Topics

1.Nemo Events and Definition 2.RRC and Layer3 messages 3.SIB Information,Measument Control (MC),Measurement Report (MR) 4.CS and PS Call Flow 5.Cell Reselection, SHO and ISHO

Nemo Events and Definitions

Nemo Events and Definitions

MOC/MTC Call Flow timing MOC

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Nemo Events and Definitions .

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Block error ratio:BLER is measured from the CRC – Transport Block (TB) is a basic unit that is exchanged between Layer 1 and Layer 2 (MAC). Layer 1 adds CRC for each TB and BLER is calculated from the CRC .

CELL_PACH • Radio link failure in CELL_DCH (*) • Re-entering service area in CELL_FACH. CELL_PCH • Periodical cell update causes in priority URA update in CELL_FACH. CELL_PCH • RLC unrecoverable error in all substates • Cell reselection in CELL_FACH. CELL_PCH order: (the UE is in the URA_PCH substate) • URA reselection • Periodic URA update .When do I have to perform a cell/ URA update? Cell update causes in priority order: • Uplink data transmissionin URA_PCH. CELL_PACH • Paging response in URA_PCH.

RRC and Layer-3 Messages System Information Blocks (SIB) .

RRC Modes .

CCCH and DCCH CELL_PCH and URA_PCH • no DCCH and DTCH • Before uplink transmission ⇒ UE moves to CELL_FACH • UE must be paged • RRC messages on BCCH and PCCH • In CELL_PCH . • UE monitors FACH permanently • Uplink transmission on RACH • UE location known on serving cell level • UE performs cell re-selection • UE responsible for measurement reporting • Cell system information on BCCH • RRC messages on BCCH.UE location known on URA level .UE performs cell re-selection and cell updates • In CELL URA .UE location known on cell level .CELL_FACH CELL_DCH • DCCH and – if configured – DTCH • Dedicate physical channel in use • UE location known on active set cell level • UE responsible for measurement reporting • Cell system information on BCCH • RRC messages on DCCH • DCCH and – if configured – DTCH • FACH used for higher layer data transfer.UE performs cell re-selection and URA updates .

it uses the shared transport channels for user data transfer. it determines the measurement quality and the reporting events from the cell system information.e. URAs are a combination of one or several cells under one C-RNC. that no uplink transmission is allowed in CELL_PCH/URA_PCH. the UE is capable to receive RRC messages on the DCCH (and BCCH. it must page the UE within the URA. It has to monitor the FACH permanently in the downlink. • CELL_FACH This state was introduced for traffic situations. DCCH and – if configured – DTCH information can be transmitted. The UE‘s FACH is mapped on one S-CCPCH. such as the RACH. URAs may overlap. There no need to identify the UE on a dedicated channel. The UE is only connected to one cell. (Please note. In this state. because the physical channels are exclusively allocated to this UE. neighbourhood lists to perform the cell re-selection process. a lot of cell updates have to be performed. Only common transport channel FACH can be used by the UE to transmit higher layer data. known within UTRAN. . In this sub-state. UTRAN can command the UE to perform periodic cell updates. UTRAN knows the active set cells for the radio links and thus the location of the the UE. where only small amounts of data have to be transmitted. SMS messages) have to be transmitted. If the UE is in the CELL_PCH and moving fast. The UE reads the cell system information and acts accordingly. In this case. threshold values. By listening to the cell system information from the BCCH. For instance. not to miss user data for it. CCCH and DCCH channels. Other relevant information is also learned from the BCCH. which it has to share with other UEs. This is the case when only higher layer signalling information (NAS signalling) or small amount of user data (e. In the uplink. if it owns specific capabilities). If the RNC wants to exchange data with the UE. The UE is responsible for cell re-selection.) • URA_PCH URA stands for UTRAN Registration Area. No soft handover takes place in this sub-state. The UE is responsible for URA updates – when it changes the URA – and periodic URA updates – when required by UTRAN. The cell system information is broadcasted on the FACH.g. If UTRAN wants to transmit something to the UE. dedicated physical channels are allocated to the UE. Each UE must be explicitly addressed. the UE must change to the CELL_FACH sub-state. and this is the location information. it gains all relevant measurement qualities. i. If the UE changes the cell. for instance by the RNTI. Also periodical cell updates can be requested by UTRAN. Also downlink shared channels can be allocated to the UE. the UE‘s current cell is known to the RNC. it only needs to page the UE there. • The UE is capable to receive and transmit DCCH and – if configured – DTCH information.What are the characteristics of the individual sub-states. an exclusive allocation of one physical channel to the UE would result in a waste of resources. it must perform a cell update. To perform updates. • CELL_PCH Due to the discontinuous type of traffic. a cell may belong to several URAs. when the UE is in the RRC connected mode? • CELL_DCH In this sub-state. The UE receives RRC messages on the BCCH.

States of Bearer Allocation .

such as interference values. Therefore. System information is organised in System Information Blocks (SIBs). and uses the transmitted parameters. Scheduling information is used to inform the UE.3 and SIB 16. . and with a TTI of 20 ms). For instance. Most system information parameters are determined by the RNC. the UE is capable to decide. • Paging Type I. SIB 7 has no value tag. The only exceptions are SIB 15. The Node B is informed about the parameters via the NBAP message BCCH Information. SIB 12 holds measurement control information and parameters. This requires a lot of battery power. The MIB is transmitted in every 8th radio frame on the P-CCPCH (on position SFN mod 8 = 0. SIB 15. System information is grouped into SIB 1 to SIB 18. where and when a specific system information is transmitted. Given the system information. and • System Information Change Indication.System Information Within UTRAN system information is broadcasted with the help of the RRC messages • System Information. Thus. which have to be read by the UE. whether or how to access the PLMN via the existing cell. there is no need for the UE to read the SIB. There is a huge amount of SIBs.2. Depending on the UE‘s RRC state. it reads specific SIBs. the MIB may carry a value tag. For most of the SIBs used within the system. It changes with each occurrence. If a value tag is unchanged. which change fast. a Master Information Block (MIB) was introduced. which gives references and scheduling information about the SIBs. Some system parameters can be made available by the Node B. Each SIB is responsible to carry a specific content. the corresponding system information has not been modified.

.8 RNC MIB value tag M SIB 1 value tag 1 SIB 2 value tag 2 SIB 3 value tag 3 SIB 18 value tag 18 .System Information ( ) NBAP = Node UTRAN B Application Part NBAP: BCCH Information UE Node B position on P-CCPCH: SFN mod 8 = 0 TTI: 20 ms value tag M: range 1.

that every S-CCPCH carries the BCCH Modification Change IE. Consequently. mobile phones. Within the IE BCCH Modification Change. . which can carry this information element: element BCCH Modification Info is • Paging Type 1 Some mobile phones have no radio link allocated.UTRAN can notify UEs. that a value tag in the MIB has been changed. and in the RRC connected mode sub-states CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. which must be mapped on FACHs in such a way. the information broadcasted. that UEs in the CELL_DCH sub-state are addressed directly by the RNC via the Measurement Control message. which are in the RRC idle mode. Please note. when the value tags will change. There are two RRC messages. this message must be transmitted on every S-CCPCH. which carries FACHs. The System Information Change Indication message is transmitted on a BCCH. • System Information Change Indication With this message. This paging message is transmitted in all paging occasions in the cell. we address UEs in the CELL_FACH sub-state. Hereby. even a BCCH Modification Time can be given. indicating to the UEs.

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which are used in Nokia‘s RAN1. that all SIBs are valid on cell level except for SIB 1.3. SIB 1 and SIB 15. and SIB 16. we only describe the System Information Blocks (SIBs). . while SIB 16 is valid for equivalent PLMNs.3 are valid on PLMN level. Please note. and SIB 4 and SIB16. SIB 15.In this course documentation.

that all SIBs are valid on cell level except for SIB 1. is must read the new cell‘s MIB. while SIB 16 is valid for equivalent PLMNs. A MIB is valid in one cell. following characteristics were specified: • Area scope: Where is the value tag valid: within one cell or within a PLMN/ equivalent PLMN? • UE RRC state: When the SIB is valid? • UE RRC state: When the SIB is read? • Scheduling information: At which position is the SIB transmitted and what is its repetition period? • Modification of system information: Is it indicated by a value tag. . Its parameter are valid in the same states. CELL_PCH and URA PCH. and SIB 4 and SIB16. There is only one exception: SIB 10. we only describe the System Information Blocks (SIBs). The MIB is read in the RRC modes/states RRC idle. The UE finds in the MIB also references to up to maxSIB (=32) SIBs. which are used in Nokia‘s RAN1. In this course documentation.For each SIB. and SIB 16. including their scheduling information and type. Master Information Block (MIB): The MIB informs the UE about the supported PLMN types and the PLMN identity. If a UE changes the cell. SIB 15. A change of the MIB information is indicated by a value tag. If a UE is capable to receive simultaneously one S-CCPCH and one DPCH. or is it timer based? The UE receives all SIBs via the BCCH. SIB 1 and SIB 15.3 are valid on PLMN level. than it receives SIB 10 on a FACH.3. CELL_FACH. Please note.

T317 This timer is started when the T316 expires and the UE detects an out of service area. When the timer expires the UE initiates cell update procedure (MS timer).SIB1 System Information Block 1 (SIB 1) This SIB is used to inform the UE about NAS system information. There is then no necessity for the UE to read this SIB after cell re-selection. For instance. CELL_FACH. and the the RRC substate CELL_DCH. SIB 1 also delivers UE timers and counters. The NAS system information characterises the NAS domains. the same content is transmitted in this SIB. CELL_PCH and URA PCH. a UE in the RRC connected mode uses the timer T305 for periodic cell and URA updates. Its parameter are valid in the same states. which have to be used by the UE in the RRC idle and RRC connected mode. and the SIB 1 value tag has the same number as in the preceding cell. T302/N302 The CELL UPDATE/URA UPDATE retransmission timer (MS timer) T300/N300 The RRC CONNECTION REQUEST retransmission timer (MS timer) T312/N312 The timer for supervising successful establishment of a physical channel (MS timer) T309 The timer for supervising successful connection establishment in case of an inter-RAT cell re-selection (MS timer) T316 This timer is started when the UE detects an out of service area in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH state. When the timer expires the UE transits to idle mode (MS timer) . This timer is stopped when the UE detects an in service area. The MIB is read in the RRC modes/states RRC idle. If the UE selects a new cell. SIB 1 is valid in one PLMN. This timer is stopped when the UE detects an in service area.

.SIB2 System Information Block 2 (SIB 2) This SIB contains an URA identity list. A change of the SIB 2 information is indicated by a value tag. SIB 2 is read and valid in the RRC sub-state URA_PCH.

. A change of the SIB 3 information is indicated by a value tag.SIB3 System Information Block 3 (SIB 3) This SIB contains relevant parameters for cell selection and reselection. such as „cell barred“ IEs. It also holds the cell identity and cell restriction data. this optional SIB is read and valid in the CELL_FACH. CELL_PACH and URA_PCH sub-state. A change of the SIB 4 information is indicated by a value tag. SIB4 System Information Block 4 (SIB 4) This SIB holds mostly the same data fields as SIB 3. when the UE is in the RRC connected mode. but it is read and valid only.e. It is read and valid in the RRC connected mode sub-states CELL_FACH. if SIB 4 is not broadcasted. SIB 3 must be read and is valid in the RRC idle mode. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. I.

A change of the SIB 5 information is indicated by a value tag. P-CCPCH. The parameters cover the PICH power offset.SIB5 System Information Block 5 (SIB 5) The parameters for the configuration of physical channels are broadcasted in this SIB. . It is read and valid in the RRC connected mode sub-states CELL_FACH. S-CCPCH and PRACH system information lists. the AICH power offset. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. if SIB 6 is not available. SIB 5 must be read and is valid in the RRC idle mode.

an expiration timer (Expiration Time Factor) is broadcasted with this message. The UE has to read its parameters periodically. 8 * Expiration Time Factor). 8 times .. SIB 7 expires at max(32.. It is read and valid in all states except for the CELL_DCH sub-state.SIB7 System Information Block 7 (SIB 7) This SIB holds fast changing parameters. Its default value is 1. 4 times. The fast changing parameters transmitted with SIB 7 include the UL interference and dynamic persistence level. Expiration Time Factor can have the values 2times. For that. 256 times. . Therefore no value tag is used for it.

if SIB 12 is not broadcasted.SIB11 System Information Block 11 (SIB 11) This SIB holds measurement control information. etc. as long as the UE did not get a Measurement Control message from UTRAN and SIB 12 is not broadcasted. . The UE gets here the relevant date for traffic measurement. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. intra-frequency measurements. SIB 11 must be read and is valid in the RRC idle mode. A change of the SIB 11 information is indicated by a value tag. It is also valid in the RRC sub-state CELL_DCH. It is read and valid in the RRC connected mode sub-states CELL_FACH.

SIB11 .

SIB11 .

CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. If available. and PhyCH parameters are broadcasted. The parameters are used during a handover to UTRAN. the UEs take the parameters broadcasted with SIB 11. SIB16 System Information Block 16 (SIB 16) RB. The UE reads and stores the parameters. It is also valid in the RRC sub-state CELL_DCH. This SIB is valid in all RRC states. and read in all RRC states except for the CELL_DCH. TrCH. as long as the UE did not get a Measurement Control message from UTRAN. which are stored by the UE both in the RRC idle and RRC connected mode. If not transmitted. these parameters stay valid. . A change of the SIB 16 information is indicated by a value tag. Consequently. when the UE is connected to GSM and GPRS.SIB12 System Information Block 12 (SIB 12) SIB 12 transmits measurement control information for UEs in the RRC connected mode. SIB 12 is read and valid in the RRC connected mode sub-states CELL_FACH. A change of the SIB 12 information is indicated by a value tag.

CS Voice and Video are both Conversational DL SRB .RRC messages information .

UE in DUAL MODE UE in 3G LOCKED MODE .

Voice AMR CS call. Transparent Video Call . 64Kbps.

2kbps) .12.Video CS 64: DL SF 32 UL SF 16 Voice AMR: DL SF 128 UL SF 64 (16 Kbps.

RRC messages information .PS PS can also be OriginatingHighPrioritySignalling And Registration (Only for Attach) .

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Modify max bit rate by Nemo .

SIM Card QoS profile .

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. SIB 3 and SIB 11are read and valid in the RRC idle state. it is connected to one cell only and responsible for cell selection and re-selection. In parallel. This message informs the UE about the type of measurement. The parameters of SIB 12 (SIB 11. which has to be conducted. type. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. It retrieves the parameters for cell selection from SIB type 4. reporting quantities. the UE is not reading the SIB type 3/4 and 11/12. SIB 11 parameters are used instead. objects. and/or by transmitting a Measurement Control message on the DCCH. If SIB 4 resp. either by broadcasting system information on the BCCH. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH sub-state. reporting criteria. If the UE is in the RRC idle mode. if SIB is not available) can be still valid in this state. The measurement control information is broadcasted with SIB type 12. etc. Each measurement command links a measurement with a measurement identity. The RRC message Measurement Control can be transmitted to the UE. SIB 12 is not broadcasted. the SIB type 11 is used to deliver measurement control information to the UE for the serving cell. if a DCCH has been setup between the UE and UTRAN. The SIB type 3 contains parameters for cell selection and re-selection. quantity. it receives relevant measurement information from the BCCH. then SIB 3 resp.Measurement Control (MC) and Measurement Report (MR) UTRAN controls the measurements in the UE. SIB 4 and SIB 12 are read and valid. when the UE is in the CELL_FACH. If the UE is in the RRC sub-states CELL_FACH. In the sub-state CELL_DCH.

12 is also valid in the CELL_DCH.I am in the RRC idle mode UE System Information SIB [BCCH] 3 & SIB 11 System Information SIB [BCCH] 4 & SIB 12 (SIB 3 & SIB 11) UTRAN Node B RNC UE I am in the ELL_FACH. URA_PCH. CELL_PCH. CELL_FACH.) . CELL_PCH or URA_PCH sub-state UTRAN Node B RNC I am in the CELL_DCH sub-state UE Measurement Control [DCCH] UTRAN RNC Node B : parameters for cell selection and re-selection [in the RRC connected mode] 12] : measurement control information [in the RRC connected mode] d valid: idle.

if the UE was in the CELL_DCH sub-state. the UE retrieved the measurement control parameters from the SIB type 11. As soon as the UE receives a Measurement Control message including one of the above mentioned measurement types. If they are included. which contain intra-frequency. But what happens. inter-frequency.Measurement Control (MC) and Measurement Report (MR) How does a UE perform measurements after a transition in the CELL_DCH state. it has received Measurement Control messages. as long as there was no Measurement Control message. it replaces its internal stored data based on the SIB11 by the parameters delivered with the Measurement Control message. inter-RAT and traffic volume measurement system information. . the UE resumes with the measurements and associated reporting. when a measurement reporting criteria is fulfilled. may be included in the SIB 11. Transition from the CELL_FACH to the CELL_DCH sub-state. the SIB 12 (or SIB 11. If the UE transits to the CELL_DCH substate. But when the UE then transits back to the CELL_DCH sub-state. the UE reads SIB 12 (SIB 11). and its measurement control parameters become valid. which replaces the parameters. In the CELL_FACH sub-state. as they were stored before the transition to the CELL_FACH (or any other RRC connected) sub-state. and it then transits to the CELL_FACH sub-state. the system information stays valid. if there is no SIB 12) is valid including all relevant measurement control parameters. the UE can send a measurement report. Two cases have to be distinguished: Transition from the RRC idle state to the CELL_DCH sub-state In the RRC idle state. In the CELL_FACH sub-state. Information Elements.

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Then. where the Measurement Report can be sent. Intra-frequency measurements are reported via the RACH. and to release a measurement in the UE. The RLC entity mode is set by the RRC message Measurement Control. The Measurement Control message is transmitted on a DCCH via an RLC entity in the acknowledged mode. The RRC message Measurement Report was specified to deliver measurement results from the UE to UTRAN (RNC). If the setup of a measurement fails.e. CELL_FACH: In this sub-state. Cell update cause is „uplink data transmission“. A measurement is either conducted periodically or driven by an event. traffic volume measurements and positioning measurements are reported by the UE. the UE returns a measurement report. whereby the UE learns from the BCCH (SIB11 or SIB12) the maximum numbers of cells. the UE transmits a Measurement Report. it can report. A measurement identity identifies the measurement as specified by UTRAN. It is transmitted on an UL DCCH via an RLC entity in the acknowledged mode. The measurement report either holds traffic volume measurements or positioning measurements. how to perform a specific type of measurements. Then they are in the CELL_FACH state. to modify. Measurement results can be only transmitted in the CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH sub-state.Measurement Control (MC) and Measurement Report (MR) The RRC message Measurement Control is used to setup. It includes measurement quantities and identifies the measurement event. I. The RLC entity can be in the acknowledged or unacknowledged mode. CELL_PCH or URA_PCH: UE must perform a cell update. CELL_DCH: If a reporting criterion is met. The UE gets all relevant information. This message is transmitted on a DCCH. . the UE returns the RRC message Measurement Control Failure. the UE is either in the RRC connected sub-state CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH.

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a UE may be forced to conduct several different types of measurements simultaneously. it just informs the UE to conduct the measurements of a measurement type by just telling it the associated measurement identity. which can be conducted: • Intra-Frequency Measurements • Inter-Frequency Measurements • Inter-RAT Measurements • UE-Internal Measurements • Traffic Volume Measurements • Quality Measurements • UE Positioning Methods As a consequence. Some measurements are not conducted continuously.Measurement Control (MC) and Measurement Report (MR) With the RRC message Measurement Control. Finally. how to deliver the measurement reports: Delivery on an acknowledged or unacknowledged RLC. and release. There is a set of different types of measurements. In the RRC message Measurement Control. UTRAN commands the UE to perform measurements on its behalf. Whenever necessary. and Periodical or event triggered reporting. how to perform a type of measurements. Each type of measurement is identified by an allocated „Measurement Identity“. UTRAN tells the UE once. where the UE can . the is an PhyCH information elements. modify. Each measurement type comes with a measurement command: setup. UTRAN inform the UE.

Measurement Control ( UE UE IEs Measurement IEs PhyCH IEs ) RNC Measurement Identity Measurement Command Measurement Reporting Mode Additional measurements list setup/modify/release RLC AM/UM and periodical reporting/event triggered includes non-frequency related cell info CHOICE Measurement type Intra-Frequency Measurements Inter-Frequency Measurements Inter-RAT Measurements DPCH compressed mode UE-Internal Measurements status info Traffic Volume Measurements Quality Measurements UE Positioning Methods .

321) At least every TTI. The reported quantities are Buffer Occupancy (BO) which „indicates for each logical channel the amount of data in number of bytes that is available for transmission and retransmission in the RLC layer“. The volume of uplink traffic is increasing. the UE is moved to the CELL_DCH sub-state. which the MAC layer computes and delivers after being configured accordingly by the RRC. Average of Buffer Occupancy Variance of Buffer Occupancy. (TS 25. UTRAN tells the UE to report an increased amount of uplink traffic. These statistics on BO values are determined from all RBs/LogCHs mapped onto a given TrCH. the MAC layer receives this information from each RLC entity. The Transport Channel Traffic Volume (TCTV) is the sum of the BO of all LogCHs. Why is it necessary to perform this type of measurement? The UE is in the RRC connected sub-state CELL_FACH.raffic Volume Measurements Traffic volume measurements are used to trigger measurement reports based on uplink traffic volume. mapped on a given TrCH. UTRAN (here: the S-RNC) can decide to allocate dedicated physical channel resources to the UE. The two last reporting quantities are statistics. The evaluation has to be done at least once every TTI. Following reporting events were specified: 4A: Transport Channel Traffic Volume becomes larger than an absolute threshold 4B: Transport Channel Traffic Volume becomes smaller than an absolute threshold . In other words. The measurement object is the individual cell.

raffic Volume Measurements .

RRC messages information Traffic volumes High threshold information sent after RAB setup complete (CELL .

RRC messages information UE Buffer triggers Threshold for RAB Upgrade .

RRC messages information First RAB Reconfiguration DL 32Kbps(SF64)/ UL 32Kbps SF32) .

RRC messages information Traffic volumes High threshold information sent after RAB setup complete (CELL .

RRC messages information Maximum DL bit rate for PS domain NRT data = 384 Kbps Maximum UL bit rate for PS domain NRT data = 64 Kbps nitial and minimum allowed bit rate in downlink = 32 Kbps nitial and minimum allowed bit rate in uplink = 32 Kbps Second RAB Reconfiguration DL 384Kbps(SF8)/ UL 32Kbps (SF32) .

RRC messages information Cell DCH  Cell FACH .

RRC messages information Cell FACH  Cell PCH .

RRC messages information Cell PCH  Cell FACH .

RRC messages information Cell FACH  Cell DCH .

the UE sends a report to indicate to UTRAN. there is only one specified reporting event: 5A: A predefined number of bad CRCs is exceeded (when a DCH is established) If the reporting of 5A is ordered by UTRAN. . Downlink. such as the DL TB error rate. this must be determined by the UE. uplink by the Node B. In contrast to the UE internal measurements.Pending after trigger is a time period.Total CRC is the length of the sliding window over which the number of bad CRCs are counted. the RNC can increase the SIR set at the Node B to improve the link quality. imposed on the radio links of other Ues served in the same geographical area. this may trigger measurements in the compressed mode (handover measurements).Bad CRC tells the UE the number of bad CRCs that are required within "Total CRC" for the event to be triggered.Quality Reporting Event How good is the connection? Downlink. . that the number of bad CRCs during a predefined sliding window has exceeded a predefined number. The Radio link measurements from BTS are used to check whether the DL DPCH power of the radio link is approaching it maximum value. If the DL link quality is not reaching its quality target. the quality measurements are used to set DL quality thresholds. But this reduces also the capacity of the serving cells and increases the interference level. The following three parameters are used: . . A new event can not be triggered until "Pending after trigger" CRCs have been received. If such a situation is given. The Quality Deterioration report is used when the UL outer loop power control is not reaching it's BLER/BER target.

Quality Reporting Event .

Detected Set Cells The UE is capable to detect cells. when the UE is in the CELL_DCH sub-state In the RRC message. They are stored in the detected set list. the IE „Cells for measurements“ can be included. Monitored Set Cells The cells. inter-. which are stored in the CELL_INFO_LIST. which are stored in the CELL_INFO_LIST are monitored set cells. If the IE „Cells for measurements“ is not included in the RRC message. the UE won‘t consider it for event evaluation and measurement reporting. . than all cells must be considered for measurements. For measurements and event reporting. which do not belong to the two above mentioned sets. Each measurement is hereby controlled and reported independently.Cells for Measurement and Monitoring (new) The mobile phone is capable to run several measurement types in parallel. when they are not active set cells. Measurement reporting of detected set cells can be conducted only for intra-frequency measurements. which are stored in the CELL_INFO_LIST for measurements. If an active cell set is not stored there. performing a soft handover. The UE groups the monitored cells: Active Set Cells The UE is connected to all these cells. User data can be transmitted in all these cells. If so. or inter-RAT) measurement. the UE only considers cells. only these cells are considered for the (intra-.

CPICH RSCP. what kind of intra-frequency measurements have to be conducted.Downlink received signal code power (RSCP) after despreading. it may contain among others: Intra-frequency cell info list (optional) Measurement quantity There are three different measurement quantities for the FDD mode: . and . .all states. when the measurement has to be conducted.Downlink Ec/N0 . . Measurement validity The measurement validity describes.tra-frequency Measurements Intra-frequency measurements are measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set.CELL_DCH state. which ones are used. but it is the operator‘s choice. There are three options: .Downlink pathloss in dB = Primary CPICH Tx power . If the RRC message Measurement Control commands the UE to make intra-frequency measurement. A set of intra-frequency measurements were specified. . Reporting Criteria Reporting criteria outline.“ The measurement object is one cell.all states except the CELL_DCH state.

5) A hysteresis value can be set before reporting the event in all reporting events – in the figures. depend on the implemented handover reporting function or other radio network functions. 1C: A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH Inter1D: Change of best cell rat 1E: A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold (RAN 1. If a CPICH crosses the reporting range. a reporting event is triggered. UTRAN decides. Reporting events 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range The reporting range can be between 0 and 14.ra-frequency Reporting Events Below. A individual cell offset can be taken into account. 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting rang Similar concept as in 1A.5 dB (step size 0. which of the listed events have to be reported by the UE. It can be also set in ration with a weighted average of the best measured cell and the averaged measurement results of additional. The required intra-frequency reporting events. this is only shown for 1A and 1B.5 dB). which are choosen by UTRAN. The measurement quantities are determined by measuring the PCPICH of the cell. you can see a list of intra-frequency reporting events.5) 1F: A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold (RAN 1. . The reporting range can be set in relation with the measurement of the best (strongest) cell – as is was displayed on the next figure. non-forbidden cells.

ra-frequency Reporting Events .

ra-frequency Reporting Events .

ra-frequency Reporting Events e. P-CPICH Ec/No Reporting event: 1E: A P-CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold 1F: A P-CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 absolute threshold 1E for cell 1F for cell 1 time .g.

the RNC must be able to continuously update the neighbour cell lists in order to reflect the changing neighbourhood of a moving mobile station.e. . If we have more than one active set cell. In the CELL_DCH sub-state. It camps on one cell or it is served by one cell. and Inter-RAT cell info list. Inter-frequency cell info list. A soft handover only takes place with cells on the same UTRA carrier band. By reading the System Information Block 11 and/or 12. the UE gets the Intra-frequency cell info list. the handover control of the RNC is responsible to combine the lists into one neighbour cell list which is then transmitted to the mobile station. which participate in a soft handover. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. This is part of the RNC‘s handover control. it gets several neighbourhood lists. The neighbour cell list combination is carried out in the steps depicted in next slide.Neighbourhood Lists In the RRC idle state and in the RRC connected sub-states CELL_FACH. the UE is responsible for cell selection and re-selection. the combining of neighbourhood lists of several active set cells is only required for intrafrequency handovers and has to combined with their measurements. Consequently. i.

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intra-frequency HOs Two Cells in the Active Set Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 6 Cell 10 Cell 3 Cell 7 Cell 11 Cell 4 Cell 8 Cell 12 Cell 5 Cell 9 Neighbour List Cell 7: Cell 3 Cell4 Cell 8 Cell 12 Cell 11 Cell 6 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 7 Cell 3 Cell 3 Cell11 Cell11 Neighbour List Cell 6: Cell 2 Cell3 Cell 7 Cell 11 Cell 10 Cell 5 Neighbour cells which are common to Cell 6 and Cell 7 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell7 Cell7 Cell Cell 10 10 Cell 4 Cell 4 Cell 8 Cell 8 Cell Cell 12 12 Cell 5 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 6 .

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intra-frequency HOs The neighbourhood lists for intra-frequency handover measurements can be composed like this: Step 1: Active set cells First the handover control sets the active set cells into the neighbour cell list. If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the fourth step. the handover control removes those surplus neighbours from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the fourth step. If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the third step. the handover control removes in random order those surplus cells from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the second step Step 3: Neighbour cells which are common to two active set cells During the third step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are common to two active set cells. Step 4: Neighbour cells which are defined for only one active set cell During the fourth step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are defined for only one active set cell. the handover control removes in random order those surplus cells from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the third step. . Step 2: Neighbour cells which are common to three active set cells During the second step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are common to all three active set cells. starting from the neighbours of the weakest (CPICH Ec/Io) active set cell. If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the second step.

… … Max 32 Cells Cell Cell 43 43 Step 3 Step 3 Step 1 Step 1 Cell Cell 25 Neighbour Cells 25 Lists Three Cells in the Active Set Step 4 Step 4 Neighbour Cells defined for only 1 Neighbour List: random selection Cell Cell .Neighbourhood List Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 5 Cell 5 Cell 7 Cell 7 Cell 9 Cell 9 Cell Cell 11 11 Cell Cell 15 15 Cell Cell 48 48 Cell Cell 15 Combination Cell 1 for Intra-frequency 15 Cell 1 Cell Cell 21 21 Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 3 Cell 7 Cell 7 Cell Cell 11 11 Cell Cell 50 50 HOs Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 7 Cell 7 Cell Cell 37 37 Cell Cell 51 51 Cell Cell 49 49 Step 2 Step 2 Common to 3 Neighbour Lists Cell 4 Cell 4 Cell Cell 41 41 Cell 6 Cell 6 .. Cell 9 Cell 9 Cell Cell 13 13 Cell Cell 10 10 Cell Cell 22 22 … … .. .... .. ... …...... Cell Cell 33 33 Common to 2 Neighbour Lists Cell2 Cell2 Cell 7 Cell 7 Cell 9 Cell Cell 9 Cell 11 11 Cell Cell 15 15 Cell Cell Cell 37 Cell 37 10 10 Cell Cell 41 41 Cell Cell 49 49 ….. Cell 9 Cell 9 Cell Cell 10 10 Cell Cell 56 56 … … .. .. .

the UE has to be synchronised to the downlink transmission of the system information – transmitted on the physical channel P-CCPCH – before it can make a decision. it starts to monitor the radio interface to find a suitable cell to camp on. Even the cell‘s scrambling code group is known to the UE. in how far the available cell is suitable to camp on.CS and PS Call Flow Cell Search When a UE is switched on.1 in every cell for every operator. why a UE wants to perform cell synchronisation. This channel divides up into two sub-channels: P-SCH and S-SCH With the help of the SCH. because it must be Cch. whether there is a WCDMA cell nearby. This process is also required for cell re-selection and the handover procedure. such as the physical channels for paging and random access. If a WCDMA cell is available. and frame synchronisation. Cell synchronisation is achieved with the Synchronisation Channel (SCH). But it has to determine. By reading the cell system information on the PCCPCH. RAB 1st then RRC . The UE knows the cell‘s primary scrambling code. The channelisation code of the P-CCPCH is also known to the UE. which is transmitted on the physical channel P-CCPCH.256. TS. It now wants to gain the cell system information. the UE learns everything about the configuration of the remaining common physical channels in the cell. the UE was capable to perform chip. Initial cell selection is not the only reason.

UE MOS CS Message Flow RRC: RRC Connection Request (RACH) T300=2s .1s)] NBAP: Synchronization Indication RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH) RRC Connection Establishment – CELL DCH State RRC: Initial Direct Transfer (MM: CM Service Request) T312=6s . N300=3 NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) FP: Downlink Synch FP: Uplink Synch NodeB RNC MGW/CN RNC checks if resources are available: BTS. AC. If not it sends RRC Connection Reject L1 Synchronization RRC: RRC Connection Setup (FACH) L1 Synchronization [RRCconnRepTimer1/2(100ms. N312=4 SCCP: CR (Connection Request) RRC Connection till the RNC RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Request) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Response) RANAP: Initial UE Message (MM: CM Service Request) SCCP: CC (Connection Confirm) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Request) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Response) RANAP: Common ID RANAP: Security Mode Command RRC: Security Mode Command . Transmission.

Iur and Iu) ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) Soft handover is not allowed during the RAB establishment procedure (The mobile can not add or remove cells in AS) this makes the UE and Node B particularly sensitive to mobility and dominance Timer wf_rb_setup_cpl (6s) is started when the RRC: Radio Bearer Setup message is sent to the UE In case the timer expires Iu Release Request is sent to the CN with release cause (radio_conn_lost) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete RANAP: RAB Assignment Response .UE NodeB RRC: Security Mode Complete RNC MGW/CN RANAP: Security Mode Complete RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: Setup) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Call Confirmed) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Setup) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Call Confirmed) RANAP: RAB Assignment Request RAB Establishment NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) FP: Downlink Synch FP: Uplink Synch RL modification procedure: SRB+DCH. HW resources checked Possible failure in AAL2 setup (Iub.

UE NodeB RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Alerting) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Connect) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: Connect Acknowledge) RNC MGW/CN RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Alerting) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Connect) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Connect Acknowledge) Call Established RRC: Measurement Control RANAP: Location Report RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: Disconnect) Call Disconnect RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Disconnect) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Release) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Release) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Release Complete) RANAP: Iu Release Command RANAP: Iu Release Complete RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: RRC Connection Release) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: RRC Connection Release Complete) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: RRC Connection Release Complete) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: RRC Connection Release Complete) NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) .

UE MTC CS Message Flow NodeB RNC RRC: Paging Type 1 RRC: RRC Connection Request (RACH) NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) FP: Downlink Synch FP: Uplink Synch RRC: RRC Connection Setup (FACH) L1 Synchronization NBAP: Synchronization Indication RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH) RANAP: Paging MGW/CN L1 Synchronization RRC Connection Establishment – CELL DCH State RRC: Initial Direct Transfer (MM: Paging Response) SCCP: CR (Connection Request) RANAP: Initial UE Message (MM: Paging Response) SCCP: CC (Connection Confirm) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Request) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Request) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Response) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication Response) RANAP: Common ID RRC: Security Mode Command RANAP: Security Mode Command .

HW resources checked Possible failure in AAL2 setup (Iub. Iur and Iu) ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) Soft handover is not allowed during the RAB establishment procedure (The mobile can not add or remove cells in AS) this makes the UE and Node B particularly sensitive to mobility and dominance Timer wf_rb_setup_cpl (6s) is started when the RRC: Radio Bearer Setup message is sent to the UE In case the timer expires Iu Release Request is sent to the CN with release cause (radio_conn_lost) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete RANAP: RAB Assignment Response .UE NodeB RRC: Security Mode Complete RNC MGW/CN RANAP: Security Mode Complete RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: Setup) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Call Confirmed) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Setup) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Call Confirmed) RANAP: RAB Assignment Request RAB Establishment NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready ALCAP: ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP: ECF (Establish Confirm) FP: Downlink Synch FP: Uplink Synch RL modification procedure: SRB+DCH.

UE NodeB RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Alerting) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (CC: Connect) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC: Connect Acknowledge) RNC MGW/CN RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Alerting) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Connect) RANAP: Direct Transfer (CC: Connect Acknowledge) Call Established RRC: Measurement Control RANAP: Location Report .

UE MOS PS Message Flow NodeB RNC NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response AAL2SIG: ERQ AAL2SIG: ECF FP: Downlink Synch FP: Uplink Synch RRC: RRC Connection Request (RACH) SGSN RNC checks if resources are available: BTS. Transmission. If not it sends RRC Connection Reject L1 Synchronization RRC: RRC Connection Setup (FACH) L1 Synchronization [RRCconnRepTimer1/2(100ms.1s)] NBAP: Synchronization Indication RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH) RRC Connection Establishment – CELL DCH State RRC: Initial Direct Transfer (MM: Attach Request) RANAP: Initial UE Message MM: (Attach Request) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: GPRS Identity Request) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: GPRS Identity Response) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: GPRS Identity Request) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: GPRS Identity Response) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication & Ciphering Request) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication & Ciphering Request) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication & Ciphering Response) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Authentication & Ciphering Response) RRC: Security Mode Command RRC: Security Mode Complete RANAP: Security Mode Complete RANAP: Common ID RANAP: Security Mode Command . AC.

HW resources checked ECF NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete Uplink & Downlink Data Transfer .UE MOS PS Message Flow NodeB RNC RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Attach Accept) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Attach Complete) RANAP: Direct Transfer (SM: Activate PDP Context Request) RRC: Radio Bearer Setup RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete RRC: Measurement Control SGSN RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: Attach Accept) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: Attach Complete) RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (SM: Activate PDP Context Request) RAB Establishment SRB + DCH 0/0 RANAP: RAB Assignment Request RANAP: RAB Assignment Response RANAP: Direct Transfer (SM: Activate PDP Context Accept) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (SM: Activate PDP Context Accept) RRC: Measurement Repor (Trafic Volume Reports 4a) NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready AAL2SIG: ERQ AAL2SIG: RL modification procedure: SRB+DCH.

MOS PS Message Flow UE NodeB RNC SGSN RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (SM: Deactivate PDP Context Request) RANAP: Direct Transfer (SM: Deactivate PDP Context Request) RANAP: Direct Transfer (SM: Deactivate PDP Context Accept) RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (SM: Deactivate PDP Context Accept) NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready AAL2SIG: ERQ AAL2SIG: ECF NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer (MM: Detach Request) RRC: Radio Bearer Release RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer (MM: Detach Accept) RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Detach Accept) RANAP: Iu Release Command RANAP: Iu Release Complete RANAP: Direct Transfer (MM: Detach Request) RRC: Radio Bearer Release Complete RRC: RRC Connection Release RRC: RRC Connection Release Complete RRC: RRC Connection Release Complete RRC: RRC Connection Release Complete NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP: Radio Link Deletion Response AAL2SIG: REL (Release Request) RCL (Release AAL2SIG: Confirm) .

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inter-RNC Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO) Decision algorithm located in RNC • Inter-RAT Handover – Handovers between GSM and WCDMA (NEHO) 121 © 2006 Nokia . intra-RNC.Handover Types • Intra-Frequency Handovers – Softer • • • Handover Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in both the UL and DL – Soft Handover • MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Node Bs) • Extra transmission across Iub. more channel cards are needed (compared to non-SHO) • Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) • DL/UE: MRC & UL/RNC: Frame selection combining Hard • • • Handover Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion) Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO and RNC controlled) Causes temporary disconnection of the (RT) user – • Inter-Frequency Handover – – – Can be intra-BS.

Soft Handover WCDMA F1 WCDMA F1 WCDMA F1 • Main method is soft/softer Handover • MS connected to two or more cells • Up to 3 branches can be used (MaxActiveSetSize parameter) • Seamless Handover without any disconnection of UE-RAN connection • softer Handover probability about 5-15 % : soft Handover probability about 20-50 % • Same power levels in use for all soft Handover branches • Optimum power levels for link quality and cell capacity • Macro Diversity Combining (MDC) gain to reduce power levels • Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) 122 • Enables different cell sizes due to Common Pilot Channel Ec/No measurement • Optimum fast close loop power control in use © 2006 Nokia • Outer loop PC after MDC controls the BLER according to set target .

SHO: Neighbour Cell Definition • • Each intra-frequency neighbour (ADJS) is identified using ADJSid (ADJS) The ADJS parameters provide information on the identity of each neighbour cell together with its properties (i.e. Handover parameter set identifier. scrambling code etc. MCC (Mobile Country Code) MNC (Mobile Network Code) RNC Identifier Cell Identifier = = = = AdjsMCC AdjsMNC ADJS Parameters AdjsRNCid AdjsCI • • The LAC (AdjsLAC) & RAC (AdjsRAC) are also in ADJS parameter set ..) Each neighbour cell is defined using the UTRAN cell identifier which comprises UTRAN Cell Identifier = MCC + MNC + RNC identifier + Cell identifier • Each neighbor cell is defined using the UTRAN cell identifier which comprises.

HSDPA • Each HOPS object is identified by a unique HOPSid (HOPS) in the RNC .Neighbour Cell Definition • Separate Handover Parameter Set (HOPS) identifiers for real time(RT) & non-real time(NRT) traffic – RtHopsIdentifier .real time – NrtHopsIdentifier .non-real time – HSDPAHopsIdentifier .on to which the xxHopsIdentifier parameters are mapped to identify the appropriate HOPS parameter set for that particular neighbor cell Primary scrambling code for neighbor cell specified using AdjsScrCode AdjsTxDiv specifies whether the neighbor cell is using Tx diversity AdjsTxPwrRACH determines the maximum power the UE can use on the PRACH when accessing the neighbor cell • • • 124 © 2006 Nokia .

111 in RNC database Limitation due to specifications of SIB11/12 size • • 125 © 2006 Nokia .Maximum number of neighbours • The maximum number of neighbours that can be defined in RNC database is – ADJS: 31 • 31 neighbours + serving cell = 32 cells to measure – ADJI: 32/carrier. total 48 – ADJG: 32 Total: max.

32 inter-frequency cells and 32 GSM cells) – On the other hand.331 126 © 2006 Nokia . ADJI=15 and “realistic worst case values”. assuming that … ADJS=15.5 < 3552 -> OK!! … • Some sites might need additional neighbors and might pose a problem with the SIB11 limitation • Avoid setting AdjsQoffset2 values.Maximum number of neighbours – SIB11 length limitation • 3GPP has inconsistent requirements concerning the maximum number of neighbouring cells that can be broadcasted in the SIB 11 and 12 – SIB 11 and 12 can contain information on the maximum of 96 cells (32 intrafrequency cells. different CPICH values or other parameters used to tune cell reselection or handover Further information Technical Note No. the physical size of SIB data (no more than 3552 bits) has capacity only for about (depending on the type etc. SIB11 length = 3187.) 47 cells!! • • If too many adjacencies are declared. 046 / Restriction on number of cells in SIB11/12 due to inconsistency problem in 3GPP TS 25. ADJG=15. the cell will go blocked by system with alarm: 7771 WCDMA CELL OUT OF USE (BCCH scheduling error) in RAN04 As a rule of thumb.

• Hard blocking may prevent branch addition 127 © 2006 Nokia .Soft Handover • HC supports the following measurement reporting events and features: – Event 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range (Ncell addition) – Event 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range (Ncell deletion) – Event 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH (Ncell replacement) – Cell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour – Mechanism for forbidding a neighbor ing cell to affect the reporting range • Handover decision performed by RNC based on measurements and available resources • Admission Control can reject the branch addition in case the maximum load is achieved in DL (threshold + offset). valid both for RT and NRT bitrates.

filtering length (in ms) has to be just long enough to avoid fast fades leading to errors and causing unnecessary Handovers within a short period.SHO: Measurement Averaging • • • The Handover measurement is based on CPICH Ec/Io The accuracy of pilot Ec/Io measurements is important for Handover performance Measurement accuracy depends on the filtering length and mobile speed. – Long filtering length will cause Handover delays to fast moving MS • • UE can perform averaging on EC/IO measurement prior to the event reporting process EcNoFilterCoefficient (FMCS) defines the filtering period for intrafrequency CPICH EC/IO measurements used by UE (default = 200ms) – Similar filter than in Higher Layer Filtering of common and dedicated BTS measurements • RNC averages CPICH Ec/Io measurements using EcNoAveragingWindow (HOPS) – defines the number of event triggered or periodic intra-frequency measurement reports used by RNC to calculate averaged CPICH EC/IO (default = 8 Measurements) – Used for intra-frequency hard handovers 128 © 2006 Nokia . – When a MS moves slowly or is stationary.

and the AS is not full. 2 • 3 • • 4 • 129 © 2006 Nokia . UE will wait for a period of time. defined by AdditionReportingInterval (FMCS) (point 4) after the first measurement report.1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range 1 • Reporting range defined by offset (point 1 on next slide) from either (i) best CPICH Ec/Io in the AS. or (b) RNC adds Ncell to AS. with interval AdditionReportingInterval. until (a) Ncell moves out of reporting range. UE sends measurement report to RNC which adds Ncell3 to AS if possible (point 3) AdditionTime defines the 'time-to-trigger' interval between the Ncell first entering the reporting range and the UE sending the measurement report to the RNC If RNC is unable to add Ncell to AS. before sending further reports periodically. or (ii) sum of the AS measurement results set using ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient (FMCS) (0 = use best CPICH : <>0 = use sum) • Offset defined using AdditionWindow (FMCS) Event 1A triggered when CPCIH3 Ec/Io enters UE reporting range (point 2) If CPICH3 Ec/Io remains within reporting range for a time period defined by AdditionTime (FMCS) .

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range Ec/Io ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient Strongest CPICH in AS P CPICH 2 P CPICH 1 AdditionWin dow 1 2 P CPICH 3 time 3 AdditionTime 4 Measurement no AdditionReportingInterval Report Add to the AS? 130 © 2006 Nokia RNC .

Triggering Condition: Monitored Set cells Reporting Range Constant AdditionWindow / 4 dB Cells forbidden to affect Reporting range: AdjsDERR / Enable W: ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient / 0 Time to trigger: AdditionTime / 0 = 0 ms Reporting deactivation threshold: MaxActiveSetSize = 3 Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: AdditionReportingInterval / O.1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range • Reporting criteria of event 1A in 25.331/RRC Measurement Control : • • • • • • • • • Reporting Cell Status: All active cells + 2 monitored cells.5 s 131 © 2006 Nokia .

RNC drops the cell from the AS and UE drops the cell from the AS to the Neighbour Set 2 • 3 • • • 132 © 2006 Nokia .DropWindow (FMCS) (point 2) Time-to-trigger period set using DropTime (FMCS) (point 3) UE sends RNC measurement report on expiry of DropTime to remove Ncell (CPICH3) from AS.1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range 1 • Event 1B triggered when CPICH3 EC/I0 drops out of the UE reporting range for a defined period of time (point 1 on next slide) Reporting range = Strongest CPICH in AS .

1B: A Primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range Ec/Io Strongest CPICH in AS P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 1 P CPICH 3 2 DropWindow 3 time DropTime Measurement Report 133 © 2006 Nokia Remove the reported cell from the AS .

1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range • Reporting criteria of event 1B in 25.331/RRC Measurement Control : • • • • • • Reporting cell Status: 3 active cells Triggering Condition: Active cells Reporting Range Constant: DropWindow / 4 dB Cells forbidden to affect Reporting range AdjsDERR / Enable W : ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient / 0 Time to trigger: DropTime / 320 ms 134 © 2006 Nokia .

timeToTrigger ttt640. reportingAmount ra-Infinity. reportingInterval ri0-5 }. .Soft and Softer Handover (case1) • SIB 11 contains the relevant parameters to read when in idle mode • These are valid in connected mode prior to receiving the measurement control that overwrites them • In this example: • Addition window= 2 dB (factor of 2 mapping between the signalled value and the actual value. reportingRange 4. w0 }. TS 25. w 0. hysteresis 0.331 defines this mapping) • Addition time = 100 ms • Reporting interval = 500 ms • Drop window = 3 dB (factor of 2 mapping between the signalled value and the actual value) • Drop time = 640 ms 135 © 2006 Nokia Extract from SIB 11 reportCriteria intraFreqReportingCriteria : { eventCriteriaList { { event e1a : { triggeringCondition monitoredSetCellsOnly. hysteresis 0. reportingRange 6. reportingCellStatus withinActiveSet : e3 }. reportDeactivationThreshold t2. timeToTrigger ttt100. reportingCellStatus allActiveplusMonitoredSet : viactCellsPlus2 } event e1b : { triggeringCondition activeSetCellsOnly.

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH • • • 2 3 • • UE AS full (MaxActiveSetSize = 3) Event 1C triggered when CPICH4 EC/IO > CPICH3 in AS by a defined margin. ReplacementWindow (FMCS). to the RNC until (a) CPICH4 falls out of ReplacementWindow or (b) RNC replaces CPICH4 by CPICH3 (point 3) 1 136 © 2006 Nokia . the UE continues to send measurement reports periodically. with interval ReplacementReportingInterval. (point 1 in next slide) Sending of measurement report to RNC can be delayed by using 'time-totrigger' period set by ReplacementTime (FMCS) If 'time-to-trigger' is used difference between CPICH4 and CPICH3 must be ≥ ReplacementWindow for the period of ReplacementTime (point 2) If the RNC is not able to replace the Ncells.

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH Ec/Io AS has 3 cells P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH 4 1 ReplacementWindow weakest CPICH3 in AS P CPICH 3 time 2 3 ReplacementTime ReplacementReportingInterva no Measurement AS Report update? 137 © 2006 Nokia RNC .

Soft and Softer Handover (case 2)
Extract from SIB 11 cont. • In this example:
– – – – Replacement window = 1 dB event e1c : { replacementActivationThresh old t3, Replacement time = 100 ms reportingAmount ra-Infinity, Reporting interval = 500 ms reportingInterval ri0-5 }, Replacement window requires mapping to its true hysteresis 4, value according to: timeToTrigger ttt100, 4/(2*2) = 1 dB reportingCellStatus withinActiveSet : e3 }

• • • •

There are two mappings – first is the signalled value to actual value mapping and second is the way in which hysteresis is applied in the event triggering equation (TS25.331) Once in connected mode the networks sends the same set of information elements via a measurement control message Nokia’s implementation is that the values in the measurement control message are the same as those within SIB 11 Events 6F and 6G are configured in a similar fashion i.e. within SIB 11 and subsequently with a measurement control message
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Individual Ncell Offset & Forbidding Neighbour Cell from Reporting Range
Individual Ncell Offset • cell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour • effectively 'moves' cell border (shrinks or enlarges cell) • • offset set using AdjsEcNoOffset (= CPICH Ec/No Offset) (ADJS) offset applied to Primary CPICH measurements before event evaluation by the UE

Forbidding Neighbour Cells from Reporting Range • the primary CPICH of certain cells can be forbidden from reporting range calculation in some instances • cells can be forbidden from reporting range using AdjsDERR (ADJS)

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Soft Handover signalling
Branch addition
RRC: Measurement Report (e1a) RRC: Active Set Update RRC: Active Set Update Complete

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5 s Drop Window/ Event 1B Drop time Active set cells Active set cells 6 dB (Drop) /640 ms - Active set cells + Event 1C 2 monitored set (Replace) cells - Replacement Replacement Replacement Reporting Window/2 dB time/100 ms Interval/ 0.SHO Summary Event Reporting cell TriggeringReporting Range/ Reporting Time to Trigger status Condition Hysteresis Interval Addition Active set cells + Event 1A Monitored set Addition Addition Time Reporting 2 monitored set (Add) cells Window/4 dB /100 ms Interval cells /0.5s • • • • 3GPP reporting events 1A. 1B and 1C (also 6F and 6G) CPICH Ec/Io is used as a measurement quantity rather than CPICH RSCP – CPICH Ec/Io measurements are more accurate 1A and 1B reporting range is defined by strongest active set cell 1C reporting range is defined by weakest active set cell 143 © 2006 Nokia .

default 2. default 3.1 =yes The RRC connection is released if either: AveEcNoDownlink + ReleaseMarginForAveEcNo(n) < AvEcNoNcell(n) EcNoDownlink + ReleaseMarginPeakEcNo(n) < EcNoNcell(n) – – ReleaseMarginForAveEcNo (HOPS) = average Eb/N0 margin [-6 … 6] dB.5dB • Emergency calls are exempt from RRC Connection Release process 144 © 2006 Nokia .RRC Connection Release • • If difference between the best AS cell and the NS cell is too high and SHO is not performed.5dB ReleaseMarginPeakEcNo (HOPS) = peak Eb/N0 margin [-6 … 6] dB. the RRC connection is released to avoid excessive interference Why might an AS update not be possible? – – – – Excessive load in the neighbor ing cell Hard blocking in the target BTS Unavailability of DL spreading codes Iub transport resources unavailable • • This function is activated by EnableRRCRelease (HOPS parameter)/0=no (def).

It is required Iur connection between the RNCs involved – SRNS relocation: the UE will be connected to the CN via the “new” RNC.Inter-RNC Mobility • • • Most of the times the UE hands over among WBTS belonging to the same RNC (Intra-RNC Handovers) However. It is the Nokia implemented method SRNS relocation *) CN CN Anchoring CN CN Iu RNC Iu Iur RNC Iu RNC Iu Iur RNC Iu RNC Iu Iur RNC Iu RNC Iu Iur RNC *) SRNS relocation needs core network support. UE support mandatory in 3GPP 145 © 2006 Nokia . what happens when the target WBTS is under a different WBTS?? 3GPP gives two different options to handle inter-RNC mobility in WCDMA – Anchoring: the UE will be connected to the CN via the “old” RNC.

it sends a Relocation Detect message to CN. This message has no parameters At the same time UTRAN Mobility Information is sent to the UE. to inform that the relocation is performed After the confirm. The SRNC sends a Relocation Required The CN evaluates if the relocation is possible and in that case. the target RNC informs CN with Relocation Complete – message that the relocation procedure was successful and Iu is released from source RNC User plane release 146 © 2006 Nokia . the Source RNC sends Relocation Commit message over Iur to the Target RNC When target RNC starts to act as Serving RNC. it sends a Relocation Request to the target RNC with parameters for the bearer establishment Relocation Command sent from CN to Source RNC with UTRAN information and bearer parameters After that.UE not involved SRNC Relocation for RT NrncRelocationSupp ortSource RNC =1 SRNC Relocation Decision RANAP:Relocation Required RelocationSuppo rt =1 Target RNC CN UE Start RelocPrep RANAP:Relocation Request • RANAP:Relocation Request Ack Start RelocOverall • • Stop RelocPrep User plane set -up RANAP:Relocation Command Start RelocOverall RNSAP:Relocation Commit SRNC operation started RANAP:Relocation Detect UP switching RRC:UTRAN Mobility Information RRC:UTRAN Mobility Information Confirm • • • Stop RelocOverall RANAP:Relocation complete RANAP:Iu Release RANAP:Iu Release Complete Stop RelocOverall SRNC Relocation is initiated in the Serving RNC when all the cells of the active set belong to a different RNC.

Established between BTS and UE RANAP:Relocation Detect UP switching Physical Ch Reconfig Complete Start RelocOverall • RANAP:Relocation complete Stop RelocOverall RANAP:Iu Release RANAP:Iu Release Complete Stop RelocOverall User plane release 147 © 2006 Nokia . the serving RNC sends a Physical CH Reconfiguration. after which the UE stops transmitting and receiving on the old radio links and starts on the new radio link RANAP:Relocation Command Physical Channel Reconfiguration L1 sync.UE involved: Combined SRNC Relocation and inter-RNC HHO for RT NrncRelocationSupp ortSource RNC =1 SRNC Relocation Decision RANAP:Relocation Required RelocationSuppo rt =1 Target RNC CN UE • Start RelocPrep RANAP:Relocation Request • RANAP:Relocation Request Ack Start RelocOverall • Stop RelocPrep User plane set -up Because there is no Iur interface. the Relocation Type IE is set to "UE involved in relocation of SRNS" Instead of Relocation Commit via Iur. combined SRNS relocation and HHO are done before the UE is completely under the target RNC The procedure is quite similar to the not UE involved case until Relocation Command The only difference in the Relocation Required message.

Inter-system Handover (ISHO) .

ISHO Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G RAN Internal measurements Configured UE measurements General Downlink DPCH power UL Quality deterioration UE Tx power CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/I0 Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM RSSI measurements GSM Cell Meets HO condition ? CS Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements UE Reports GSM BSIC measurements Initiate Handover PS .

RtPS) DL DPCH power •Threshold: GsmDLTxPwrThrXX •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate DL CPICH Ec/Io (Event 1F) •Thresholds: HHoEcNoThreshold HHoEcNoCancel •L3 filter: Done already for SHO •Timers: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis HHoEcNoCancelTime UL Quality •Timer: ULQualDetRepThreshol d •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate UL GSM measurement reporting GsmMeasRepInterval GsmNcellSearchPeriod GsmMinMeasInterval GsmMaxMeasPeriod Handover Triggering Decision Algorithm AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH AdjgRxLevMinHO (n) GsmMeasAveWindow 2 more optional triggers in RAN04: Emergency ISHO (EMISHO) 150 © 2006 Nokia IMSI based ISHO Handover Execution 2G-to-3G back prevention GsmMinHoInterval .CS.ISHO parameters CPICH RSCP (Event 1F) •Thresholds: HHoRscpThreshold HHoRscpCancel L3 filter: HHoRscpFilterCoefficie nt •Timers: HHoRscpTimeHysteresi s UE Tx Power (Event HHoRscpCancelTime 6A) •Threshold: GsmUETxPwrThrXX •L3 filter: GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff •Hysteresis margin: GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate UL (XX=AMR.NrtPS.

decreasing the parameter value will allow the UE/network to initiate a new IS-HO attempt. so it makes senses to reduce the value of this parameter to some value about 3 seconds. Thus. • This seems to be too long time. 151 © 2006 Nokia . because based on field measurements BSIC and RSSI delays are about 3 seconds. otherwise. if the BSIC or RSSI measurements fail or if the IS-HO execution is not possible to due low GSM RSSI levels. Proposed value for GSMMaxMeasPeriod is 6 GSMNcellSearchPeriod: 0 – This is neighbor cell search period parameter.5*20s) =10s. the network will not deactivate compressed mode until the timer of 10 seconds has expired. ISHO is not allowed until the are enough measurement reports given by this parameter – O means that only 1 measurement result is enough for decision making – Duration of the cell search period is calculated: – GSMRepInterval * GSMNcellSearchPeriod).Measurement Control Parameters: FMCG • • Maximum allowed duration of the inter-system measurement is calculated: – GSMMeasRepInterval * GSMMaxMeasPeriod (=0.

max 6 ISHO neighb.ISHO Process Overview HO Triggering Thresholds set in RNC HO Triggering Thresholds set in RNC Event Triggered Coverage/Capacity Event Triggered Coverage/Capacity based HO fulfilled in RNC based HO fulfilled in RNC RNC commands selected UE(s) to start RNC commands selected UE(s) to start IF/IS measurements IF/IS measurements Measurements are done in Measurements are done in Compressed Mode (CM) Compressed Mode (CM) UE reports GSM cells with UE reports GSM cells with strongest RSSI signals to RNC strongest RSSI signals to RNC RSSI measurements and BSIC RSSI measurements and BSIC verification for GSM cells verification for GSM cells RNC makes HO decision and RNC makes HO decision and commands UE to target cell commands UE to target cell Max 32 neighbours could be measured About 25 HO parameters 5 Coverage/Capacity HO Reasons (31 Intra-Freq neighbours) 48 Inter-Freq neighbours 32 Inter-System neighbours can be measured Reporting cells are active set cells (max 3) + max 6 IFHO. Different decision methods for IF HO Only one decision method for IS HO .

ISHO 3G -> 2G .AMR Signalling Flow U E RRC: Measurement Report Node B RNC RRC: Measurement Control ISHO triggering (2 reasons are possible) Initial Compressed Mode Configuration CN NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP: Radio Link RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Measurement Report Reconfiguration Channel RRC: Physical Commit Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control GSM RSSI Measure ment GSM BSIC Identificatio nRANAP: Relocation Required RRC: Handover from UTRAN Command RANAP: Relocation Command RANAP: IU Release Command RANAP: IU Release Complete • BSIC verification always performed for AMR calls – no interrupt in voice call 153 © 2006 Nokia .

PS Signalling Flow U E RRC: Measurement Report Node B RNC RRC: Measurement Control ISHO triggering (5 reasons are possible) CN RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration NBAP: Compressed Mode Command RRC: Measurement Control Initial Compressed Mode Configuration GSM RSSI Measurement RRC: Measurement Report RRC: Cell Change Order from UTRAN RANAP: SRNS Context Request RANAP: SRNS Context Response RANAP: SRNS Data Forward Command RANAP: IU Release Command RANAP: IU Release Complete • • 154 In most cases BSIC verification is not required (data interrupt as UE moves to 2G) PS makes use of RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message © 2006 Nokia .ISHO 3G -> 2G .

3G -> 2G Handover measurement triggering .

FMCG: GSMcauseCPICHrscp 6 . Others (Not implemented in RAN 1. Quality deterioration report from UL outer loop PC FMCI: IFHOcauseUplinkQuality FMCG: GSMcauseUplinkQuality 3.5): e. Traffic & load reason IS-HO. event 6A/6D FMCI: IFHOcauseTxPwrUL FMCG: GSMcauseTxPwrUL 5 .g. Low measured absolute CPICH RSCP. UE Tx power approaches its maximum allowed power. etc Frequency Measuring Control for Inter-Frequency = FMCI Frequency Measuring Control for Inter-System (GSM) = FMCG . event 1E/1F FMCI: IFHOcauseCPICHEcNo FMCG: GSMcauseCPICHEcNo HO trigger 4.IS Handover Triggering Reasons 1. DL DPCH approaches its maximum allowed power FMCI: IFHOcauseTxPwrDL FMCG: GSMcauseTxPwrDL 2. events 1E/1F FMCI: IFHOcauseCPICHrscp. Low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No.

Measurement triggering: CPICH Ec/No e.g. P-CPICH Ec/No Reporting event: 1E: A P-CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold (triggered if one) 1F: A P-CPICH falls below an absolute threshold (triggered if all) Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 1E: HHoEcNoCancel absolute threshold 1F: HHoEcNoThreshold 1E: HHoEcNoCancelTime 1F: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis time .

GsmMinMeasInterval/default 10s. specified by the time  InterFreqMinMeasInterval .Measurement triggering: CPICH Ec/No • RNC starts IF/IS measurement when event 1F occurs for all cells in the active set: A Primary CPICH becomes less than an absolute threshold RNC stops IF/IS measurement when event 1E occurs for at least one cell of the active set : A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold Note:IF/IS measurements can be stopped if event 1Fs are cancelled by events 1E only when IFHO/ISHO was not successful and only inside the time between CM measurements. Filtering applied before event evaluation in the UE: – FMCS: EcNoFilterCoefficient/0= 200ms filtering period • • • . recommendation 2s .

Event 1F parameters: – Triggering conditions: Active set cells – hysteresis: not used in 1F – Threshold used frequency: FMCS : HHoEcNoThreshold / .5000ms) – Amount of reporting: infinity – Reporting interval: not applied.. • .Measurement triggering: CPICH Ec/No • Event 1E parameters: – Triggering conditions: Active set cells – Hysteresis: not used in 1F – Threshold used frequency: FMCS : HHoEcNoCancel/ -9dB – Time-to-trigger: FMCS: HHoEcNoCancelTime/ 1280 ms – Amount of reporting: infinity – Reporting interval: not applied. – Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells.-24 dB) – Time-to-trigger: FMCS: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis / 100 ms (range 0.12dB (range 0. – Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells..

g. P-CPICH Rscp Reporting event: 1E: A P-CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold (triggered if one) 1F: A P-CPICH falls below an absolute threshold (triggered if all) Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 1E: HHoRscpCancel absolute threshold 1F: HHoRscpThreshold 1E: HHoRscpCancelTime 1F: HHoRscpTimeHysteresis time .Measurement triggering: CPICH RSCP e.

specified by the time  InterFreqMinMeasInterval GsmMinMeasInterval/default 10s. range 200…1600ms . • UE filtering applied before event evaluation using HHoRscpFilterCoefficient (FMCS) /200ms.Measurement triggering: CPICH RSCP • UE continually monitors pilot channels of BTSs in AS • If RSCP of a Node B falls below threshold. recommendation 2s . UE sends event 1F report • RNC starts IF/IS measurements when event 1F occurs for all cells in AS • RNC stops IF/IS measurements when event 1E occurs for at least one cell of AS • Note:IF/IS measurements can be stopped if event 1Fs are cancelled by events 1E only when IFHO/ISHO was not successful and only inside the time between CM measurements. HHoRscpThreshold.

93 dBm – Time-to-trigger: HHoRscpTimeHysteresis (FMCS)/ 100 ms – Amount of reporting: infinity – Reporting interval: not applied. – Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells.Measurement triggering: CPICH RSCP • Event 1E (A primary CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold) parameters: – Triggering conditions: Active set cells – hysteresis: not used in 1E – Threshold used frequency: (FMCS) : HHoRscpCancel/ . • . Event 1F (A primary CPICH falls below an absolute threshold) parameters: – Triggering conditions: Active set cells – Hysteresis: not used in 1F – Threshold used frequency: HHoRscpThreshold (FMCS)/ . – Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells.90 dBm – Time-to-trigger: (FMCS): HHoRscpCancelTime/ 1280 ms – Amount of reporting: infinity – Reporting interval: not applied.

3G -> 2G Measurements .

CS.RtPS) DL DPCH power •Threshold: GsmDLTxPwrThrXX •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate DL CPICH Ec/Io (Event 1F) •Thresholds: HHoEcNoThreshold HHoEcNoCancel •L3 filter: Done already for SHO •Timers: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis HHoEcNoCancelTime UL Quality •Timer: ULQualDetRepThreshol d •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate UL GSM measurement reporting GsmMeasRepInterval GsmNcellSearchPeriod GsmMinMeasInterval GsmMaxMeasPeriod Handover Triggering Decision Algorithm AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH AdjgRxLevMinHO (n) GsmMeasAveWindow 2G-to-3G Handover Execution back prevention GsmMinHoInterval .NrtPS.ISHO parameters CPICH RSCP (Event 1F) •Thresholds: HHoRscpThreshold HHoRscpCancel L3 filter: HHoRscpFilterCoefficie nt •Timers: HHoRscpTimeHysteresi s UE Tx Power (Event 6A) HHoRscpCancelTime •Threshold: GsmUETxPwrThrXX •L3 filter: GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff •Hysteresis margin: GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst •Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrate UL (XX=AMR.

a RRC message ”Measurement Control” is sent to UE containing details of the measurement that the UE must execute. The averaged levels are used as input to the IS-HO decision algorithm.The first measurement report UE RNC GsmMeasRepInterval RRC: ”Measurement report” (default 0. Max 6 GSM cells could be measured by UE and reported to RNC. No filtering in measurements by UE RRC: ”Measurement control ” message (GSM RSSI measurements) UE RNC • Upon reception of the measurements reported by the UE.ISHO measurements • After HO triggering message is sent to RNC. no filtering used in UE .5s) RXLEV measurements are reported through ”Measurement report” messages RRC: ”Measurement report” has info from the best GSM cell: BCCH freq & RSSI. Measurement reporting is periodical. RNC applies a sliding averaging window to the RXLEV measurements.

5 seconds – This is the interval between measurement reports. wait time when the following CM starts. the network will deactivate compressed mode for a time period given by this parameter. • • • . thus better value will be 2 s to speed up the reactivation of CM. it shall stop the inter-system measurements after the UE has sent the predefined number of measurement reports to the RNC.5 seconds. In case of an unsuccessful IS-HO attempt. which are sent to BTS – This parameter should be kept to 0. GSMMinMeasInterval: 2 s – This is Minimum Measurement Interval.Measurement Control Parameters: FMCG • GSMMeasRepInterval: 0. Increasing the reporting interval would increase the IS-HO process delay. GSMMeasAveWindow: 6 reports – This is Measurement Averaging Window size. sliding window is used GSMMaxMeasPeriod: 12 reports – This is Maximum Measurement Period which determines the maximum allowed duration of the inter-system measurement – If the RNC is not able to execute an inter-system handover.

ISHO is not allowed until the are enough measurement reports given by this parameter – O means that only 1 measurement result is enough for decision making – Duration of the cell search period is calculated: – GSMRepInterval * GSMNcellSearchPeriod). if the BSIC or RSSI measurements fail or if the IS-HO execution is not possible to due low GSM RSSI levels. Thus. Proposed value for GSMMaxMeasPeriod is 6 GSMNcellSearchPeriod: 0 – This is neighbour cell search period parameter. because based on field measurements BSIC and RSSI delays are about 3 seconds. • .5*12) =6s. so it makes senses to reduce the value of this parameter to some value about 3 seconds. the network will not deactivate compressed mode until the timer of 10 seconds has expired.Measurement Control Parameters: FMCG • • Maximum allowed duration of the inter-system measurement is calculated: – GSMMeasRepInterval * GSMMaxMeasPeriod (=0. otherwise. decreasing the parameter value will allow the UE/network to initiate a new IS-HO attempt. This seems to be too long time.

If the UE is unable to decode the BSIC during the given period. the BSIC IS-HO measurement operation is aborted. the RNC sends to UE the RRC message "Measurement control” which includes details to measure ”BSIC” . TRSSI depends on •Numbers BSIC verification TBSIC depends on : RNC •Transmission gap pattern for of GSM cells in the BSIC decoding neighbour cell list •Reporting interval •Sliding averaging window •Transmission gap pattern for RSSI measurements . UE stops RSSI measurements and updates the transmission gap pattern to the pattern used for BSIC decoding.ISHO: BSIC Verification • After the selection of the target GSM cell. The measurement reports are sent periodically to RNC. IS-HO trigger Target Cell found • • command RRC: ”Measurement control ” message (BSIC decoding) WCDM A RSSI meas.

3G -> 2G Handover decision .

range 0…7 • A cell is ranked higher than another cell if it has a higher priority level even though its signal strength condition was worse • Inter-system HO could be forbidden during the first measurements reports from the UE. The best neighbouring cell must fulfil following criterion („best“ according to Ec/No): AVE_RXLEV_NCell(n) > GSMncellRxLevMinHO(n) + max(0. GSMMeasAveWindow / 6. averaging done directly from dBm values (no linear averaging). you find conditions. ( -95 dBm) • GSMncellTxPwrMaxTCH(n) indicated the maximum Tx power level (dBm) an UE may use in GSM neighbour cell(n).P_max) where • AVE_RXLEV _Ncell(n) is the averaged GSM carrier RSSI value of the GSM neighbour cell(n). to let the UE report all the candidate inter-system cells in its neighbourhood. cells are ranked based on HOPG: GSMncellPriorityCoverage/0. before an interfrequency handover can be conducted. 1…32 meas report. • P_MAX is the maximum UE power capability. which have to be satisfied.Inter-RAT HO Decision On this page. . • If several GSM cells fulfils the equation above. • GSMncellRxLevMinHO(n) determines the minimum Required RSSI (dBm) level of the neighbour cell(n). GSMncellTxPwrMaxTCH(n) .

P_max) .P_max AdjgRxLevMinHO(n)  max(0. AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n) .ISHO Decision GSM cell E_RXLEV_NCell(n) > AdjgRxLevMinHO(n) + max(0. AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n) .

3G -> 2G Handover signalling .

ISHO analysis with Nemo ISHO IS TRIGGERED EVENT 1F -(48-32)/2 = -8 dB  -8.5 ≤ EcNo < -8 -115 + 11 = -104 dBm  -105 ≤ Rscp < -104 .

5+ 4x0 .7 Compressed mode stopped MW = 12 s axMeasPeriod x GsmMeasRepInterval +4 x GsmMeasRepInterval = 20 x 0.7 Tstop = 17:22:53.Compressed mode started Tstart = 17:22:41.

RxLev = -110 + 4 = -106 dBm AdjgRxLevMinHO = -95 dBm 4 POOR GSM COVERAGE No suitable cell .

e1f. e6a.e6b .AMR Handover procedure overview (1) RRC connection setup ISUP signalling Parameters for HO event trigger e1e.

AMR Handover procedure overview (2) ISUP signalling Mobility management. several AS cell add & cell drops .

AMR Handover procedure overview (3) Mobility management. several AS cell add & cell drops Measurement report to Compressed trigger CM Mode Parameters .

AMR Handover procedure overview (4) RNC sends updated GSM NB sends inter RAT meas. UE list RNC commands UE to verify Results BSIC of best reported cell Target cell BSIC RNC triggers HO to GSM verified target cell Timing advance information UE ends HHO .procedure UE is handed over to GSM 2G signalling .

Physical Channel reconfiguration RRC: Physical Channel reconfiguration .

Measurement Control new RAT NB list RRC: Measurement Control [..] new inter RAT NB list Measurement info .

UE Measurement Report GSM cells-RSSI measurements RRC: Measurement Report measured best cell by ARFCN measured 2nd best cell by ARFCN measured 3rd best cell by ARFCN measured 4th best cell by ARFCN measured 5th best cell by ARFCN measured 6th best cell by ARFCN .

Measurement Control carrying target cell info RRC: Measurement Control UE shall stop measuring RSSI of RAT NB and focus on best cell´s BSIC verificatio .

UE Measurement Report target GSM cell-BSIC verification RRC: Measurement Report UE reports verified BSIC of best cell to .

Handover from UTRAN command RRC: HO from UTRAN command .

Handover command GSM signalling L3: Handover command 2G cell information (RF&configuration) 2G cell information (PC) 2G cell information (Security) .

Cell Selection and Reselection .

2G <-> 3G inter working Idle mode Connected mode 2G -> 3G reselection 3G -> 2G reselection 2G -> 3G handover CS AMR 2G -> 3G handover PS 3G -> 2G handover CS AMR 3G -> 2G handover PS .

3G -> 2G reselection .

3.Qrxlevmin -Pcompensation Squal > 0 Srxlev > 0 Cell Selection quality value. The quality of the received signal expressed in CPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for FDD cells. (dB).1. (dBm) P_MAX Maximum RF output power of the UE. -115dBm CPICH RSCP for FDD cells (dBm). This is received signal. (dBm) -115dBm Pcompensation max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH – P_MAX. 0) (dB) UE_TXPWR_ Maximum TX power level an UE may use when MAX_RACH accessing the cell on RACH (read in system information).304 5. Qrxlevmin Minimum required RX level in the cell.2 5. Not applicable for TDD cells or GSM cells. Qrxlevmeas Measured cell RX level value.2.2 qualmeas • The cell selection criterion S for a suitable cell is fulfilled when: • Where: Squal Srxlev =Qrxlevmeas . Not applicable for TDD cells or GSM cells Srxlev Cell Selection RX level value (dB) Qqualmeas Measured cell quality value.2. Qqualmin Minimum required quality level in the cell (dB). -18dB Not applicable for TDD cells or GSM cells. P-CCPCH RSCP -101dBm for TDD cells (dBm) and RXLEV for GSM cells (dBm).1. (dBm) intra GSM .Cell Reselection Cell Selection S-Ccriteria • The cell selection criteria Squal = Q – Qqualmin S are defined as follows: TS 25.304 TS 25.3.

If Squal <= Sintrasearch . . If Squal <= SsearchRATm . UE need not perform measurements on cells of RAT "m".Cell Reselection Cell Selection S-Ccriteria • If system info in the cell indicates that HCS is not used (UseOfHCS) then for intra-freq. perform inter-frequency measurements. perform intra-frequency measurements. UE need not perform intra-frequency measurements. If Squal > Sintersearch . UE need not perform inter-frequency measurements If Squal <= Sintersearch . • • If Squal > SsearchRAT m. perform measurements on cells of RAT "m". inter-freq and inter-system the UE shall: • If Squal > Sintrasearch .

= 0dB: E u teto– qa 4 3 2 1 WCDMA CELL .and inter-frequency cells Intra-.Cell Reselection Cell Selection S-Ccriteria Region 1 2 3 4 Condition Squal > Sintrasearch Sintersearch < Squal ≤ Sintrasearch Neighbour cells to be measured ONLY TRIGGER FOR MEASURE None Intra-frequency cells Intra. inter-frequency and inter-RAT cells SsearchRATm < Squal ≤ Sintersearch Squal ≤ SsearchRATm Sintrasearch=4dB Sintersearch=2dB SsearchRAT 2 d E /N 0B c o m : E u teto– 6 BE /N qa 1d c o : E u teto– 8 BE /N qa 1d c o S S Ssearch intrasearchintersearch RAT .

This specifies the hysteresis for serving cell that is of different radio access modes or technologies AND for serving FDD cell when cell_selection_and reselection-quality_measure is set CPICH RSCP.Cell Reselection Cell Selection S-Ccriteria Rs = Qmas . This specifies the hysteresis for serving FDD cell when the cell_selection_and reselection-quality_measure is set CPICH Ec/No. This specifies the offset between the two cells when the neighbour cells that are of different radio access modes or technologies AND for neighbour FDD cells when cell_selection_and reselection-quality_measure is set CPICH RSCP This specifies the offset between the two cells when neighbour FDD cells when the cell_selection_and reselection-quality_measure is set CPICH Ec/No. Qhyst1 Qhyst2 Qoffset1 Qoffset2 .. PCCPCH_RSCP_LEV for TDD cells and RXLEV for GSM cells.n – Qoffsetn(COMPAREDW HADJACENTCELLS) e IT Quality value.s + Qhysts(COMPREDW HSELF) e IT s A (C Where: Qmeas Rn = Qmas . The quality value of the received signal expressed in CPICH_Ec/No or CPICH_RSCP_LEV for FDD cells as set by the Cell_selection_and_reselection_quality_measure information element.

with CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM) hysteresis parameter Rs = CPICH RSCP + Qhyst1 Rn= Rxlev(n) .Qoffset1 SintraSearch SinterSearch SsearchRAT qQualMin Neighbour WCDMA or GSM cell calculation with offset parameter Rn (GSM) > Rs (WCDMA) And Rxlev (GSM) >QrxlevMin Cell re-selection to GSM Cell re-selection to WCDMA cell of highest R value No Yes Second ranking only for WCDMA cells based on CPICH Ec/No Rs = CPICH Ec/No + Qhyst2 Rn=CPICH_Ec/No(n)-Qoffset2 .Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G CPICH EcNo Concept UE starts GSM measurements if CPICH Ec/No < qQualMin + sSearchRAT Serving WCDMA cell First ranking of all the cells based on calculation.

Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G HCS in use: Serving + measured neighboring cells S-Criteria OK Fast MS Cells with Lower HCS Priority than in Serving cell HCS not in use: Serving + measured neighboring cells S-Criteria OK If No Cell with H>0 accept all neighbors Cells with Highest HCS Priorities & H>0 Best R Best R Best R .

Cell Reselection Neighbour measurements summary SsearchRATm Slim earchRATm its Sintersearch Sintrasearch Sx=Squal= Ec/No Intrafrequency Inter-freqency Inter-RAT Intra-frequency Inter-frequency Intrafrequency No need to measure neighbour cells HCS not used Intrafrequency Inter-freqency Inter-RAT Intrafrequency Interfrequency Higher HCS priority inter RAT Intrafrequency Interfrequency Higher HCS priority Intra-frequency Inter-frequency HCS used .

Qoffset1 .Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G Performance • • • There is no timer defined how long the GSM should be fulfilling the reselection criteria However there is running average of 4 GSM measurements which provides some protection against ping – pong (time vice –based on DRX cycle length and as sliding window average) In case additional protection is needed it can be arranged by using the Qhyst1 parameter (for WCDMA serving cell RSCP) or AdjgQoffset1 (for GSM neighbouring cell RxLev) First ranking of all the cells based on CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM) Rs = CPICH RSCP + Qhyst1 Rn= Rxlev(n) .

typical outdoor to dedicated indoor (in case of missing 3G indoor) – 3G border – Special indoor cases without dedicated 3G where the UE speed is high (e. tunnels) .Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G • Parameter Tuning General • When to trigger the cell reselection to 2G depends greatly on: – how much the 3G network is requested to be utilised • target is to maximise the utilisation of WCDMA network but… – what is the desired CSSR • …at the same time maximise the quality – minimise the possibility of ping – pong Due to very different fading conditions.g. there should be couple of different parameter sets for 3G -> 2G reselection – Outdoor.

ISHO Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G Call Setup status statistics for each Ec/No range 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Parameter Tuning Outdoor WCDMA intra frequency search should be started latest at ~ qQualMin + sSearchIntra = -8 … -10dB [%] 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% > -4 -4 to 6 -6 to 8 -8 to 10 -10 to -12 to -14 to -16 -16 to -18 -18 to -21 <-21 -12 -14 Ec/No [dB] As long as the Ec/No is >-12…-14dB the CSSR is excellent qQualMin + sSearchRAT ~ -14dB .

2G -> 3G reselection .

FDD_Qoffse t GSM MS starts WCDMA measurements if : RLA_C< F(Qsearch_I) for 0<Qsearch_I<=7 or RLA_C> F(Qsearch_I) for 7<Qsearch_I<=15 check at least every 5 s Measurement Updates: • RLA_C value of the serving cell • + least 6 strongest non serving GSM cells no priorities between WCDMA neighbours If.ll Reselection Algorithm from GSM to FDD-WCDMA ( Cell Reselectio n List BCCH: FDD_Qm in. for suitable UMTS cell & for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDD_Qoffset and CPICH Ec/No ≥ FDD_Qmin Fdd_Qoffset: select allways (value is WCDMA cell -infinity) reselection FDD_Qmin= -13 .

e.ll Reselection Algorithm from GSM to FDD-WCDMA ( • In GSM the UE is usually set to measure the 3G neighbours all the time I. Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P are both set to 7 UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev running average (RLA_C) is below or above running average (RLA_C) is below or above certain threshold: certain threshold: RLA_C # Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P (GPRS) RLA_C # Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P (GPRS) .

1=yes. when the serving cell‘s RLA is below or above the threshold value. • 3G_Search_PRIO is used to inidicate to the MS if 3G cells can be looked for when BSIC decoding is required. default: 1). which have to be added to the RLA of the serving and non-serving GSM cells. The default value is 15. The system information SI2quater and SI2ter can be used to provide 3G cell information. The default parameter is 0. (0=no. • FDD_Qoffset and FDD_GPRS_Offset define offset values. The threshold value also indicates.Cell Reselection Parameters • Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P define thresholds. Up to 8 carrier . • FDD_Qmin defines a minimum CPICH Ec/No threshold for WCDMA cell for cell re-selection. which may then hold up to 96 UMTS cells. If the two system information messages carry 3G cell information. than their lists have to be combined in the UE‘s 3G Cell Reselection list. default: 1) The 3G Cell Reselection list is only used by multi-RAT MSs. • FDD_REP_QUANT defines the reporting quantity for UTRAN cell (1=Ec/No or 0=RSCP. when the measurements have to be initiated and performed. The measurements are either started. The result is compared with the RSCP value of the WCDMA cell.

the measured RSCP value must exceed the PLA_C (RLA_P) of the serving GSM and of all non-serving GSM cells by the value FDD_Qoffset (FDD_GPRS_Qoffset). • The measured Ec/No value of the FDD cell must be greater or equal than the broadcasted value FDD_Qmin. the FDD_Qoffset value is increased by 5 dB. • If the UE as performed a cell re-selection to UTRAN within the previous 5 seconds. when a suitable cell can be found within GSM. . based on the S-Criterion. the MS can re-select a suitable UTRAN cell. If an FDD cell is suitable.Cell Reselection Algorithm Algorithm for cell re-selection from GSM (GPRS) to the FDD mode in UTRAN Pre-requisite for cell re-selection to UMTS is. Did a cell re-selection occur within the previous 15 seconds. If so. following two conditions must have been met: • For a period of 5 seconds. Thereafter. a cell re-selection back to UTRAN is not allowed. the MS must update • RLA_C (RLA_P) value for the serving cell and • at least 6 strongest non serving GSM cells at least every 5 seconds. that UTRAN carrier bands are included in the (GPRS) 3G Cell Reselection list.

old FDD_(GPRS) FDD_REP_3G_search_ FDD_REP_3G_search_ Parameter Qsearch_I Qsearch_PQsearch_P FDD_QMin FDD_(GPRS) Parameter Qsearch_I Qsearch_PQsearch_P FDD_QMin Qoffset QUANT PRIO Qoffset QUANT PRIO Name for 2(3)quarter Name for 2quater 2quater 3quater 2ter 2(3)quarter 2quater 2ter 2quater 2ter Sys Info (SI) 2quater 2quater 3quater 2ter (PBCCH) Sys Info (SI) (PBCCH) .Cell Re-selection Parameters Range of FDD_Qmin – Recommended value is 7 (-13 dBm) New mapping from 05. 1=yes.08 [late 2003]: UEs have to support new parameter range ! Fdd_Qmin mapping Aif parameter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Range0 0 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 6 7 dBm -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 • • Fdd_Qmin (old) [dB] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 Fdd_Qmin (new) [dB] -20 -6 -18 -8 -16 -10 -14 -12 • FDD_REP_QUANT defines the reporting quantity for UTRAN cell (1=Ec/No or 0=RSCP. default 1) 3G_Search_PRIO parameter allows to extend the BSIC reporting interval from 10 s to 13s by checking the BSICs from non-serving BCCH carriers and also make WCDMA measurements as often as possible. Range is 0=no. default value 1 • Defined in the SI2quater and PSI3quater if PBCCH is allocated.

Cell Re-selection Parameters • In case the reselection is wanted to happen immediately when the 3G is “good enough” just based on CPICH Ec/No value (RSCP threshold is not used i. reselection is done RSCP > Rxlev – infinity) FDD_Qoffset 0 1 2 … 14 15 Mapped to: − ∞ -28dB -24dB … 24dB 28dB UE can select WCDMA cell if the level of UE can select WCDMA cell if the level of the serving GSM and non-serving GSM cells the serving GSM and non-serving GSM cells has been exceeded by certain offset has been exceeded by certain offset for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDD_Cell_Reselect_Offset RLA_C + FDD_Cell_Reselect_Offset (FDD_Cell_Reselect_Offset ) Comment: Always select irrespective of RSCP value Reselect in case WCDAM RSCP > GSM RXLev (RLA_C) –28dB Reselect in case WCDAM RSCP > GSM RXLev (RLA_C) +28dB .e.

08 v8.18.0.How to avoid ping-pong ? • As a general rule the value for FDD_Qmin parameter can be set to –11…-12 dB (i. 20038) has been QqualMin + Ssearch_RAT implemented to the = -14dB UEs – as below QqualMin = -18dB t Camping in 3G Camping in 2G Camping in 3G Fdd_Qmin mapping Aif parameter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fdd_Qmin (old) [dB] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 Fdd_Qmin (new) [dB] -20 -6 -18 -8 -16 -10 -14 -12 . for the case where the QqualMin +Ssearch_RAT = -14dB) CPICH Ec/No UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's quality is acceptable: quality is acceptable: CPICH Ec/No ≥ Minimum_FDD_Threshold CPICH Ec/No ≥ Minimum_FDD_Threshold • The “rule” to set the FDD_Qmin >= QqualMin + Ssearch_RAT FDD_Qmin value has not been possible to be fulfilled until the specification change FDD_Qmin >=-12 (05.e.

GSM BCCH 2Quater / 2Ter B fo H in CC .

t .Cell Re-selection Example Non GPRS case RSCP/ RLA_C Ec/No Cell re-selection to WCDMA Serving GSM Cell RLA_C Qsearch_I=0 (-98 dBm) FDD_Qoffset =6 (-8 dB) Measurements starts (serving cell) RSCP Neighbour WCDMA Cell Ec/N0 FDD_Qmin=0 (-20 dB) Minimum Quality Requirement for WCDMA 5 sec.

.Cell Re-selection Example GPRS case RSCP/ RLA_C Ec/No RLA_P Cell re-selection to WCDMA Serving GSM Cell (Best) FDD_GPRS_Qoffset =10 (8 d Qsearch_P=0 (-98 dBm) RSCP Measurements starts (serving cell) FDD_Qmin =-20 dB Neighbour WCDMA Cell Ec/N0 Minimum Quality Requirement for WCDMA t 5 sec.