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¢ ^thnocentrism-tendency to judge all other
groups according to one¶s own group

¢ Xenophobia

¢ Stereotyping- Distorted views of other

cultures or groups

¢ Cultural pluralism-
pluralism- practice of accepting
multiple cultures in our own group
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Cultural Diversity

¢ International = Intercultural
¢ 325,000 employees from 175 countries
¢ 165 languages

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#  prince dudhatra-9724949948 ' 
ro help her American Company establish a
presence in Japan, Mrs. rorres wants to hire a
local interpreter who can advise her on business
customs. Ms. romari has superb qualifications
on paper, but when Mrs. rorres tries to probe
about her experience, Ms. romari just says, ³I
will do my best. I will try very hard.´ She
never gives details about any of the previous
positions she has held. Mrs. rorres begins to
wonder if Ms. romari's résumé is inflated.
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Stan Williams wants to negotiate a joint venture
between his American firm and a Beijing-based
company. He asks rung-Sen Lee if the Chinese
people have enough discretionary income to afford
his product. Mr. Lee is silent for a time, and then
says, ³Your product is good. People in the West
must like it.´ Stan smiles, pleased that Mr. Lee
recognizes the quality of his product, and he leaves
a contract for Mr. Lee to sign. Weeks later, Stan
still hasn¶t heard anything. If China is going to be
so inefficient, he wonders if his company should try
to do business there. prince dudhatra-9724949948
ëloria Johnson is proud of her participatory
management style. Assigned in Bombay on
behalf of her U.S.-based company, she is careful
not to give orders but to ask for suggestions.
But the employees rarely suggest anything.
^ven a formal suggestion system she established
does not work. Worse still, she doesn¶t sense the
respect and camaraderie that she felt at the plant
she managed in rexas. Perhaps the people in
India just are not ready for a woman boss.
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Alan Caldwell is a U.S. sales representative in
Mexico City. He makes appointments with Senõr
Lopez and is careful to be on time, but his host is
frequently late. ro save time, Alan tries to get right
to business, his host wants to talk about sightseeing
and about Alan¶s family. ^ven worse, the meetings
are interrupted constantly with phone calls, long
conversations with other people, and even customers¶
children who come into the office. Alan¶s first report
to his home office is very negative. He hasn¶t yet
made a sale. Perhaps Mexico just isn¶t the right
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place to do business.
Legal and ethical differences

¢ Low context culture adhere to the law strictly and

vice versa in high context culture

¢ In U.S. and U.K. someone is presumed to be

innocent until proved guilty and vice-
vice-versa in
Mexico and turkey

¢ Bribing allowed in China, Kenya, Russia to

ëovernment officials and vice-
vice-versa in U.S.
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Apply four basic principles

¢ Actively seek mutual ground

¢ rrust each other¶s culture

¢ Fully aware of personal and cultural biases

¢ Show respect for cultural differences

prince dudhatra-9724949948
Social differences

¢ Failure of Wal-
Wal-Mart in ëermany (Smiling issue)

¢ Formal rules (table manners, clothes) are well

defined but informal rules (tone n pitch of speech,
Proper distance) are learned through observation

¢ Formal + informal = overall behavior

prince dudhatra-9724949948
Social rules
¢ Attitudes towards work and success (Max.
working hours, self dependent)

¢ Roles and status ( Mr. and Ms. in U.S. and official

titles in China to show respect)

¢ Use of Manners (Asking about weekend common

in U.S. but is intrusive in other cultures, No gifts
for other man¶s wife in Arabian cultures, offer
wine in ëermany after dinner to the guests)

¢ Concepts of time (low context cultures follow

flexi timings, working from home)
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Non verbal Differences
¢ use of a finger and hand to indicate ³come here please´,
used to beckon dogs in some cultures and is very

¢ While patting a child¶s head is considered to be a friendly

or affectionate gesture in our culture, it is considered
inappropriate by many Asians to touch someone on the
head which is believed to be a sacred part of the body.

¢ In the Middle ^ast, the left hand is reserved for bodily

hygiene and should not be used to touch another or transfer

¢ In Muslim cultures, touch between opposite gendered

individuals is generally inappropriate.
prince dudhatra-9724949948
¢ In mainstream Western culture, eye contact is interpreted
as attentiveness and honesty

¢ In Hispanic, Asian, Middle ^astern, and Latin American,

eye contact is thought to be disrespectful or rude

¢ Women may especially avoid eye contact with men

because it can be taken as a sign of sexual interest.

¢ In Vietnamese cultures, complimenting babies is avoided

for fear that these comments may be overheard by a spirit
that will try to steal the baby or otherwise cause some harm
to come to him or her.

prince dudhatra-9724949948
¢ Walking differences between U.S. and Japan rhe
Japanese walk in short quick strides and drooping
shoulders, in contrast, Americans view walking
tall with longer strides and a more upright posture
as having confidence and strength

¢ It is very rare that Japanese people entertain in

their own homes and it is customary to go out

¢ the hand gesture we use for "come here," in Spain

means that you are very romantically interested in
the person
¢ A genuine SMIL^ works everywhere«««
prince dudhatra-9724949948
Age differences

¢ In U.S. looking younger matters a lot, age is

associated with declining power

¢ In Asian cultures, age and seniority is

valued, not to interrupt when a senior
person is talking

prince dudhatra-9724949948
ëender Differences
¢ Men emphasize on content

¢ Women focus on relationship management

and expression part more

¢ More opportunities for women in Western

countries as compared to Asian and African
cultures, glass ceiling
prince dudhatra-9724949948
U.S. Business Culture
¢ Individualism: Individual competition and success
¢ ^quality

¢ Privacy and personal space ( knock the office

door, no personal questions at workplace)

¢ rime (punctuality)

¢ Communication style (direct, focus on content and

transactions rather than relationships or group
prince dudhatra-9724949948
¢ Work ethics: good, honest, hard work is
¢ Religion : No official state religion

prince dudhatra-9724949948
Improving Intercultural Communication Skills

1. Studying other cultures :

¢ Understand the social customs

¢ Learn about clothing and food preferences
¢ Assess political patterns
¢ Understand religious and folk beliefs
¢ Learn about economic and business institutions
¢ Appraise the nature of ethics, values, and laws

prince dudhatra-9724949948
2. Studying other Languages:
¢ IBM, 165 languages
¢ Demand for multilingual communicators
¢ ^.g. Netherlands
¢ Outsourcing in India
¢ China¶s official language ; Mandarin learned by U.S.
¢ rwo countries speaking the same language not
necessarily speak it the same way
¢ ^.g. French spoken in Canada is different than France
¢ ^.g. In U.S. and U.K., elevator-
elevator-lift, gasoline-
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3. Respecting Preferences for Communication

¢ Level of Directness
¢ Degree of formality
¢ Preferences for written Vs spoken language
¢ U.S. ; open and direct communication
¢ Sweden; Directness taken as efficiency sign
¢ Japan, China; less direct communication
prince dudhatra-9724949948
4. Writing and Speaking clearly:
¢ Use simple, clear language-
language-rich and wealthy
¢ Be brief-
brief- simple sentences and short paragraphs
¢ Use transitional elements-
elements- in addition, first, second
¢ Address international correspondence
¢ Cite numbers and dates carefully-
carefully- U.S. :12-
means Dec 5,2007 but also taken as May 12, 2007.
Japan, China : 2007-
12-05, U.S., U.K.,
India:1.000=1, but means 1000 in few ^uropean
prince dudhatra-9724949948
¢ Avoid slang and business jargon (e.g. µbig
guns¶, µhave big mouth¶, µblown away¶;
¢ Avoid humor and other references to
popular culture

prince dudhatra-9724949948
5. Listening Carefully

¢ rone, speed, volume

¢ ^.g. in China word µma¶ different meaning
of mother, pile up, horse, scold
¢ Regular Arabic speech seems excited and
angry to an ^nglish listener
¢ Japanese more softer than Westerners
¢ Ask to repeat before concluding to meaning
prince dudhatra-9724949948
6. Using Interpreters, rranslators, and rranslation Software

¢ Difference between Interpreter and translator

¢ Back translation (once a translator encodes a message into
another language, a different translator retranslates the
same message into the original language)

¢ Machine translation
¢ Dedicated software tools and online services; offer some form of automated

7. Helping others adapt to your culture

prince dudhatra-9724949948