Leyte Normal University Tacloban City

Social Science: ANTHROPOLOGY
Prepared by: Ma. Victoria D. Naboya

and . anthropos. logos. "human being". . and the social sciences. Ethnography is both one of its primary methods.ANTHROPOLOGY Anthropology (from Greek: . "knowledge") is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences. and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology. the humanities.

often known as participantobservation.ANTHROPOLOGY ‡ Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronis aw Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. and the importance it places on long-term. social anthropology has been distinguished from other social science disciplines by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context. cross-cultural comparisons (socio-cultural anthropology is by nature a comparative discipline). experiential immersion in the area of research. .

. from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology. This has been particularly prominent in the United States. to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.ANTHROPOLOGY ‡ Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation.

and the discipline has several sources. and the most humanistic of the sciences. for example." ‡ Contemporary anthropologists claim a number of earlier thinkers as their forebears. the known varieties of which had been increasing since the 15th century as a result of the First European colonization wave. claimed Montaigne and Rousseau as important influences. ‡ Anthropology can best be understood as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment. Claude Lévi-Strauss.Historical and institutional context ‡ The anthropologist Eric Wolf once described anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities. a period when Europeans attempted systematically to study human behavior. .

. of which anthropology was a part. ‡ At the same time. philology. the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers.Historical and institutional context ‡ The traditions of jurisprudence. such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey." which is central to the discipline. history. and sociology then evolved into something more closely resembling the modern views of these disciplines and informed the development of the social sciences. whose work formed the basis for the "culture concept.

or eras. with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals. ‡ The humanities generally study different local traditions. literature. though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences.Historical and institutional context ‡ In the twentieth century. and arts. events. ‡ The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way. music. The natural and biological sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and falsifiable experiments. academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. . through their history.

Historical and institutional context ‡ In particular. as in many fields of psychology. or they may explain individual cases through more general principles. and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. . ‡ Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories. social sciences often develop statistical descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry.

Greece. and the successors to the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires). distinct cultures.Historical and institutional context ‡ Anthropology as it emerged among the colonial powers (mentioned above) has generally taken a different path than that in the countries of southern and central Europe (Italy. the encounter with multiple. . ‡ In the former. has led to a continuing emphasis on cross-cultural comparison and a receptiveness to certain kinds of cultural relativism. often very different in organization and language from those of Europe.

. and primatology. and nutritional anthropology. forensic anthropology. population genetics. osteology.The "four field" approach to Anthropology Biological or physical anthropology seeks to understand the physical human being through the study of human evolution and adaptability. Subfields or related fields include anthropometrics.

economic and political organization. patterns of consumption and exchange. . gender relations. symbolism. often through long term. etc. childrearing and socialization. mythology. religion. law and conflict resolution. of the culture and social organization of a particular people: language. kinship and family structure.The "four field" approach to Anthropology y Socio-cultural anthropology is the investigation. intensive field studies (including participantobservation methods).

anthropology of media and cyberspace. . ethnic studies. and study of the diffusion of social practices and cultural forms. cultural studies. anthropology of religion. socio-cultural anthropology is known as ethnology (a term also used in English-speaking countries to denote the comparative aspect of sociocultural anthropology.) Subfields and related fields include psychological anthropology. folklore.The "four field" approach to Anthropology y In some European countries.

variation in language across time and space. y Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including anthropological linguistics. the social uses of language. verbal and nonverbal. semiotics. cognitive linguistics. and the relationship between language and culture. linking the analysis of linguistic forms and processes to the interpretation of sociocultural processes. and narrative analysis. . It is the branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems. sociolinguistics. discourse analysis.The "four field" approach to Anthropology y Linguistic anthropology seeks to understand the processes of human communications.

development of human social organization. and relationships among contemporary populations. . it also contributes significantly to the work of population geneticists.). geophysical studies. optically stimulated luminescence dating). etc. coring. y Archaeology involves a wide variety of field techniques (remote sensing.The "four field" approach to Anthropology y Archaeology studies the contemporary distribution and form of artifacts (materials modified by past human activities). measures of formal variability. and many historians. survey. dating studies (radiocarbon. excavation) and laboratory procedures (compositional analyses. with the intent of understanding distribution and movement of ancient populations. historical linguists. residue analyses. examination of wear patterns.

The "four field" approach to Anthropology y Archaeologists predominantly study materials produced by prehistoric groups but also includes modern. although closely related to the anthropological field of material culture. . historical and ethnographic populations. which deals with physical objects created or used within a living or past group as a means of understanding its cultural values. Archaeology is usually regarded as a separate (but related) field outside North America.

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