0.$
†'-"0--/.!&
0
,"3 ' " %("" /.
$ '0 '" %( %'1 
D †'10 0  11.!&
0
31033 '

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
†'

D †'10.0" --  %(


3"',0  '0 4, 
%(0 ( # ' %(
D ,%(†')0'01""00
%(/'$

Network Bridge

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
%,

D %,%(01"3">3/'&
/'%,-"*0.-01/.!&

0/."0  '0 10 0  '3
01033 '
D %,01"3" %('1 
%,0,'1 -- '-""/0 %,
 $

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
%,

D ,%( %,)0'01""0,
$

Network Switch

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
%,

D %,/0(3"" 0/'
D 40,,0%0-,,00,
$2 %(0--"0/-,.
0 0 1,-01

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
%,

D , ,0$ %,%()0'01


""0, 3

Shared vs. Switched Network

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#

D #0 |1"*0.$,0
13"1 , %($
D #10(-%0 ' /0 
0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#

D †0300*0.,.
10(,-%0 ' /0 
"'0"0 0-3,.0"
0
D ,%(#)0'01""0,
$

Network ¢outer

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#

D #-%000/% 
%(
D ,. -., 0  %($2
%(0, 1 ,1
-- $%,, ,00
D 60-%000030(1
-3--803"09,)00* (
*0.-010 501 ,*0.
30(,-010

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
#

D &-53, "30(,
0, 0 | 0
1 , 0  %(
D , 0()0'01""0,3

Packet

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
†00|"0

D #/0(3"" E0/'
0 %,//'0 %,
0 "0/000--
D †0,.10( 0,%(
*0. "/000--
D |-0-01 0.0/"*0.
00,%""3,-01

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
†00|"0

D ,"0/000--,"0"
%(3$ '/0 %, 0 .1
%(00,,23
D ,†00|"0 )0'01""0
, 3

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
†00|"0

Broadcast Isolation

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
!0( '6%0 ') 

D 10(-%0 ' ,


501 , %(03 
1 ,"'0" %( %,,,
 0 ,
D |-,30(00 %( 
 ,,-%0
,30(0 ,,0"
, 0  %(0,%  ,
#0  0( %, ')0'01

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
!0( '6%0 ') 

¢outers and Packet Switching

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,-,-""% ' %( '$


/0(3"" @8
,,9
0 7/
/ †'
 %,
 #

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9| C%,,0=@
0 >/
/ >/
 >/
 >/

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,,-,-""% ' |1""0.


33@8
,,9
0 
/ 
 
 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

97/  %(, %,,


 -'0 @
0 †
/ # '
 !,
 0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,%$0 1,/ 0.


3 0 -, %(00@8
,
%9
0 7/
/ †'
 #30
 #

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9,,$3$,  3 


/% 0%(0 
0 , %(@
0 |

/ 7/
 #30
 !1

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
&$

9&%,0'1 " ',%"%:0


305 0 5 '†04, 
'1 @
0 1
/ 1
 1
 1

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

9B$ ,45013"%()0'01"0/"0,
%($0,.3/-,
033"0  , %('1  ,
%(3"' 0453"0 %,..
3"000 $ 030"03 
0 7/
/ #30
 %,
 |

 #
- †'

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   

% &


v  
v  
 
 
45 &$

Example Network

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 
  110.J=

9,,-,-""% ',310.33-
, |1" 0 3*0.@
0 |- %"">( % "'0"30-
11 0 /% 033"0 
/ |0/",10 0'0 1 0 
/% 033"0 
 |0/",033"0 3-
$.0 00 '.
 | "0"'/% %1
 0 *0. 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9 , |1"%(*0.$%,,


310.33@
0 |0/",10 0'0 1 0 
/% 033"0 
/ |*0.001"3"
%(
 |"'0"0 -.,',"0.
033"0 
 |/"-01,00.,',"0. )0
%('1 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9 " 0 5013"-%,,


| "0.
3"@
0 %(| -0
/ |  %(
 0 3
 &33"0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,
| |  %(*0.3"
3$/", '",03 '0 
0@
0 |
!
/ |B!
 &#
 |&#

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9 ,
| 1"&33"0 *0.103
%,,, |1""0.@8
,,9
0 &33"0
/ 
  0
 0 3

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,,$0"
"0&| 00 '@
0 ,,,,,,,,,H,,,,,,,,,
/ ,,,,,,,,,H,,,,,,,,,
 ,,,,,,,,,H,,,,,,,,,
 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,, %($0""% 


1"0 %(3"'@
0 7/
/ |

 †'
 %,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,,$0"
"0
| 00 '@
0 H,,,,,,
/ H,,,,,,,,,H
 H
 ,,,,,,H,,,,,,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

H9&
"0
 %(03$-,%10 .
%(0 ,/@
0  %(,
/  %(,
  %(,
  %(,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9&
"0)00"( % 0%,,.3-
0@
0  0
/ †00
 $0
 !"0

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,0$0"
"0† %(0@
0 HH
/ HH
 HHH
 HH

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,, %($0""%11 0 


/% 300|  %(@
0 7/
/ †'
 *0.%,
 #

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,,$-%0/000--@
8
,,9
0 %,
/ †'
 #30
 #

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,,$0"
"0†| 00 '@
0 ,,,,,,,,,H,,,,,,
/ ,,,,,,H,,,,,,
 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
 H,,,,,,,,,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,,*0.$01"3" %(
'1 0,-- ',-"" %(
/0 %,@
0 #
/ %,
 7/
 #30

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9
 "%,,,.3- -10  
 )10',0@8
,,9
0 3
/ ) 0 3

,(1
 :  1/

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9,, %($:0$$ 
 ,, %('1 @
0 †'
/ |

 7/
 %,

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9&
"0
03$-010511-
,%10 .,@
0 
/ 
 
 

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

H9 ,%(*0.1%,00$
-01- 1 ,$
%,,%""-%0,00'01, 5
%(@
0 4 03"0,30(
/
,0 ',| 0

,0 ',!&
0
 )03"0,30(

O               


 | 
 
 |  
|
v  
v   a  
  
   9:
v  
v  
 
 

9&,/,0300 ' 0' 0"


0""%,,.3-,/@
0 0$
/ †' '
 &$
 *0.

O               


 |