PLANTS FORM AND FUNCTION

ANGIOSPERMS HAVE SHOOT SYSTEMS AND ROOT SYSTEMS SHOOT SYSTEM A. STEM SUPPORT OF UPRIGHT GROWTH AND CONDUCTION B. LEAVES PHOTOSYNTHETIC C. FLOWERS- REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES THAT ATTRACT POLLINATORS ROOT SYSTEM ROOTS ABSORB WATER AND DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS AND ANCHORAGE - STORES FOOD

CELL TYPES AND TISSUES 1. GROUND TISSUE- BULK OF THE PLANT BODY; FUNCTIONS FOR FOOD AND WATER STORAGE 2. VASCULAR TISSUE CONDUCTING TISSUES 3. DERMAL TISSUE- COVERS AND PROTECTS PLANT SURFACES MERISTEMS LOCALIZED REGIONS OF DIVIDING CELLS 1. APICAL MERISTEMS SHOOT AND ROOTS; FOR LENGTHENING;FORMS THE PROTODERM-EPIDERMIS, GROUND MERISTEM- GROUND TISSUE AND PROCAMBIUM-PRIMARY VASCULAR TISSUE. 2. LATERAL MERISTEM OLDER STEMS AND ROOTS; INCREASE IN GIRTH;FORMS THE VASCULAR CAMBIUMSECONDARY VASCULAR TISSUES AND CORK CAMBIUMPERIDERM

CELL TYPES AND TISSUES 1. GROUND TISSUE- BULK OF THE PLANT BODY; FUNCTIONS FOR FOOD AND WATER STORAGE 2. VASCULAR TISSUE CONDUCTING TISSUES 3. DERMAL TISSUE- COVERS AND PROTECTS PLANT SURFACES MERISTEMS LOCALIZED REGIONS OF DIVIDING CELLS 1. APICAL MERISTEMS SHOOT AND ROOTS; FOR LENGTHENING;FORMS THE PROTODERM-EPIDERMIS, GROUND MERISTEM- GROUND TISSUE AND PROCAMBIUM-PRIMARY VASCULAR TISSUE. 2. LATERAL MERISTEM OLDER STEMS AND ROOTS; INCREASE IN GIRTH;FORMS THE VASCULAR CAMBIUMSECONDARY VASCULAR TISSUES AND CORK CAMBIUMPERIDERM

TYPES OF PLANT TISSUES 1.SIMPLE ²COMPOSED OF ONE TYPE OF CELL A.PARENCHYMA CELLS ² THINWALLED AND MANY SIDES CELLS; MATURE CELLS ARE CAPABLE OF DIVIDING;INVOLVED IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS, STORAGE AND SECRETION

A.COLLENCHYMA CELLS ² THICK UNEVEN CELL WALL GLUED TOGETHER BY PECTIN; FLEXIBLE SUPPORT TO PRIMARY TISSUES. B.SCLERENCHYMA CELLS ² LIGNINIMPREGNATED THICK CELL WALL; SUPPORT OF MATUE PLANTS AND PROTECTION OF SEEDS;CAN EITHER BE FIBERS (LONG AND TAPERED) OR SCLEREIDS (STUBBIER).

2. Complex composed of variety of cells A. Vascular tissues A1. Xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals A2. Phloem conducts sugars and other solutes B. Dermal Tissues B1. Epidermis single layer of cells cover by waxy cuticle that prevent water loss; replaced by periderm B2. Periderm with secondary growth

ORGANS AND PROCESSES PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF SHOOTS
1. STEM
Stems support flowers and leaves and provide transportation within the plant. A young stem or twig of a flowering plant is marked by the presence of nodes, the points on a stem where a leaf or leaves are attached. The intervals between the nodes are called internodes. Although the root and stem share many common structural features, the root bears no appendages comparable to leaves, and consequently, has no nodes or internodes.

STRUCTURAL TYPES OF STEM

2. LEAF
‡ - a metabolic factory equipped with many photosynthetic cells

Simple leaves have a single blade. ‡tip - the terminal point of the leaf. ‡blade - the flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf. ‡margin - edge of a leaf. ‡midrib - the most prominent central vein in a leaf. ‡lateral veins - secondary veins in a leaf. ‡petiole - the leaf stalk (connects blade to stem). ‡stipules - leaf-like appendages (at the base of the petiole of some leaves). They may protect the young leaf and may be modified into spines or tendrils.

Upper and lower epidermis composed of definitely shaped thick walled epidermal cells Stomates breathing organs of the leaves; found in lower epidermis Stoma pair of sausage-shaped cells containing chloroplasts Mesophyll in between the epidermal layers;composed of palisade layer and spongy layer Palisade layer contains one or more layers of closely packed tubular cells Spongy layer irregularly shaped cells with fewer chloroplasts bodies

LEAF ARRANGEMENT

ARRANGEMENT ON THE STEM

LEAF MARGINS

LEAF SHAPES

LEAF VENATION

THE ROOTS
‡ 2 ROOT SYSTEMS 1. TAPROOT typical among dicots where the primary root has the largest diameter and from its epidermis arise the lateral roots 2. FIBROUS ROOTS short borne roots (adventitious) arise from the young plants stem and eventually where all the lateral roots arise; common in monocots; same diameter of roots

Water absorption by roots is basically an osmotic process. As roots transport mineral nutrients into their xylem, the solute concentration in the xylem increases. This causes osmosis of water from the soil into the xylem through all layers of cell membranes. Transpiration pull, caused by evaporation of water from the leaves, removes water from the root xylem causing water to move into the root from the soil.

‡Root cap region - functions to protect the apical meristem and to penetrate the soil as the root elongates. ‡Apical meristem region - the growth region of the root. The lower side produces new root cap cells s old ones are rubbed off. The upper side produces new growth cells for root growth.

‡Elongation region - cells produced in the apical meristem begin to elongate, producing an increase in the length of the root. Most of the growth in length of the root occurs here. ‡Root hair region - as cells reach their maximum length, many epidermal cells develop lateral protrusions called root hairs. These serve to increase surface area for better absorption. ‡Mature region - the region where cork begins to replace epidermal cells. This greatly reduces the ability of this area of the root to absorb water and minerals. Root hairs are not replaced in this area when lost.

Endodermis - the inner layer of the cortex. This selectively permeable layer filters absorbed soil water passing through the cells to the xylem. ‡Cortex - serves as an area for food storage. ‡Epidermis - a single layer of fatty cells serving to protect the cells beneath.

STRUCTURAL TYPES OF ROOTS

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