LINUX Operating System

Presented by ± ANKIT KUMAR 0806810013

PREFACE 
Engineers are the makers of modern world. Twentieth century in engineering terms is nothing but the age of computer science. It is very necessary for a computer engineer to get acquainted with the process of networking especially on Linux operating system as per the today¶s increasing demand of it

INDEX 
01. INTRODUCTION TO LINUX  02. BEGINNING OF LINUX 03. SALIENT FEATURES OF LINUX 04. LINUX INSTALLATION  05. LINUX SYSTEM ARCHITECHTURE  06. LINUX USER INTERFACE  07. LINUX USER LOGIN  08. LINUX FILE SYSTEM STRUCTER  09. LINUX PROCESS MANAGEMENT  10. LINUX NETWORKING  11. LINUX PROS & CONS  12. LINUX TODAY  13. WHO ARE USING LINUX

INTRODUCTION TO LINUX 
LINUX is an open source / free software. With its advanced server configuration, Red Hat is putting Linux as an operating system at the core of enterprise computing. Today Linux is found in Web infrastructure, file server, ERP, and point of sale system, increasingly in the systems running critical applications at large companies. Analysts predict that by the end of this decade Linux will be a common element in the enterprise computing landscape.  ³Over the last year, we¶ve seen Linux go from being focused on small and medium business to being used very deep in the enterprise´, says Paul Cormier, executive vice president of engineering at Red Hat, a leading Linux platform provider. 

±

Beginning of Linux

± ±

A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for commercial use In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1

±

±

It was put to the Internet and received enormous response from worldwide software developers By December came version 0.10. Still Linux was little more than in skeletal form.
5

Basic Features of LINUX OS 
         

MultiMulti-user Multitasking & enhanced Symmetric Multiprocessing Graphical User Interface (KDE, GNOME) Hardware support (RAM up to 4GB, 10 IDE controllers, 16 NICs, USB) Networking connectivity (IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, X.25, «) Security (Local & Remote) Network servers (F/P, HTTP, SMTP, IMAP, POP3, DHCP, DNS, FTP, «) Applications support Software packaging (RPM) Easy Installation & Administration Reliable & Robust(Stable and fault tolerance)

Salient Features of LINUX 
         

Linux is the fastest operating system in the world. Linux is the most reliable OS. Linux has an excellent scalability Linux is fully 32-bit & 64-bit operating system. 3264Linux is a very secure OS. Linux is very mature and is one of the oldest operating system in the world. Linux is less demanding os. os. Linux uses X-window . XLinux has very low total_cost_of_ownership . Linux runs on many hardware platforms . Linux is free of any cost.

LINUX INSTALLATION 
Choosing computer hardware: - To install the hardware: PC version of Linux successfully, there are few things that the computer must have:  x86 Processor (Intel compatible MP above 80386)  RAM (at least 32MB, recommended 64MB)  HDD (at least 900MB free space)  FDD, CD-ROM drive or LAN connection CD Keyboard & Monitor  Mouse (for X-Windows) X-

LINUX SYSTEM ARCHITECHTUE
Applications: Compilers, word processors, X-based GUI AUI LINUX Shell: Bourne Again (bash), TC, Z, etc. Language libraries API System call interface Memory management File management Process Management

Kernel

Device Drives BIOS Computer Hardware

9

LINUX USER INTERFACE 

By adopting the X-Window technology, graphical user interface (GUI) is available for Linux: ± Uses pointing devices (e.g. mouse) to control the system, similar to Microsoft¶s Windows ± Provide menu-driven and/or icon-driven interfaces ± menu-driven: user is provided with a menu of choices. Each choice refers to a particular task ± icon-driven: tasks are represented by pictures (icon) and shown to user. Click on an icon invokes one task ± Advantages: No need to memorize commands. Always select task from menus or icons ± Disadvantages: Slow and require certain resource for its implementation ± Suitable for general users and systems, such as PC

10

LINUX GUI

‡ A typical Linux GUI based on GNOME ‡ Similar to Microsoft¶s Windows, however, different window systems can be chosen (e.g. GNOME, KDE, etc)

11

Linux User Login 
  

Linux is a multiuser OS Allow multiple users to use the resource of a computer at the same time Every user needs to login the system with the password provided to identify their right in using the resource Require for both client-server based system or desktop

Peter

Mary Paul

Linux Server

Client-server based system

12

Linux File System Structure According to the File System Standard (FSSTND) proposed in 1994, every LINUX system should contain a set of standard files and directories
root / directories 

bin boot

lib

lost+found dev etc

mnt proc
file

opt home

root tmp

sbin usr

var

« fd hd hd group passwd

dlun

guest

bin

lib

local
13

Default file structure of Linux
/

bin

dev

etc

File Storage in Linux 

Data storage on hard disk
Data in a hard disk are stored on a magnetic flat plate ± Disk¶s surface needs to be partitioned and labeled so that computer can go directly to a specific point on it ± Achieve by low level formatting the disk  Create magnetic concentric circles called tracks  Each track is split into smaller parts called sectors and numbered Each sector: hold 512 bytes data  E.g. 80 tracks (from outer to inner 0 .. 79), 18 sectors disk can store 80x18x512 bytes data.
±
15 

Formatted Disk
Sector Track Density of data is higher for inner tracks than outer tracks

16

Linux Process Management 
   

Linux is a multitasking system Multiple programs can be executed at the same time Ultimately, a program needs to be executed by a CPU If there is only one CPU, how multiple programs can be executed at the same time?   By time sharing That is, all programs are claimed to be executing. In fact, most of them are waiting for the CPU
17

PROCESS MGT CONT. A program that is claimed to be executing is called a process For a multitasking system, a process has at least the following three states:  

Start execution

Ready

Running Finish execution Sleeping
18

LINUX NETWORKING 
Hardware Requirement For Red Hat Linux Network Installation Pentium base Server with 64 MB RAM Hard disc drive of minimum 4.3 GB Ethernet Card (NIC) 10/100 MBPS 10 Nos Ethernet Hub 10/100 MBPS 12 Port 01 Nos UTP CAT 5e Cable 500 Meter (Approx) RJ-45 Connector RJ30 NosSoftware & Operating System Red Hat Linux NosSoftware 8.0 Professional Server 01 NosClient Operating System 20 NosNetwork NosNetwork Installation & Implementation Red Hat Linux 8.0 Professional installation and Configuration (LAN/WAN)

Linux Pros and Cons 

Advantages over Windows
± ± ±

± ±

±

It's almost free to relatively inexpensive Source code is included Bugs are fixed quickly and help is readily available through the vast support in Internet Linux is more stable than Windows Linux is truly multi-user and multi-tasking ± multiuser: OS that can simultaneously serve a number of users ± multitasking: OS that can simultaneously execute a number of programs Linux runs on equipment that other operating systems consider too underpowered, e.g. 386 20 systems, PDA, etc

Linux Pros and Cons (Cont) 

Multi-tasking , Multi-desktop , Powerful networking Variety of server  Crash Proof , Economical Secured , User friendly GUI, Virus proof , Advanced OS,

Disadvantages
compared with Windows
Isn't as popular as Windows ± No one commercial company is responsible for Linux Linux is relatively hard to install
±

Hence currently, Linux is mainly used in commercial applications, server implementation  More than 75% current network servers are developed based on Linux or Unix systems
±

Due to the relatively high reliability 

Linux Today

±

± ±

±

±

Linux has been used for many computing platforms ± PC, PDA, Supercomputer,« Current kernel version 2.6.13 Not only character user interface but graphical user interface, thanks to the X-Window technology Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format ± Red Hat, Slackware ,ubuntu etc Chinese distribution of Linux also appeared in Taiwan and China - CLE, Red Flag Linux
22

Who are using Linux ::      

Private sector
Raymond¶s ICICI IDBI Bharat petroleum Reliance Asian Paints 

Government sector  Air-India Air Central Excise  Govt. of MP  Govt. of Goa  Govt. of Kerala  Govt. of A P etc.  Railways

THE END 

-THANK YOU !

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful