Classlcal LncrvpLlon

1echnlques
CSL 631ť lnLroducLlon Lo neLwork
SecurlLv
Classical encryption techniques
· As opposed to modern cryptography
· Goals:
÷ to introduce basic concepts & terminology of
encryption
÷ to prepare us for studying modern
cryptography

asic terminology
· Plaintext: original message to be
encrypted
· Ciphertext: the encrypted message
· Enciphering or encryption: the process of
converting plaintext into ciphertext
· Encryption algorithm: performs encryption
÷ Two inputs: a plaintext and a secret key

$ymmetric Cipher Model

· Deciphering or decryption: recovering
plaintext from ciphertext
· Decryption algorithm: performs decryption
÷ Two inputs: ciphertext and secret key
· $ecret key: same key used for encryption
and decryption
÷ Also referred to as a symmetric key
3
· Cipher or cryptographic system : a scheme
for encryption and decryption
· Cryptography: science of studying ciphers
· Cryptanalysis: science of studying attacks
against cryptographic systems
· Cryptology: cryptography + cryptanalysis
6
Ciphers
· $ymmetric cipher: same key used for
encryption and decryption
÷ lock cipher: encrypts a block of plaintext at a
time (typically 64 or 128 bits)
÷ $tream cipher: encrypts data one bit or one byte
at a time
· Asymmetric cipher: different keys used for
encryption and decryption

$ymmetric Encryption
· or conventional / secret-key / single-key
· sender and recipient share a common key
· all classical encryption algorithms are
symmetric
· The only type of ciphers prior to the
invention of asymmetric-key ciphers in
1970's
· by far most widely used

$ymmetric Encryption
· Mathematically:
Y = E
K
(X) or Y = E(K, X)
X = D
K
(Y) or X = D(K, Y)
· X = plaintext
· Y = ciphertext
· K = secret key
· E = encryption algorithm
· D = decryption algorithm
· oth E and D are known to public

Cryptanalysis
· Objective: to recover the plaintext of a
ciphertext or, more typically, to recover the
secret key.
· Kerkhoff's principle: the adversary knows all
details about a cryptosystem except the
secret key.
· Two general approaches:
÷ brute-force attack
÷ non-brute-force attack (cryptanalytic attack)
10
rute-Force Attack
· Try every key to decipher the ciphertext.
· On average, need to try half of all possible keys
· Time needed proportional to size of key space
Key Size (bits) Number of Alternative
Keys
Time required at 1
decryption/µs
Time required at 10
6
decryptions/µs
32 2
32
÷ 4.3 L

2
3
a8 ÷ 35.8 minute8 2.5 milli8econd8
56 2
56
÷ 7.2 L
6
2
55
a8 ÷ 42 year8 . hour8
28 2
28
÷ 3.4 L
38
2
27
a8 ÷ 5.4 L
24
year8 5.4 L
8
year8
68 2
68
÷ 3.7 L
5
2
67
a8 ÷ 5. L
36
year8 5. L
3
year8
26 character8
(permutation)
26! ÷ 4 L
26
2 L
26
a8 ÷ 6.4 L
2
year8 6.4 L
6
year8
11
1
Cryptanalytic Attacks
· May be classified by how much
information needed by the attacker:
÷ Ciphertext-only attack
÷ Known-plaintext attack
÷ Chosen-plaintext attack
÷ Chosen-ciphertext attack
1
Ciphertext-only attack
· Given: a ciphertext c
· Q: what is the plaintext m?
· An encryption scheme is completely
insecure if it cannot resist ciphertext-only
attacks.
1
Known-plaintext attack
· Given: (m
1
,c
1
), (m
2
,c
2
), ., (m
k
,c
k
) and a
new ciphertext c.
· Q: what is the plaintext of c?
· Q: what is the secret key in use?
13
Chosen-plaintext attack
· Given: (m
1
,c
1
), (m
2
,c
2
), ., (m
k
,c
k
), where
m
1
, m
2
, ., m
k
are chosen by the
adversary; and a new ciphertext c.
· Q: what is the plaintext of c, or what is the
secret key?
16
Example: chosen-plaintext attack
· Ìn 1942, U$ Navy cryptanalysts discovered that Japan
was planning an attack on "AF¨.
· They believed that "AF¨ means Midway island.
· Pentagon didn't think so.
· U$ forces in Midway sent a plain message that their
freshwater supplies were low.
· $hortly, U$ intercepted a Japanese ciphertext saying
that "AF¨ was low on water.
· This proved that "AF¨ is Midway.
1
Chosen-ciphertext attack
· Given: (m
1
,c
1
), (m
2
,c
2
), ., (m
k
,c
k
), where
c
1
, c
2
, ., c
k
are chosen by the adversary;
and a new ciphertext c.
· Q: what is the plaintext of c, or what is the
secret key?
Classical Ciphers
· Plaintext is viewed as a sequence of
elements (e.g., bits or characters)
· $ubstitution cipher: replacing each element of
the plaintext with another element.
· Transposition (or permutation) cipher:
rearranging the order of the elements of the
plaintext.
· Product cipher: using multiple stages of
substitutions and transpositions
1
Caesar Cipher
· Earliest known substitution cipher
· Ìnvented by Julius Caesar
· Each letter is replaced by the letter three
positions further down the alphabet.
· Plain: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Cipher: D E F G H Ì J K L M N O P Q R $ T U V W X Y Z A C
· Example: ohio state RKLR VWDWH
1
Caesar Cipher
· Mathematically, map letters to numbers:
a, b, c, ..., x, y, z
0, 1, 2, ..., 23, 24, 25
· Then the general Caesar cipher is:
. = E
K
(p) = (p + k) mod 26
p = D
K
(.) = (. ÷ k) mod 26
· Can be generalized with any alphabet.
0
Cryptanalysis of Caesar Cipher
· Key space: {0, 1, ..., 25}
· Vulnerable to brute-force attacks.
· E.g., break ciphertext "UNOU YZGZK"
· Need to recognize it when have the
plaintext
· What if the plaintext is written in $wahili?
1
Monoalphabetic $ubstitution Cipher
· $huffle the letters and map each plaintext letter to a
different random ciphertext letter:
Plain letters: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
Cipher letters: DKVQFÌJWPE$CXHTMYAUOLRGZN
Plaintext: ifwewishtoreplaceletters
Ciphertext: WÌRFRWAJUHYFT$DVF$FUUFYA
· What does a key look like?

Monoalphabetic Cipher $ecurity
· Now we have a total of 26! = 4 x 10
26
keys.
· With so many keys, it is secure against
brute-force attacks.
· ut not secure against some cryptanalytic
attacks.
· Problem is language characteristics.

Language $tatistics and Cryptanalysis
· Human languages are not random.
· Letters are not equally frequently used.
· Ìn English, E is by far the most common letter,
followed by T, R, N, Ì, O, A, $.
· Other letters like Z, J, K, Q, X are fairly rare.
· There are tables of single, double & triple letter
frequencies for various languages

English Letter Frequencies
3
$tatistics for double & triple letters
· Ìn decreasing order of frequency
· Double letters:
th he an in er re es on, .
· Triple letters:
the and ent ion tio for nde, .
6
Use in Cryptanalysis
· Key concept: monoalphabetic substitution does
not change relative letter frequencies
· To attack, we
÷ calculate letter frequencies for ciphertext
÷ compare this distribution against the known
one

Example Cryptanalysis
· Given ciphertext:
UZQSOVUOHXMOPVGPOZPEVSGZWSZOPFPESXUDBMETSXAIZ
VUEPHZHMDZSHZOWSFPAPPDTSVPQUZWYMXUZUHSX
EPYEPOPDZSZUFPOMBZWPFUPZHMDJUDTMOHMQ
· Count relative letter frequencies (see next page)
· Guess {P, Z} = {e, t}
· Of double letters, ZW has highest frequency, so
guess ZW = th and hence ZWP = the
· Proceeding with trial and error finally get:
it was disclosed yesterday that several informal but
direct contacts have been made with political
representatives of the viet cong in moscow

Letter frequencies in ciphertext
P 13.33 H 5.83 F 3.33 1.67 C 0.00
Z 11.67 D 5.00 W 3.33 G 1.67 K 0.00
$ 8.33 E 5.00 Q 2.50 Y 1.67 L 0.00
U 8.33 V 4.17 T 2.50 Ì 0.83 N 0.00
O 7.50 X 4.17 A 1.67 J 0.83 R 0.00
M 6.67

What type of attack?
· Ciphertext-only attack
· Known-plaintext attack
· Chosen-plaintext attack
· Chosen-ciphertext attack
0
Playfair Cipher
· Not even the large number of keys in a
monoalphabetic cipher provides security.
·
· One approach to improving security is to
encrypt multiple letters at a time.
· The PIayfair Cipher is the best known
such cipher.
· Ìnvented by Charles Wheatstone in 1854,
but named after his friend aron Playfair.
1
Playfair Key Matrix
· Use a 5 x 5 matrix.
· Fill in letters of the key (w/o duplicates).
· Fill the rest of matrix with other letters.
· E.g., key = MONARCHY.
M M OO N N AA R R
C C H H YY D D
EE FF GG Ì/J Ì/J KK
L L PP QQ $$ TT
U U VV WW XX ZZ

Encrypting and Decrypting
Plaintext is encrypted two letters at a time.
1. Ìf a pair is a repeated letter, insert filler like 'X'.
2. Ìf both letters fall in the same row, replace
each with the letter to its right (circularly).
3. Ìf both letters fall in the same column, replace
each with the the letter below it (circularly).
4. Otherwise, each letter is replaced by the letter
in the same row but in the column of the other
letter of the pair.

$ecurity of Playfair Cipher
· Equivalent to a monoalphabetic cipher with an
alphabet of 26 x 26 = 676 characters.
· $ecurity is much improved over the simple
monoalphabetic cipher.
· Was widely used for many decades
÷ eg. by U$ & ritish military in WW1 and early WW2
· Once thought to be unbreakable.
· Actually, it .an be broken, because it still leaves
some structure of plaintext intact.

Polyalphabetic $ubstitution Ciphers
· A sequence of monoalphabetic ciphers (M
1
, M
2
,
M
3
, ..., M
k
) is used in turn to encrypt letters.
· A key determines which sequence of ciphers to
use.
· Each plaintext letter has multiple corresponding
ciphertext letters.
· This makes cryptanalysis harder since the letter
frequency distribution will be flatter.
3
Vigenère Cipher
· $implest polyalphabetic substitution cipher
· Consider the set of all Caesar ciphers:
{ C
a
, C
b
, C
c
, ..., C
z
}
· Key: e.g. security
· Encrypt each letter using C
s
, C
e
, C
c
, C
u
, C
r
,
C
i
, C
t
, C
y
in turn.
· Repeat from start after C
y
.
· Decryption simply works in reverse.
6
Example of Vigenère Cipher
· Keyword: /0.0ptiv0
key: deceptivedeceptivedeceptive
plaintext: wearediscoveredsaveyourself
ciphertext: ZICVTWQNGRZGVTWAVZHCQYGLMGJ

$ecurity of Vigenère Ciphers
· There are multiple (how many?) ciphertext letters
corresponding to each plaintext letter.
· $o, letter frequencies are obscured but not totally lost.
· To break Vigenere cipher:
1. Try to guess the key length. How?
2. Ìf key length is N, the cipher consists of N Caesar
ciphers. Plaintext letters at positions k, N+k, 2N+k,
3N+k, etc., are encoded by the same cipher.
3. Attack each individual cipher as before.

Guessing the Key Length
· Main idea: Plaintext words separated by multiples
of the key length are encoded in the same way.
· Ìn our example, if plaintext = ".thexxxxxxthe.¨
then "the¨ will be encrypted to the same ciphertext
words.
· $o look at the ciphertext for repeated patterns.
· E.g. repeated "VTW¨ in the previous example
suggests a key length of 3 or 9:
ciphertext: ZICVTWQNGRZGVTWAVZHCQYGLMGJ
· Of course, the repetition could be a random fluke.

Rotor Cipher Machines
· efore modern ciphers, rotor machines were most common
complex ciphers in use.
· Widely used in WW2.
· Used a series of rotating cylinders.
· Ìmplemented a polyalphabetic substitution cipher of period K.
· With 3 cylinders, K = 26
3
=17,576.
· With 5 cylinders, K = 26
5
=12 x 10
6
.
· What is a key?
÷ Ìf the adversary has a machine
÷ Ìf the adversary doesn't have a machine
0
1
German secret setting sheets

Date
Which rotors to use (there were 10 rotors)
Ring setting
Plugboard setting
The Rotors

Enigma Rotor Machine

Enigma Rotor Machine
3
Transposition Ciphers
· Also called permutation ciphers.
· $huffle the plaintext, without altering the
actual letters used.
· Example: Row Transposition Ciphers
6
Row Transposition Ciphers
· Plaintext is written row by row in a rectangle.
· Ciphertext: write out the columns in an order
specified by a key.
ey: 3 4 2 1 5 6 7
Plaintext:
Ciphertext: TTNAAPTMTSUJAJDWCJIXNLYPETZ
a L L a c k p
o s L p o n e
d u n L l l L
w o a m x v z

Product Ciphers
· Uses a sequence of substitutions and
transpositions
÷ Harder to break than just substitutions or
transpositions
· This is a bridge from classical to modern ciphers.

Unconditional & Computational
$ecurity
· A cipher is unconditionally secure if it is
secure no matter how much resources
(time, space) the attacker has.
· A cipher is computationally secure if the
best algorithm for breaking it will require
so much resources (e.g., 1000 years) that
practically the cryptosystem is secure.
· All the ciphers we have examined are not
unconditionally secure.

An unconditionally $ecure Cipher
30
2 3 4
2 3 4
2 3 4
Key ÷ (random, )
Plaintext ÷
Cipherte
Vernam`8 one-time pad cip
u8ed one-time only
xt ÷
where
Can be proved to be unconditionally 8ec
her



ur . e


2 2 2 2
. . . .
. 2 W
O
O
O
O

$teganography
· Hide a message in another message.
· E.g., hide your plaintext in a graphic image
÷ Each pixel has 3 bytes specifying the RG color
÷ The least significant bits of pixels can be
changed w/o greatly affecting the image quality
÷ $o can hide messages in these L$s
· Advantage: hiding existence of messages
· Drawback: high overhead
31
3
· Take a 640x480 (=30,7200) pixel image.
· Using only 1 L$, can hide 115,200 characters
· Using 4 L$s, can hide 460,800 characters.
3
$ummary
· Have considered:
÷ classical cipher techniques and terminology
÷ monoalphabetic substitution ciphers
÷ cryptanalysis using letter frequencies
÷ Playfair cipher
÷ polyalphabetic ciphers
÷ transposition ciphers
÷ product ciphers and rotor machines
÷ stenography
3

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