# Measurements and Calculations

Chapter 2

To Begin...

Work on 5. I am 5. It is 5. Give me 5.

Scientific notation is a technique used to express these numbers.Scientific Notation In science. Express the number as a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10. we often deal with extremely large or extremely small numbers. .

Right is a negative power of 10.) Eg. 953. (If you need to move left to put the number into scientific notation.Scientific Notation To put a number into scientific notation: Count how many places you need to move the decimal to make the number a number between 1 and 10.000 . The number of decimal places you need to move is the power of 10. including 1.000. it is a positive power of 10.

1. 6000 2.104 6.98 x 10-2 10. 0.5 x 105 8. 2. 2.Some Practice 1. 35680100000 3.000 7. 0.5 x 10-5 9. 1 x 10-6 12.002098 4. 3. 1 x 106 .500. 0.5 x 103 11.135 5. 3.

there are standard (SI) units that we use to describe measurements. Physical Quantity Mass Length Time Temperature Electric current Amount of substance Name of Unit kilogram meter second kelvin ampere mole Abbreviation kg m s K A mol .Measurement  A measurement is a quantitative observation consisting of two parts: A number and a unit!  In science.

.Prefixes in the Metric System  Prefixes are added to the base units to change the size of the unit.

.5 cm thick.  A basketball player has a height of 7 m tall.  A nickel is 6.  A 200-lb man has a mass of about 90 kg.Which of the following don¶t make sense?  Choose the statement(s) that contain improper use(s) of commonly used units (doesn¶t make sense)?  A gallon of milk is equal to about 4 L of milk.

Uncertainty in Measurement  Any number that has to be estimated is called uncertain. In science. . you can only report measurements to the degree of accuracy that you were able to measure them with. We record the certain digits and then the first uncertain digit.

Nonzero integers always count as significant figures.Rules for Significant Figures (Sig Figs) 1.  2986 has 4 significant figures .

zeros that precede all nonzero digits. These are always significant.zeros at the right end of the number. but 20. 20 has 1 significant digit.00028 has 2 significant digits b)Captive zeros . These are NEVER significant. 3003 has 4 significant digits c)Trailing zeros . Zeros a)Leading zeros . 0. . has 2 and 20.zeros that fall between two non-zero digits.0 has 3.Rules for Significant Figures (Sig Figs) 2. These are significant only if a decimal is present at the end of the zeros.

Rules for Significant Figures (Sig Figs) 3.  Eg: 1 mile = 5.280 feet . these numbers are called exact numbers and are ignored when figuring out how many significant digits should be carried in calculations. Exact Numbers  When a calculation uses numbers that were not obtained via measurement.

270 x 102 10 0.000304 1.09020 .How many Sig Figs?  Determine the number of Sig Figs in the following: 0.

Carry out multiplication and/or division. (If a series of calculations. carry extra digits to the end) 2.4 .342 × 5. Round the final answer to make the answer have the same number of Sig Figs as the measurement with the smallest number of Sig Figs.5 = 7.Sig Figs in Multiplication and Division 1.381 7. 1.

Round the final answer to make the answer have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the smallest number of decimal places. (If a series of calculations. . Carry out addition and/ or subtraction.Sig Figs in Addition and Subtraction 1. carry extra digits to the end) 2.

you are ALWAYS MULTIPLYING BY 1!!! .Dimensional Analysis  Dimensional Analysis (aka the Factor-Label Method) is a process where you cancel units to convert from one set of units to another.  In dimensional analysis.

 What about 1 x (1/1) x (1/1) =  Again. the answer is one.  Remember .Always multiplying by 1! .Dimensional Analysis  What is 1 x (1/1) = ?  It should be obvious to everyone that this is 1.

We need conversion factors and equivalence statements!  Eg: I go to the gas station and pump 7 gallons of gas. How much money did I spend? . The meter is broken and I cannot see how much money I have spent..42/gallon.Dimensional Analysis  Multiplying by just 1 doesn¶t do much for us though.. The sign at the gas station reads \$2.

1 mile .Dimensional Analysis  1. How many seconds are in a day? .094 yards)  2.2 miles. What is the distance in kilometers?  (1 mile = 1760 yards.1. The length of a marathon race is approximately 26.

SI) .Temperature Scales elsius (The e e use i the la ) e e use at home) ahre heit (The Kel i (The one e use for calculations .

Temperature Scales Fahrenheit (*F) Celsius (*C) Kelvin (K) Freezing Point 32 0 273 Boiling Point 212 100 373 .

Converting Between Celsius and elvin Celsius +  hat is degrees elsius on the elvin te erature s ale .

Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Temperature = 1.8(Temp. Celsius) 32  What is 90 degrees celsius on the Fahrenheit temperature scale? .

 Units are g/L  A student fills a graduated cylinder to 25. What is the density? . The mass of the solid is 63.5 grams. The volume of the liquid rises to 33.Density  Density is defined as the mass of a substance per unit volume. She then immerses a solid in the liquid.9 mL.0 mL with liquid.

0 grams of the liquid? .Density  Isopropyl alcohol has a density of 0. What volume should be measured to obtain 20.785 g/mL.