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a differentiable function of x, that is u = g(x), then

y = f (g(x)) is a differentiable function of x and its

derivative is given by the product

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

the product of two rates of change.

1

Solution

4

x

• Differentiate g(x) =

1 − 3x

• Write g(x) = x

1

4

1

where u = x is the inner

= u4

1 − 3x 1 − 3x

−3

1 4 '

g ( x) = u u ( x)

'

4

−3

1 x 4 (1 − 3 x)(1) − x(−3)

g ( x) =

'

4 1 − 3x (1 − 3 x ) 2

−3

1 x 1 4 1

= = 2

4 1 − 3 x (1 − 3 x ) 2 3 5

4 x (1 − 3 x ) 4

4

Differentiation using Chain Rule

d n n −1 du d u u du d 1 du

u = nu e =e ln u =

dx dx dx dx dx u dx

d du d du

sin u = cos u cos u = − sin u

dx dx dx dx

d du d du

tan u = sec 2 u cot u = − csc u

2

dx dx dx dx

d du d du

sec u = sec u tan u csc u = − csc u cot u

dx dx dx dx 3

Example

• Write the composite function in the form of f(g(x)) and then find the derivative

using the chain rule.

• (i) y = (1 − x 2 )10

• (ii)

y = sin x

• (iii) y = tan(sin x)

4

Solution (i)

•

• Let u = g(x) = 1 - x2 and y = f(u) = u10

Then,

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

( )

= 10u 9 (−2 x)

= −20 x(1 − x 2 )9

5

Solution (ii)

• Let u = g(x) = sin x and y = f(u) = u

dy dy du 1 −1/ 2

= = u cos x

dx du dx 2

cos x

=

2 u

cos x

=

2 sin x

6

Solution (iv)

dy dy du

= = cos u[ x(− sin x) + cos x.1]

dx du dx

= cos( x cos x)(cos x − x sin x)

7

Example- level of C 02

• An environmental study of a certain community suggests that the average daily level

of carbon monoxide in the air may be modeled by the formula

C ( p ) = 0.5 p 2 + 17

It is estimated that t years from now,

2

the population of the community will be

2

p(t) = 3.1 + 0.1 t

thousand. At what rate the carbon monoxide level be changing with respect to time 3

years from now.

8

Solution

dC dC dp 1

( )

−1

= = 0.5 p 2 + 17 2 (0.5)(2 p )[ 0.2t ]

dt dp dt 2

When t = 3, p(3) = 3.1 + 0.1(3)

2

=4

dC 1 −1

t =3 = (0.5.4 + 17) (4)[ 0.2(3)] = 0.24

2 2

dt 2

The carbon monoxide level will be changing at the rate of 0.24 parts per million.

It will be increasing because the sign of dC is positive.

dt

9

Example: Tumor Growth

• A tumor grows such that its radius expands at a constant rate k. Determine the rate

of growth of the volume of the tumor when the radius is one centimeter. Assume the

shape of the tumor is well approximated by a sphere.

• (Volume of sphere, V = 4 πr 3 )

3

• Solution 4 3

• Volume of a sphere with radius r is

V = πr

3

• r and V change with time, and given dr

=k

dt

• So,

dV dV dr 4

= = π 3r 2 k = 4πr 2 k

dt dr dt 3

• When r = 1 cm,

dV

= 4πr 2 k = 4πk

dt 10

Example: spider web

• A spider moves horizontally across the ground at a constant rate k, pulling a thin

thread with it. One end of the thread is pinned to a vertical wall at height h above the

ground and does not move. The other end moves with the spider. Determine the rate

of the elongation of the thread.

• Solution

h l

x

h = height of pinned point

x = position of spider

l = length of thread

11

Spiderweb solution

l = x +h

2 2 2

dx

• We know h is constant and rate of spider moves with time is =k

dt

Need to find rate of elongation of thread w.r.t. t i.e dl

•

=?

dt

dl dx

2l = 2 x + 0

• So, dt dt

dl x dx x xk

= =

l

k=

dt l dt x2 + h2

12

Implicit Differentiation

as a function of x for − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

x 2 + y 2 = 1 as long as we restrict y by 0 ≤ y ≤ 1

To find the derivative of the explicit form, we use the chain rule;

1 −1

d d 1 −x

1 − x 2 = (1 − x 2 ) 2 = (1 − x 2 ) 2 (−2 x) =

dx dx 2 1 −x2

The derivative of the implicit function is

d 2 d

(x + y 2 ) = (1)

dx dx

13

Implicit Differentiation

• So, dy

2x + 2 y =0

dx

dy − x x

= =−

dx y 1− x2

x 2 y 3 − 6 = 5 y 3+ x

d 3 3 d d d 3 d

x 2

(y ) + y ( x ) − (6 ) = 5 ( y ) + ( x )

2

dx dx dx dx dx

2 dy 2 dy

x 3y + y ( 2 x) − 0 = 5 3 y +1

2 3

dx dx 14

Continue…

dy

3 y − 15 y )

2 2 2

= 1 − 2 xy 3

dx

dy 1 − 2 xy 3

= 2 2

dx 3x y − 15 y 2

15

Example

• Find y' if

Solution

16

Example

• Prove that an equation of the tangent line to the graph of the hyperbola

at the point P ( x0 , y0 ) is

Solution

17

Continue…

18

• Find all points (x, y) on the graph ofx2/3 + y2/3 = 8

• (see diagram.) where lines tangent to the graph at (x, y) have slope -1 .

19

Solution

x 2/3

+y 2/3

=8

2 −1/ 3 2 −1/ 3 dy

x + y =0

3 3 dx

dy − x −1/ 3

= −1/ 3

dx y

dy − x −1/ 3 − y1/ 3

= −1/ 3 = 1/ 3 = −1

dx y x

20

Continue…

dy − y1/ 3

• Solve the equation = 1/ 3 = −1 and get the points on the

dx x

• curve where the tangent passing through those points have slope -1

21

DERIVATIVE FORMULAS FOR THE INVERSE

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

d 1 du d − 1 du

(sin −1 u ) = −1

(cot u ) =

dx 1 − u 2 dx dx 1 + u 2 dx

d − 1 du d

(sec −1 u ) =

1 du

(cos −1 u ) = dx

dx 1 − u 2 dx | u | u 2 − 1 dx

d 1 du d −1 −1 du

−1

(tan u ) = csc u ) =

dx 1 + u 2 dx dx | u | u 2 − 1 dx

22

Proof of d 1 du

(sin −1 u ) =

dx 1 − u 2 dx

• We shall prove the first formula and leave the others as problems.

• α = sin −1 f ( x) ,

Let u = f(x)

sin α = f ( x)

d d

(sin α ) = ( x)

dx dx

dα

cos α =1

dx

dα 1 1 1

= = = (cos 2 α + sin 2 α = 1)

dx cos α 1 − sin α

2

1 − [ f ( x)]2

•

d d du 1 du

(sin −1 u ) = (sin −1 u ) =

dx du dx 1 − u 2 dx 23

Example

• 1. y = sin −1 (2 x + 1)

−1

• 2. y = tan x2 + 1

• 3. y = csc −1 (2 x 2 )

24

Solution

dy d −1 du 1 2

= (sin u ) = ( 2) =

dx du dx 1 − (2 x + 1) 2

− 4x 2 − 4x

• 2. y = tan −1 x 2 + 1 , u = x2 +1

1

dy d du 1 1 2 − 1 x

= (tan −1 u ) = ( x + 1) 2

( 2 x ) =

dx du dx 1 + ( x 2 + 1) 2 1 + ( x 2 + 1) x2 +1

x

• Try 3… =

( x 2 + 2) x 2 + 1

25

Differentiating Logarithmic Functions with Bases other than e

base b, d 1 1 du

(log b u ) = .

dx ln b u dx

ln u

Proof: Change log b u to base e and take ln on both sides of y= and

differentiate ln b

Example

Find the derivative of y = 3 log 7 ( x 2 + 1)

Solution

3 dy dy du

u = x +1 2

y= ln u =

ln 7 dx du dx

1 3 6 x

u' = 2x = 2 x =

ln 7 x 2 + 1 ln 7 x 2 + 1

26

Example

• Solution

This is an implicit function.

27

Another example

y = ( sin x )

x

• Find the derivative of

• Solution

28

Other Formulas for Derivatives of Exponential Functions

u

• If u is a function of x, we can obtain the derivative of e

an expression in the form :

If we have an exponential function with some base b, we have the following derivative

y = bu

ln y = u ln b 1 dy du

⇒ = ln b

y dx dx

29

Example

x2

• Find the derivative of y = 10

• Solution

b = 10 and u = x2

ln y = x 2 ln 10

1 dy

= 2 x ln 10

y dx

dy x2

= 10 2 x ln 10

dx 30

Example

Solution

31

Example

• So

32

Logarithmic differentiation

y= 3

( x + 5) 2 (4 − 7 x)

• Solution

e 2 x (2 x − 1) 6

ln y = ln 3

( x + 5) 2

( 4 − 7 x )

= 2 x ln e + 6 ln(2 x − 1) − 2 ln( x 3 + 5) − ln(4 − 7 x)

1 dy 1 1 1

= 2 + 6 (2) − 2 3 (3x 2 ) − (−7)

y dx 2x − 1 x +5 4 − 7x

• Remember ln e = 1

33

Related rates and Applications

• Example 1

• A spherical balloon is being filled with a gas in such a way that when the

radius is 2ft, the radius is increasing at the rate of 1/6ft./min. How fast is

the volume changing at this time?

• (Volume of sphere is V = 4 πr 3 )

3

dV

• Solution Need to find dt at the

4 3 dr 1

• V = πr time when r= 2 and =

3 dt 6

dV d 4 3

= ( πr )

dt dt 3 dV 1

r =2 = 4π (2) 2

dr

dt 6

= 4πr2

8π

dt =

3 34

Example 2

A person 6ft. tall walks away from a streetlight at the rate of 5 ft/s.

If the light is 18ft above ground level, how fast is the person’s

shadow lengthening

Solution

Let x = length of the shadow

y = distance of the person from the streetlight

dy dx

= 5 ft / s =?

dt dt 18

x x+ y y x

=

6 18

35

Continue…

x x+ y

=

6 18

y = 2x

dy dx

=2

dt dt

dx

5=2

dt

dx

dt

= 2 .5 → The shadow is lengthening at the rate of 2.5ft/s.

36

Example 3

3 4

rate of 5in / min ( Volume of sphere is V = πr 3 )

3

• (b) how fast is the radius changing at the instant when the radius is 4 inch

• (c) how fast is the surface area changing at the same instant

• (surface area of sphere is S = 4πr 2 )

• (d) what assumption are you making in this model about the shape of the

ice.

37

Solution of melting ice

• Given dV and r = 4

= −5

dt

4 3

V = πr

3

• (b) dV dr

= 4πr 2

dt dt

dr

− 5 = 4π (4) 2

dt

dr − 5

• = ~ −0.025 → the radius is decreasing at the rate of

dt 64π 0.025in/min

38

Continue…

• (c)

S = 4πr 2

dS dr

= 8πr

dt dt

• With r = 4 and

dr − 5

= ~ −0.025

dt 64π

dS −5

= 8π (4) = −2.5in / min

2

dt 64π

surface area is decreasing at the rate of − 2.5in / min

2

39

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