Introduction to IT


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Information technology is the use of modern technology to aid in storage, processing, analysis and communication of information. We can simply define that the information about any technology is called information technology. Often the IT typically refers to the equipment such as computers, data storage devices, networks and also communication devices. Technology in the broad sense is the application of modern communication and computing technologies to the creation, management and use of the knowledge. Information technology means the use of the hardware, software, services, and supporting infrastructure to manage and deliver information using voice, data and video.

Structure of IT
Information Technology



Computer Hardware

Computer Software




Computer Definition
The word ³computer´ is derived from the word ´ Comput´ Comput´ which means to compute or calculate. With this meaning a computer is considered to be a calculating device that can perform the arithmetic operation at enormous speed. More accurately, a computer may be defined as a device that can store, process, and operates upon information or data Or computer is a machine that takes input in the form of data, do processing on that data, and then gives the result

What is Data?
DATA: Data is the Raw materials Data is the Fact and Figures Data is the collection of characters, worlds, figures, shapes, designs, symbols, digits related to any fields.


Types of data
There are Three Types of data Alphabetic data that is from (A to Z, a to z) Numeric Data that is from (0 to 9) AlphaNum data That is from (a to z, A to Z, and from 0 to 9)


What is data Processing
DATA PROCESSING Data processing often referred as D.P is a process of collecting the data together and converting the data into information. The method used for collecting the data may be manual, mechanical or electronic. Data processing is a term mostly associated with business and commercial work. Since computers are being used in the processing of data the term "electronic data processing" may also be used. Data




Data Processing


Manual & Electronic Data
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING Data processing means transformation of data into more meaningful results for carrying out scientific, business activities. The result of data processing is called "information". The transformation of data "information". consist of a sequence of operations. The sequence is called "procedure". Example: Computer "procedure". Manual Data Processing "MANUAL" when processing is performed by human beings or When a process is performed step by step in an organized method is called MDP Example: Type writer or Calculator


How Computer Works

Computer Receive store process and produce output

User Input data trough Input device




How Computer Works




Input Devices *Keyboard *Mouse *Joystick *Scanner *Microphone

Output Devices *Moniter *Printer *Plotter *Speaker


Characteristics of computer

A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds the amount of work that a human can do in year


Every task is performed by computer with same accuracy. Errors may occur in computer due to human


Human beings get bored from work on the same thing for a long time and also tired. But the case is not same with computers, a computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration


Characteristics of computer

A computer is capable of performing almost any task. It just requires the particular software to perform that task

Power of remembering 

A computer can store and recall even after several years any amount of information because of its storage capability

No feelings 

Computers are free of emotions. They have no feelings


A human think with their mind that what is right for them and what is not. While a machine has no I.Q. But programmers are trying to make computer an intelligent machine.

History of Computer 

Computers did not suddenly arrive on the scene The research on the computer technology is a process of hundreds of years and is still in progress The latest computer is the result of several minds combined to give us the magic of sense The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate

Brief History of Computers According to generations 
There are five generations of computers 1. First Generation (1940-1956) (19402. Second Generation (1956-1963) (19563. Third Generation (1964-1971) (19644. Fourth Generation (1971-1980) (19715. Fifth Generation (1980-present) (1980-


First Generation (1940-1956) (1940In this generation of computer vacuum tube was used for circuitry These computers were very large in size, taking up entire rooms They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat First generation computers relied on machine language The UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) and ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrated and Calculator) computers are examples of first-generation computing firstdevices

First Generation (1940-1956) (1940-


Second Generation (1956-1963) (1956Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s Through the use of transistors the second generation computers were much faster and more reliable than the first generation of computers SecondSecond-generation computers moved from machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words

Second Generation (1956-1963) (1956-


Third Generation (1964-1971) (1964The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers An Integrated Circuit (IC) or a chip is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material (transistor) The earliest ICs used a technology called SSI (Small Scale Integration contain up to 100 transistors) and MSI (Medium Scale Integration contain 100-3000 100transistors) The third generation computers were smaller, more efficient and more reliable than their predecessor

Third Generation (1964-1971) (1964-


Fourth Generation (1971-1980) (1971The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to (large100,000 electronic components per chip During this the first microprocessor the Intel 4004 was developed and was followed by VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration contain 100,000 to 1,000,000) ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 largemillion electronic components per chip

Fourth Generation (1971-1980) (1971-


Fifth Generation (1980-Present) (1980Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are recognition, being used today, Expert System, Robots etc. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop fifthdevices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization selfBut true AI, or computers that can think like human being are still concepts in the mind of tomorrow


Fifth Generation (1980-Present) (1980-


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