Ultrasonic Testing

By
Geetanjali Sharma
Devendra Singh
Amit Kumar Jha
Defect & Discontinuity
· Group A -Discontinuity, Ìmperfection & Ìn
homogeneities
· Group B ÷Defect ,Fault & Flaw
Discontinuity- An intentional or unintentional
interruption in the physical structure or
configuration of a part.
Defect- A condition or discontinuity having a size,
orientation, nature or location that impairs the
useful service of the part or that is rejectable
according to specification or standard.
eed for DT
· DT or DE are the terms used to
represent the techniques that are based
on application of physical principles
employed for the purpose of determining
the characteristics of the materials or
components or systems and for detecting
and assessing the in homogeneities and
harmful defects without impairing the
usefulness of such material or
components or systems.
Types of DT Methods
· 1.Ultrasonic Testing
· 2. Eddy Current
· 3. Magnetic Particle
· 4. Dye Penetration
· 5. Radiography
UT Testing
· This testing is used for finding surface, sub
surface, internal defects in welding,
castings, plate & forgings etc. Ìt can also
be used for tubes. Ìt is more useful to find
out planar defects.
· Ìt can also detect exact depth of the
defect.
Ultra sonic Testing Procedure
· Basic Procedure:
1.Prepare the surface to remove to obtain
smooth surface.
2.Apply Couplant (Water ,Grease, oil etc.)
3.Pass Ultrasound, with help of Ultrasonic
probes, ultrasound is reflected from defect
boundary and revealed on CRT of UT
machine.
Basic Principle
1. By Ìntroducing short pulse of sound using
a transducer into a job and receiving the
echo from the defect or back wall then by
finding out the time of journey the defect
location can be determined.
· Distance = Velocity X Time
Sound reflection at a flaw
Probe
Flaw
Sound travel path
Work piece
s
Principle of time of flight measurement : S=vt/2
2. Sound passes through homogenous
material and is reflected from back wall. Ìt
will take definite time to do so, depending
upon the material thickness and
properties. Ìf there is discontinuity in the
object, the sound will be reflected from it
and will take lesser time.
Plate testing
delamination
plate
0 2 4 6 8 10
ÌP
F
BE
ÌP = Ìnitial pulse
F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo T=D/V
T1=D1/V
T>T1,Since D>D1
D
D1
Ultrasonic Ìnstrument

0 2 4 8 10 6
+ -
U
h
Ultrasonic Ìnstrument
0 2 4 8 10 6
+
-
U
h
Ultrasonic Ìnstrument
0 2 4 8 10 6
+
+
-
-
U
U
h
v
Ultrasonic Ìnstrument
Block diagram: Ultrasonic Ìnstrument
amplifier
work piece
probe
horizontal
sweep
clock
pulser
ÌP
BE
screen
The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed
PuIse
sciIIation
Movement of the ball over time
Time
%ime
ne fuII
osciIIation
%
Frequency
From the duration of one
oscillation T the frequency f
(number of oscillations per
second) is calculated: f=1/T
Types of Sound waves
1. Longitudinal waves/Compressive waves/
Zero Degree Beam/Straight Beam/
ormal beam
2. Transverse waves/Shear wave/Angle
beam
3. Surface wave/Rayleigh wave
4. Plate wave/Lamb waves
Direction of
oscillation
Direction of propagation Longitudinal wave
Sound propagation
irection of propagation
Transverse wave
Direction of oscillation
Sound propagation
Plate Waves
Types of Probes
The transducer
is capable of
both transmitting
and receiving
sound energy.
1.ormal Probe
A piezoelectric element
in the transducer
converts electrical
energy into mechanical
vibrations (sound), and
vice versa.
2.Angle Probe
Principles of Ultrasonic Ìnspection
· Ultrasonic waves are introduced into a material
where they travel in a straight line and at a
constant speed until they encounter a surface.
· At surface interfaces some of the wave energy is
reflected and some is transmitted.
· The amount of reflected or transmitted energy
can be detected and provides information about
the size of the reflector.
· The travel time of the sound can be measured
and this provides information on the distance
that the sound has traveled.
Technicques of UT
· 1.Pulse Echo Method: Ìn pulse-echo testing, a
transducer sends out a pulse of energy and the
same or a second transducer listens for reflected
energy (an echo).
· Reflections occur due to the presence of
discontinuities and the surfaces of the test
article.
· The amount of reflected sound energy is
displayed versus time, which provides the
inspector information about the size and the
location of features that reflect the sound.
igitaI dispIay
showing signaI
generated from
sound refIecting
off back surface.
igitaI dispIay
showing the presence
of a refIector midway
through materiaI, with
Iower ampIitude back
surface refIector.
%he puIse-echo technique aIIows testing when access to onIy one
side of the materiaI is possibIe, and it aIIows the Iocation of
refIectors to be preciseIy determined.
· The bigger the flaw is in the path of echo
longer the indication & vice versa.
· Ìf the defect will lye near the focus zone of
the echo, the indication will become
bigger.

ear field Far field
Focus Angle of divergence Crystal
Accoustical axis
D
0

6
Calibration of UT Machines.
· Range Calibration:-A block of known thickness
and material is used for calibrating x axis
(time/depth).
· Sensitivity Calibration:-A block of similar material
having standards shape & size reflectors are
used for calibrating Y axis (amplitude/size).
ÌÌW V1 Block
%est %echniques - %hrough-%ransmission
0 2 4 6 8 10

· Two transducers located on
opposing sides of the test specimen
are used. One transducer acts as a
transmitter, the other as a receiver.
· Discontinuities in the sound path will
result in a partial or total loss of
sound being transmitted and be
indicated by a decrease in the
received signal amplitude.
· Through transmission is useful in
detecting discontinuities that are not
good reflectors, and when signal
strength is weak. Ìt does not
provide depth information.
T R
T R

igitaI dispIay
showing received
sound through
materiaI
thickness.
igitaI dispIay
showing Ioss of
received signaI
due to presence
of a discontinuity
in the sound fieId.
%est %echniques - %hrough-%ransmission
%est %echniques - NormaI and AngIe Beam
· In normaI beam testing, the sound
beam is introduced into the test
articIe at 9 degree to the surface.
· In angIe beam testing, the sound
beam is introduced into the test
articIe at some angIe other than
9.
· %he choice between normaI and
angIe beam inspection usuaIIy
depends on two considerations:
- %he orientation of the feature of
interest - the sound shouId be
directed to produce the Iargest
refIection from the feature.
- bstructions on the surface of the
part that must be worked around.
Angle beam probe calibration
ÌÌW V2 Block
S1=25mm
S2=50mm
Block Factor-25+50=75mm
1
st
echo-25mm
ÌÌnd echo-25+BF(75)=100mm
Snell's Law
Refraction : 1
st
critical angle
Calibration of angle probe
· Step1. Connect DAC Calibration Adapter to the
UT instrument and manipulate its delay
regulator to get the 7mm UT instrument digital
distance indication. Adjust amplitude of the
indicated pulse to the 100% of the screen
height. Mark the top of the pulse as a point 1 of
the DAC curve.
· Step2. Change the delay of DAC Calibration
Adapter to get the 75mm UT instrument digital
distance indication. Reduce the Gain of UT
instrument in 11dB. Mark the top of the pulse
as a point 2 of the DAC curve
· Step3. Change the delay of DAC Calibration
Adapter to get the 38mm UT instrument digital
distance indication. Ìncrease the Gain of UT
instrument in 5dB. Mark the top of the pulse as
a point 3 and create DAC curve
Spectrum of sound
Frequency range
Hz
Description Example
0 - 20 Ìnfrasound Earth quake
20 ÷ 20,000
Audible
sound
Speech, music
> 20,000 Ultrasound
Bat, Quartz
crystal
gas liquid solid
Atomic structures
· low density
· weak bonding
forces
· medium density
· medium bonding
forces
· high density
· strong bonding
forces
· crystallographic
structure
T
Distance travelled
From this we derive:
c=//T or c= /f Wave equation
During one oscillation T the wave front
propagates by the distance 2:
Wave propagation
Air
Water
SteeI, Iong
SteeI, trans
33 m/s
m/s
3 m/s
9 m/s
Longitudinal waves propagate in all kind of materials.
Transverse waves only propagate in solid bodies.
Due to the different type of oscillation, transverse
waves
travel at lower speeds.
Sound velocity mainly depends on the density and E-
modulus of the material.
Behaviour at an interface
edium edium
Interface
Incoming wave %ransmitted wave
RefIected wave

s
s
Wall thickness measurement
Corrosion
Through transmission testing

Through transmission signal

%
%
R
R
Flaw
Ultrasonic Probes
socket
crystal
Damping
Delay / protecting face
Electrical matching
Cable
Straight beam
probe Angle beam probe TR-probe
Block diagram: Ultrasonic Ìnstrument
amplifier
work piece
probe
horizontal
sweep
clock
pulser
ÌP
BE
screen
Weld inspection

s
a
a'
d
x
a = s sinß a = s sinß
a' = a - x a' = a - x
d' = s cosß d' = s cosß
d = % - t' d = % - t'
s
Lack of fusion
Work piece with weIding
F
ß = probe angle
s = sound path
a = surface distance
a' = reduced surface distance
d' = virtual depth
d = actual depth
T = material thickness
ß
Straight beam inspection techniques:
Direct contact,
single element probe
Direct contact,
dual element probe
Fixed delay
Ìmmersion testing Through transmission
surface =
sound entry
backwall flaw
1 2
water delay
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 2 4 6 8 10
ÌE ÌE
ÌP ÌP
BE BE
F
1
2
Ìmmersion testing

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