Unit -3




Limitations of conventional machines (Reason for low productivity)
To manufacture complex curved geometries in 2D or 3D was extremely expensive by mechanical means (which usually would require complex jigs to control the cutter motions)

Machining components with repeatability & accuracy

Unmanned machining operations

1952: Prototype NC machine demonstrated (punched tape input) 1980: CNC machines (computer used to link directly to controller) 1990: DNC: external computer ³drip feeds´ control programmer to machine tool controller .History of NC/CNC/DNC 1949: US Air Force asks MIT to develop a "numerically controlled" machine.

or mechanically automated via cams & mechanisms.NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (NC) MACHINE TOOLS: Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools as opposed to manually controlled via hand-wheels or levers. The difference is in the way in which various machine functions and slide motion are controlled by machine control unit(MCU) . An NC machine tool is functionally the same as a conventional machine tool.


NC machine tool ELEMENTS .

 using the part drawing and cutting parameters. part program (process plan)is written.NC MACHINE TOOL COMPONENTS(ELEMENTS) (1)PART DRAWING & PART PROGRAM:  Part drawing is drawing of job/part used for production. . (2) DATA INPUT DEVICE-PROGRAM TAPE: The part program is entered by punching on metallic/paper tape or by recording on magnetic tape/magnetic disk.

(3) CONTROLLER / MACHINE CONTROL UNIT (MCU) MCU is Electronic interface between operator and m/c Tape reader and Controller together form the MCU A) Tape reader: 1. Control-Loops Unit (CLU) .Card reader B ) Controller components: 1.Punched tape reader 2. Data Processing Unit (DPU) 2.

1. depending upon whether the hole punched at particular track or not electric connections are either close or open. It is of two types.A)Tape reader It is device used to read the coded instruction from the program which is on punched tape or card. .Punched tape reader: It read the coded instructions on punched tape 2.Card reader: It read the coded instruction on card When the punched tape or card passed through a tape reader.

(2)Control Loops Unit: ‡ Interpolator to supply machine-motion commands between data points ‡ Position & velocity control loop hardware for each axis of motion NOTE:BLU: basic length unit smallest programmable move of each axis. .B) Controller components (1)Data Processing Unit: ‡ Data Reading Circuits and Parity Checking Circuits ‡ Decoders to distribute data to the axes controllers.

. positioning the cutting tool tip.(4) MACHINE TOOL Machine tool is operated by the controller of the MCU Machine tool perform according to command given by MCU such as -starting or stopping the machine. coolant on/off etc.

‡ Punched tape: ‡ Punched card ‡ Magnetic disk ‡ Magnetic tape .Data input in NC ‡ The information of part production has to be converted into a some form and that must be stored in storage device. ‡ There are four different ways through which data of part program is stored .

controlled by MCU in NC system. ‡ Displacement of machine slides ‡ Angular rotation of circular table ‡ Start / Stop of the main spindle ‡ Changing of spindle speed ‡ Reverse spindle direction ‡ Changing the feed rate of machine slides ‡ Rotate tool turret ‡ Change tool ‡ Coolant ON / OFF ‡ Lock table in position .Functions controlled by MCU in NC machines Some important functions.

.Advantages of NC machine tools over conventional machine ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Less skilled operator is required High productivity Greater flexibility Produce complex shape Less fatigue to worker Component produced with better accuracy and repeatability which will reduce inspection cost.

so updating is costlier ‡ Trained operator is required ‡ Initial investment & maintenance cost is high . Editing of program is not possible ‡ Non reliability of punched tape and tape reader ‡ Controller is hardwired.limitations of NC machine tools over conventional machine ‡ Once program written.

CNC ‡ CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. ‡ It is a versatile system that allows you to control the motion of tools and parts through computer programs that use numeric data. . ‡ CNC can be used with any traditional machine.

BASIC FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF CNC MACHINE A typical CNC system consists of the following six elements Part drawing & program Program input device Machine control unit -computer Feed drive system Machine tool Feedback system ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

monitor) Slide Encoder Machine Tool .BASIC FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS OF CNC MACHINE Part drawing & program CPU User Interface (key board.

Applications of NC/CNC MACHINES with NC/ CNC are as follows: ‡ Lathe ‡ Milling machine ‡ Drilling machine ‡ Wood routers machine ‡ Sheet metal works (Turret Punch) press ‡ Wire bending machines ‡ EDM .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hot-wire foam cutters Plasma cuttings Water jet cutters Laser cutting Oxy-fuel cutting Surface grinders Cylindrical grinders 3D Printing Induction hardening .

Advantages of CNC machine tools over conventional machine ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Less skilled operator is required High productivity Greater flexibility Produce complex shape Less fatigue to worker Component produced with better accuracy and repeatability which will reduce inspection cost. .

‡ Reduced set-up time ‡ Reduced lead times ‡ Reduced inventory ‡ Better machine utilization .

. High tooling cost High cost of software.limitations of CNC machine tools over conventional machine ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Trained operator is required High Initial investment & maintenance cost.

‡ Furthermore. changing over from one part to the other on these machines also consumes considerable time. Manufacturing of these cams / templates is costly.NC/CNC machines Vs Automats/SPMs ‡ Automats and Special Purpose Machines (SPMs) require special cams / templates and clutch settings for each part. These are avoided with CNC machines . ‡ The high cost and long time of these hard automated machines to produce parts can be justified only in mass production.

.Control features of CNC machines over NC machine ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Part Program editing Part Program storage Flexibility in control Fixed cycles and subroutines.

CLASSIFICATION OF NC/CNC SYSTEMS The NC/CNC system can be classified on the basis of ±Control of path motions ±Feed back ±Method of co-ordinate programming. .

Types of NC/CNC machines [A]Based on Control Loops: Open loop or Closed loop [B]Based on Motion Type: Point-to-Point or Straight cut Continuous path [C]Based on co-ordinate Programming method Incremental or Absolute .

[A] BASED ON CONTROLS LOOP (a)Open Loop Vs (b) Closed Loop controls .

Open loop Control Systems ‡ Open-Loop Control ± Stepper motor system ± Current pulses sent from control unit to motor ± Each pulse results in a finite amount of revolution of the motor001 is possible .

Less costly.Open loop Control Systems ‡ Open-Loop Limitations ± Due to lower torque motor. and lower maintenance costs .this system is more suitable for cases where the tool force does not exist ± No positioning compensation ‡ Open-Loop Advantages ± Less complex.

Closed-Loop Control Systems ‡ Closed-Loop Control ± Variable DC motors .Servos ± Positioning sensors -Resolvers ‡ Feedback to control unit ‡ Position information compared to target location ‡ Location errors corrected .

0001 ) ‡ Closed-loop limitations ± Cost . stepper motors ± Error compensation allows for greater positional accuracy (.Closed-Loop Control Systems ‡ Closed-Loop Advantages ± Closed loop NC/CNC systems are appropriate when there is a force resisting the movement of the tool/workpiece. ± DC motors have the ability to reverse instantly to adjust for position error ± DC motors have higher torque ranges vs..

[B]BASED ON MOTION (a)Fixed position notion control .

(b)Continuous path type motion control .

[C]CO-ORDINATE PROGRAMMING METHOD Points A1 A2 A3 Absolute system Incremental system (100.100) (100.100) (200.200) (300.300) (100.100) .200) (100.

‡ The absolute system has two significant advantages over the incremental system: ± In the absolute mode. the tool is automatically returned to the position if interruptions caused by. tool breakage ± Easy change of dimensional data . for example.Difference between Absolute and incremental ‡ In absolute position of point is defined w-r-t to some datum point.



B.C) .. CNC machine has a minimum of two axes (turning center -x & z) controlled by the CNC while todays machining center has maximum 5.Z.Axis Axis is the direction of movements of machine tool slide.Y.axes(Vertical machining center-X.



Usually on a turret in the rear. most CNC lathes have 8 to 12 tools on a single. the spindle holds a cutting tool. On the turning center. On the machining center. . indexing turret. the spindle holds the work piece.PARTS OF CNC MACHINES ‡ Spindle The part of the machine tool that spins. ‡ Turret This holds the tools required for machining.

CNC Turning Centers Majority of the components machined in the industry are of the cylindrical shape. and threading operations. . CNC lathes. all at the same location. called as turning centers are important machine tools that specializes in turning. boring. drilling.

Z.C) (b) Twin turret turning centers (c) Multiple spindle turning centers (d) Turn mill centers (X.Classification of CNC Turning Centers (a) Multiple axis turning centers (X.B.C) .Z.Y.

Multiple Axis Turning Centers .

The main advantage to be gained in such cases is that machining can be done by two tools which have large tool capacity also. moving in two axes each. This makes it a four axes turning center with both turrets capable of moving independently. .Twin Turret Turing Centers: This turning center consists of two turrets in a turning center.

the head stock consists of two spindles Tail stock has two quills These are arranged at a fixed distance from each other . In this.Multiple Spindle Turning Centers: Used for large volume production of small and medium size parts with standard tolerances.

‡ This calls for the development of a combined machine tool. ‡ Also they cause delays in scheduling the jobs on different machine tools. which can perform the turning as well as milling operations.Turn Mill Centers (X. C): ‡ The major development in the CNC turning centers is the development of turn mill center. transportation. etc. ‡ Such a machine tool is called the CNC turn mill center. which decrease the over all tolerances. ‡ The use of multiple machine tools calls for multiple setups. . storage. Z.

CNC Machining Center .

Machining Centers
They are capable of carrying out milling, drilling, reaming, tapping, boring etc. They do not need operator intervention for change of tools and workpiece. Machining centers are equipped with automatic tool changers(ATC).A machining center is characterized by an indexable tool magazine which can store several tools. Tools from tool magazine is transferred by tool changing arm to the machine spindle.

Machining centers
‡ Machining centers are often provided with two or more work tables called pallets. ‡ Work pieces can be set up in all pallets ‡ The machine can be programmed to accept a new pallet when work of a previous pallet is completed with the help of pallet changer.

Advantages of Machining centers
‡ Due to reduction in non productive time, machining centers have high productivity ‡ Reduction in the lead time of production of complex components. ‡ This reduces work in process (WIP)

Classification Of Machining Centers
(a) Horizontal spindle machining centers. (HMC) (b) Vertical spindle machining centers. (VMC)

HORIZONTAL Spindle Machining Centers .

head stock or spindle head. ‡ X-axis transverse is provided by table or column. column. ‡ The Y-axis transverse is provided by spindle head ‡ The Z-axis transverse is provided by the saddle.(a) Horizontal Spindle Machining Centers: ‡ Horizontal spindle machining centers are single spindle machines with automatic tool changer. .

. ‡ The rotation of the table and rotation of spindle can be used for machining contours on workpiece.(a) Horizontal Spindle Machining Centers ‡ These machines are used with a rotary indexing table and rotary spindle head to facilitate multiphase matching at different angles in a single set up. The axis of rotary spindle is parallel to Z-axis is called A axis. ‡ The axis of rotary table is parallel to Y-axis is called B axis.

.Advantages of HMC ‡ This will ensure several hours of uninterrupted operation of the machine without the need for operator intervention. ‡ Another feature of operation on the machining center is the use of special fixtures.

VERTICAL Spindle Machining Centers .

(b) Vertical Spindle Machining Centers The structural configuration is: ‡ X-axis traverse is provided by table or column ‡ Y-axis traverse is provided by the saddle or the column or ram. ‡ Z-axis traverse is provided by the head stock .

‡ They can generate more complex surfaces compared to the horizontal axis.(b) Vertical Spindle Machining Centers: ‡ The vertical axis machining centers (VMC) are generally more versatile. . ‡ Most of the early CNC machine tools therefore are of this category.

(b) Vertical Spindle Machining Centers Vertical spindle machining centers are also bed type Machines with: ‡ Single spindle and auto tool changer & pallet changer ‡ Multi spindle with turret head (turret machining centers) .

Constructional features of CNC ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Feed drives Slide-ways Automatic tool changer Pallet Automatic pallet changer Recirculating ball screw .

Example : Movement of Turret. Rotation of spindle etc ..CNC PROGRAMMING ‡ What is programming ? Programming is telling the machine by command data through numerical control for its working of components.

Program Number ‡ Program number The program no. is used to arrange several programs in order The program no is expressed by putting numerals of 4 digits after the alphabet O Ex O 1234 .

SEQUENCE NUMBER END OF BLOCK Line number is optional End of block is mandatory .Program block A program block is a combination of functions of machine tool in a single line. Example: N01 G01 G91 X0.0 Y10.0 S2000 F100 M03 .

Y.Initial machining setup and establishing operating conditions ‡ Axis Codes: X. Z direction ‡ Feed and Speed Codes: F and S. Y.Z .Used to specify motion of the slide along X.Specify feed and spindle speed ‡ Tool codes: T specify tool number ‡ Miscellaneous codes M codes For coolant control and other activities .specify program line number to executed by the MCU ‡ Preparatory Codes: G codes.Codes in program block Programming consists of a series of instructions in form of letter codes: ‡ N codes.

.(1)Sequence Number ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Designated by alphabet N Used to identify the blocks Not mandatory Occupies memory Can be used for each process rather than for each block.

‡ G01 ± Tool is required to move in a straight line connecting current position and final position.( circular interpolation) .point to point control. J and K codes. Used for tool movement without any machining. (linear interpolation) ‡ G02 ± Tool path followed is along an arc specified by I.(2)Preparatory code :G codes ‡ G00 ± Preparatory code to control final position of the tool and not concerned with the path that is followed in arriving at the final destination.

CCW G17 XY Plane.G18 XZ Plane.Table of Important G codes G00 Rapid Transverse G01 Linear Interpolation G02 Circular Interpolation. CW G03 Circular Interpolation.G19 YZ Plane G20/G70 Inch units G21/G71 Metric Units G40 Cutter compensation cancel G41 Cutter compensation left G42 Cutter compensation right G43 Tool length compensation (plus) G44 Tool length compensation (minus) G49 Tool length compensation cancel G80 Cancel canned cycles G81 Drilling cycle G82 Counter boring cycle G83 Deep hole drilling cycle G90 Absolute positioning G91 Incremental positioning .

Usually S command is associated with M03 or M04 to specify the direction of rotation CW or CCW . Syntax :S . Example : S2000 .(3)Spindle speed Function The spindle speed can be specified by a S code followed by a Numerical value (rpm).

Example : G98 F100.15. . Syntax :F . : G99 F0.(4)Feed function The feed can be specified by F code followed by a Numerical value (feed per minute or feed per revolution). G98 and G99 are preparatory functions to specify feed per minute and feed per revolution respectively.

03 T0313. Syntax T Offset number Tool number Example T0303. Selects tool 3 with offset Nr.(5)Tool function Tool selection A 2 digit or 4 digit numeric followed by a T code is used to select the required tool. Selects tool 3 with offset Nr.13 .

It is designated by M followed by No.(6)Auxiliary function M codes ‡ ‡ M codes are used for doing auxiliary machine functions. Example M08 Coolant On M06 Tool change .

M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M08 M09 M22 M23 M24 M25 M30 M98 M99 Program Stop Optional Stop Program end Spindle normal rotation Spindle reverse rotation Spindle Stop Tool Change Coolant ON Coolant OFF Index Forward Index Reversed Chuck open Chuck close Program end and rewind Sub-program call Sub-program end Temporary stop of program Temporary stop of program ( Optional Stop ) Program end and reset Clockwise rotation of spindle Counter clockwise rotation of spindle Spindle rotation stop ATC Cycle start Coolant Discharge Coolant shut Turret index clockwise Turret index counter clockwise Opening of chuck Closing of chuck Program end and reset/rewind Call of a sub-program from a main program Return from a sub-program to a main program .

How to set the machine M ach in e O N O rig in F ixtu re M o u n tin g F ixtu re d ialin g L o cato r/clam p fixin g T o o l m tg o n th e h o ld ers M easu re th e to o l len g th T o o l p o cketin g .

T o o l o f f s e t in p u t in g P r o g r a m m in g F in d w o r k c o o r d in a t e D r y r u n w it h o u t c o m p o n e n t /s in g le b lo c k C u t t in g in s in g le b lo c k R a p id /f e e d le s s e r r a t e C o m p o n e n t in s p e c t io n C o r r e c t io n o f w o r k c o o r d ia n t e C o r r e c t io n o f t o o l o f f s e t C o m p o n e n t c u t t in g @ 1 0 0 % f e e d / s p e e d /R a p id .

Flexible Manufacturing System(FMS) ‡ A manufacturing system which consist of CNC workstations (CNC machine tools)interconnected by automated material handling system such as AGVs and robots with automated storage and retrieval system(AS/RS) .

COMPONENT OF FMS ‡ CNC workstations ‡ Automated material handling system ‡ Automated storage and retrieval system(AS/RS) CONCEPT USED IN FMS ‡ Flexible automation ‡ Group Technology .

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