Stanford University

Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Zernike Polynomials and Their Use in
Describing the Wavefront Aberrations of the
Human Eye
Psych 221/EE362 Applied Vision and Imaging Systems
Course Project, Winter 2003
Patrick Y. Maeda
pmaeda@stanford.edu
Stanford University
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Introduction and Motivation

Great interest in correcting higher order aberrations of the eye

Laser eye surgery (PRK, LASIK)
– Currently, only defocus and astigmatism being corrected (2
nd
order aberrations)
– Improve vision better than 20/20
– Correct problems caused or induced by current generation of laser surgery

Imaging of the retina and other structures in the eye using adaptive optics

Correction requires measurement of optical aberrations

Defocus and astigmatism can be determined using sets of lenses

Measurement of higher orders require more sophisticated techniques
– Measurement of the wavefront aberration with Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor

Mathematical description of the aberrations needed

Accurate description of wave aberration function

Accurate estimation of wave aberration function from measurement data
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Project Outline

Introduction/Motivation

General Optical System Description

Monochromatic Wavefront Aberrations

PSF and MTF calculations

Why Use Zernike Polynomials?

Definition of Zernike Polynomials

Describing Wave Aberrations using Zernike Polynomials

Simulating the Effects of Wave Aberrations

Wavefront Measurement and Data Fitting with Zernike
Polynomials

Conclusion, References, Source Code Appendix
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Coordinate Systems
Optical
System
Optical
Axis
y
z
x
y
x
Object
Plane
Image
Plane
y
x
θ
φ
Object
Height
h’
h
Image
Height
Optical
System
Optical
Axis
y
z
x
y
x
Object
Plane
Image
Plane
y
x
θ
φ
Object
Height
h’
h
Image
Height
θ
y
x
r
a
x = r cos(θ)
y = r sin(θ)
θ = tan
-1
(x/y)
r = (x
2
+y
2
)
1/2
θ
y
x
ρ
1
x = ρ cos(θ)
y = ρ sin(θ)
θ = tan
-1
(x/y)
ρ = r/a = (x
2
+y
2
)
1/2
Normalized Pupil Coordinate System Pupil Coordinate System
θ
y
x
r
a
x = r cos(θ)
y = r sin(θ)
θ = tan
-1
(x/y)
r = (x
2
+y
2
)
1/2
θ
y
x
ρ
1
x = ρ cos(θ)
y = ρ sin(θ)
θ = tan
-1
(x/y)
ρ = r/a = (x
2
+y
2
)
1/2
Normalized Pupil Coordinate System Pupil Coordinate System
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Wave Aberration
The wavefront aberration, W(x,y), is the distance, in optical path length (product of the refractive index
and path length), from the reference sphere to the wavefront in the exit pupil measured along the ray as
a function of the transverse coordinates (x,y) of the ray intersection with the reference sphere. It is not
the wavefront itself but it is the departure of the wavefront from the reference sphere.
y
z
x
Exit
Pupil
Image
Plane
Aberrated
Wavefront
Reference
Spherical
Wavefront
Wave
Aberration
W(x,y)
{ ¦
{ ¦
0 , 0
2
,
) , (
2
2 2
) , (
) , (
1
) , (
· ·
· ·

·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ ·
y x
y x
s s
y x
d
y
f
d
x
f
y x W i
p
PSF FT
PSF FT
s s MTF
e y x p FT
A d
y x PSF
λ λ
λ
π
λ
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Describing Optical Aberrations

Optical system aberrations have historically been described,
characterized, and catalogued by power series expansions

Many optical systems have circular pupils

Application of experimental results typically require data fitting

It is, therefore, desirable to expand the wave aberration in
terms of a complete set of basis functions that are orthogonal
over the interior of a circle
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Why Use Zernike Polynomials?

Zernike polynomials form a complete set of functions or modes
that are orthogonal over a circle of unit radius

Convenient for serving as a set of basis functions

Expressible in polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates

Scaled so that non-zero order modes have zero mean and unit variance
– Puts modes in a common reference frame for meaningful relative comparison

Other power series descriptions are not orthogonal

Wave aberrations in an optical system with a circular pupil
accurately described by a weighted sum of Zernike polynomials

The Orthonormal set of Zernike polynomials is recommended for
describing wave aberration functions and for data fitting of
experimental measurements for the eye
7
– Terms are normalized so that the coefficient of a particular term or mode is the RMS
contribution of that term
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Mathematical Formulae
3
[ ] [ ]
s n
m n
s
s
m
n
m
n
m m
m
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
s m n s m n s
s n
R
R
m m
n
N
N
n n n n m n
m m R N
m m R N Z
2
2 ) (
0
0 0
0
3
! ) ( 5 . 0 ! ) ( 5 . 0 !
)! ( ) 1 (
) (
polynomial radial the is ) (
0 for 0 , 0 for 1
1
) 1 ( 2
factor ion normalizat the is
, , 4 , 2 , of on values only take can : given a for
2 0 , 1 0 , 0 for ) sin( ) (
2 0 , 1 0 , 0 for ) cos( ) ( ) , (
: as defined are s polynomial Zernike The


·

− − − +
− −
·
≠ · · ·
+
+
·
+ − + − −
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ < − ·
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≥ ·
ρ ρ
ρ
δ δ
δ
π θ ρ θ ρ
π θ ρ θ ρ θ ρ

factorial.m
zernike.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
List of Zernike Polynomials
7, 9,10
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
   
 


) 4 ( c 10 4 4 14
m Astigmatis Secondary ) 2 cos( 3 4 10 2 4 13
Defocus , Aberration Spherical 1 6 6 5 0 4 12
m Astigmatis Secondary ) 2 sin( 3 4 10 2 - 4 11
) 4 ( sin 10 4 - 4 10
) 3 ( c 8 3 3 9
axis - x along Coma ) cos( 2 3 8 1 3 8
axis - y along Coma ) sin( 2 3 8 1 - 3 7
) 3 ( sin 8 3 - 3 6
90 or 0 at axis with m Astigmatis ) 2 ( c 6 2 2 5
Defocus curvature, Field 1 2 3 0 2 4
45 at axis with m Astigmatis ) 2 ( sin 6 2 - 2 3
Distortion direction, - in x Tilt ) cos( 2 1 1 2
Distortion direction, - y in Tilt ) ( sin 2 1 - 1 1
Piston or erm, Constant t 1 0 0 0
Meaning ,
frequency order mode
4
2 4
2 4
2 4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
θ ρ
θ ρ ρ
ρ ρ
θ ρ ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ ρ
θ ρ ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
os
os
os
Z m n j
m
n

+ −




t
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Wave Aberration Description
) , ( ) , (
)) cos( ) ( ( ) ) sin( ) ( (
) , ( ) , (
: s polynomial Zernike of sum weighted a as expressed is aberration wave The
max
0
0
1
7

∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑
·
·

− ·
− ·
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
·
j
j
j j
k
n
n
m
m
n
m
n
m
n
n m
m
n
m
n
m
n
k
n
n
n m
m
n
m
n
y x Z W y x W
m R N W m R N W
Z W W
θ ρ θ ρ
θ ρ θ ρ
WaveAberration.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Double-Index Zernike Polynomials
Azimuthal Frequency, m
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Radial
Order, n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Common Names
7
Piston
Tilt
Astigmatism (m=-2,2),
Defocus(m=0)
Coma (m=-1,1),
Trefoil(m=-3,3)
Spherical Aberration
(m=0)
Secondary Coma (m=-
1,1)
Secondary Spherical
Aberration (m=0)
( ) ,θ ρ
m
n
Z
ZernikePolynomial.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Double-Index Zernike Polynomial PSFs
Azimuthal Frequency, m
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Radial
Order, n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Common Names
7
Piston
Tilt
Astigmatism (m=-2,2),
Defocus(m=0)
Coma (m=-1,1),
Trefoil(m=-3,3)
Spherical Aberration
(m=0)
Secondary Coma (m=-
1,1)
Secondary Spherical
Aberration (m=0)
( ) ,θ ρ
m
n
Z
ZernikePolynomialPSF.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Double-Index Zernike Polynomial MTFs
( ) ,θ ρ
m
n
Z
Azimuthal Frequency, m
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Radial
Order, n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
MTF
y
MTF
x
Common Names
7
Piston
Tilt
Astigmatism (m=-2,2),
Defocus(m=0)
Coma (m=-1,1),
Trefoil(m=-3,3)
Spherical Aberration
(m=0)
Secondary Coma (m=-
1,1)
Secondary Spherical
Aberration (m=0)
Pupil Diameter = 4 mm
0 to 50 cycles/degree
λ
= 570 nm
RMS wavefront error =
0.2λ
ZernikePolynomialMTF.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Double-Index Zernike Polynomial MTFs
Azimuthal Frequency, m
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Radial
Order, n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
MTF
y
MTF
x
Common Names
7
Piston
Tilt
Astigmatism (m=-2,2),
Defocus(m=0)
Coma (m=-1,1),
Trefoil(m=-3,3)
Spherical Aberration
(m=0)
Secondary Coma (m=-
1,1)
Secondary Spherical
Aberration (m=0)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0. 1
0. 2
0. 3
0. 4
0. 5
0. 6
0. 7
0. 8
0. 9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Pupil Diameter = 7.3 mm
0 to 50 cycles/degree
λ
= 570 nm
RMS wavefront error =
0.2λ
( ) ,θ ρ
m
n
Z
ZernikePolynomialMTF.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Simulation based on Human Eye Data
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
s
x
(cycle/deg)
MTF of Zero Aberration System, 5.4mm pupil
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
s
y
(cycle/deg)
MTF of Zero Aberration System, 5.4mm pupil
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
s
x
(cycle/deg)
MTF of Aberrated System, Wrms = 0.85012
λ
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
s
y
(cycle/deg)
MTF of Aberrated System, Wrms = 0.85012
λ
Mode j Coefficient (µm) RMS Coefficient (µm)
0 0 0
1 0 0
2 0 0
3 1.02 0.416413256
4 0 0
5 0.33 0.134721936
6 0.21 0.074246212
7 -0.26 -0.091923882
8 0.03 0.010606602
9 -0.34 -0.120208153
10 -0.12 -0.037947332
11 0.05 0.015811388
12 0.19 0.084970583
13 -0.19 -0.060083276
14 0.15 0.047434165
Total RMS Wavefront Error (µm) 0.484608089

WaveAberration.m
WaveAberrationPSF.m
WaveAberrationMTF.m
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Measurement Setup
Pupil
Retina
Iris
Real
Aberrated
Wavefront
Ideal
Planar
Wavefront
y
z
x
Incoming
Light Beam
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Shack-Hartmann Sensor Layout
CCD Pupil Relay Optics PBS
Light
Source
Lenslet
Array
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor
Lenslet Array
Focal Length f
∆ y(x
1
, y
1
)
∆ y(x
1
, y
2
)
∆ y(x
1
, y
3
)
∆ y(x
1
, y
4
)
Aberrated
Wavefront
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Data Fitting with Zernike Polynomials
(15)
) , (
) , (
(14)
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
mode for that error wavefront rms the to equal is
expansion in the mode the of t coefficien the is
) , ( ) , (
) , ( ) , (
) , ( ) , (
y
y x Z
W
f
y x y
x
y x Z
W
f
y x x
y
y x Z
W
y
y x W
x
y x Z
W
x
y x W
W
Z W
y x Z W y x W
f
y x y
y
y x W
f
y x x
x
y x W
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
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j j
j
j j


·



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Equations (14) and (15) can be used to determine the W
j
’s using Least-squares Estimation
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Least-squares Estimation
α α
β α α α ω
ω
α ω β
of nspose matrix tra the is where
) (
: by given is of estimate squares - Least The
2
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
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) , (
) , (
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form matrix in expressed be can (15) and (14) Equations
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and ) , (
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and ) , (
) , (

Let,
1
LS
max
2
max
2
1
max 2 1
2 1 max 2 1 2 2 1 1
1 1 max 1 1 2 1 1 1
max 2 1
2 1 max 2 1 2 2 1 1
1 1 max 1 1 2 1 1 1
2 1
1 1
2 1
1 1
T
T T
j
k k j k k k k
j
j
k k j k k k k
j
j
k k
k k
j
j
j
j
or
j k
W
W
W
y x h y x h y x h
y x h y x h y x h
y x h y x h y x h
y x g y x g y x g
y x g y x g y x g
y x g y x g y x g
y x c
y x c
y x c
y x b
y x b
y x b
y x h
y
y x Z
y x g
x
y x Z
y x c
f
y x y
y x b
f
y x x

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   



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Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Benefits of Orthogonality
1
2 2 LS
1 1
) ( matrix, d conditione - ill
an of inversion in the result may functions basis of set orthogonal - non a that Note
matrix diagonal a by tion multiplica
and s polynomial Zernike the of s derivative partial the onto data
the of projection by obtained are ts coefficien aberration wave The
matrix diagonal a is where
elements diagonal zero - non h matrix wit diagonal a is ere wh
orthogonal are in columns the Therefore
orthogonal are y in s derivative partial Their
orthogonal are in x s derivative partial Their
: orthogonal are s ' the Since


· ⇒
· ⇒
α α
β α ω
α α
α
T
T
T
j
D D
D D
Z
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Conclusions

Zernike Polynomials well suited for

Describing wave aberration functions of optical systems with circular
pupils

Estimation of wave aberration coefficients from wavefront measurements

Able to integrate Psych 221 learning with material from optical
systems and Fourier optics courses

Linear systems theory make image formation and image quality
evaluation straightforward

Suggestions for future work

Extend simulation to incorporate chromatic effects

Investigate the how wave aberration changes with accommodation

Conduct simulations on a wide set of patient data

Simulate the higher order aberrations induced by the PRK and LASIK

Research some of the new wavefront technologies like implantable lenses
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
References
[1] MacRae, S. M., Krueger, R. R., Applegate, A. A., (2001), Customized Corneal Ablation, The Quest for
SuperVision, Slack Incorporated.
[2] Williams, D., Yoon, G. Y., Porter, J., Guirao, A., Hofer, H., Cox, I., (2000), “Visual Benefits of Correcting
Higher Order Aberrations of the Eye,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, Vol. 16, September/October 2000,
S554-S559.
[3] Thibos, L., Applegate, R.A., Schweigerling, J.T., Webb, R., VSIA Standards Taskforce Members (2000),
"Standards for Reporting the Optical Aberrations of Eyes," OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Vol. 35,
Vision Science and its Applications, Lakshminarayanan,V. (ed) (Optical Society of America, Washington,
DC), pp: 232-244.
[4] Goodman, J. W. (1968). Introduction to Fourier Optics. San Francisco: McGraw Hill
[5] Gaskill, J. D. (1978). Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, Optics. New York: Wiley
[6] Fischer, R. E. (2000). Optical System Design. New York: McGraw Hill
[7] Thibos, L. N.(1999), Handbook of Visual Optics, Draft Chapter on Standards for Reporting Aberrations of
the Eye. http://research.opt.indiana.edu/Library/HVO/Handbook.html
[8] Bracewell, R. N. (1986). The Fourier Transform and Its Applications. McGraw Hill
[9] Mahajan, V. N. (1998). Optical Imaging and Aberrations, Part I Ray Geometrical Optics, SPIE Press
[10] Liang, L., Grimm, B., Goelz, S., Bille, J., (1994), “Objective Measurement of Wave Aberrations of the
Human Eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack Wave-front Sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 11, No. 7,
1949-1957.
[11] Liang, L., Williams, D. R., (1997), “Aberration and Retinal Image Quality of the Normal Human Eye,” J. Opt.
Soc. Am. A, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2873-2883.
Stanford University
Psych 221 / EE 362
Winter 2002-2003

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03
Appendix I
Matlab Source Code Files:
zernike.m
ZernikePolynomial.m
ZernikePolynomialPSF.m
ZernikePolynomialMTF.m
WaveAberration.m
WaveAberrationPSF.m
WaveAberrationMTF.m

Introduction and Motivation

Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003

 Great interest in correcting higher order aberrations of the eye
 Laser eye surgery (PRK, LASIK)
– Currently, only defocus and astigmatism being corrected (2nd order aberrations) – Improve vision better than 20/20 – Correct problems caused or induced by current generation of laser surgery

 Imaging of the retina and other structures in the eye using adaptive optics

 Correction requires measurement of optical aberrations
 Defocus and astigmatism can be determined using sets of lenses  Measurement of higher orders require more sophisticated techniques
– Measurement of the wavefront aberration with Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor

 Mathematical description of the aberrations needed
 Accurate description of wave aberration function  Accurate estimation of wave aberration function from measurement data

Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03

References. Maeda 3/10/03 . Source Code Appendix Patrick Y.Project Outline  Introduction/Motivation  General Optical System Description  Monochromatic Wavefront Aberrations  PSF and MTF calculations  Why Use Zernike Polynomials?  Definition of Zernike Polynomials Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003  Describing Wave Aberrations using Zernike Polynomials  Simulating the Effects of Wave Aberrations  Wavefront Measurement and Data Fitting with Zernike Polynomials  Conclusion.

Maeda 3/10/03 .Coordinate Systems Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Object Plane y Object h Height x Optical System y θ Optical Axis x Image Plane y x φ h’ z Image Height Pupil Coordinate System y Normalized Pupil Coordinate System y r θ a x ρ θ x 1 x = r cos(θ) y = r sin(θ) θ = tan-1(x/y) r = (x2+y2)1/2 x = ρ cos(θ) y = ρ sin(θ) θ = tan-1(x/y) ρ = r/a = (x2+y2)1/2 Patrick Y.

Patrick Y. y )   1 PSF ( x. W(x.Wave Aberration Exit Pupil Wave Aberration W(x. y ) ⋅ e λ  λ d Ap   MTF ( s x . s y =0 y Aberrated Wavefront Image Plane Reference Spherical Wavefront x z The wavefront aberration. Maeda 3/10/03 .y) Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 2 fx = x y . is the distance. in optical path length (product of the refractive index and path length). It is not the wavefront itself but it is the departure of the wavefront from the reference sphere.y). from the reference sphere to the wavefront in the exit pupil measured along the ray as a function of the transverse coordinates (x.y) of the ray intersection with the reference sphere. y ) = 2 2 FT  p( x. fy = λd λd 2π − i W ( x. s y ) = FT { PSF } FT { PSF } s x =0.

Describing Optical Aberrations Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003  Optical system aberrations have historically been described. Maeda 3/10/03 . and catalogued by power series expansions  Many optical systems have circular pupils  Application of experimental results typically require data fitting  It is. desirable to expand the wave aberration in terms of a complete set of basis functions that are orthogonal over the interior of a circle Patrick Y. characterized. therefore.

Why Use Zernike Polynomials? Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003  Zernike polynomials form a complete set of functions or modes that are orthogonal over a circle of unit radius  Convenient for serving as a set of basis functions  Expressible in polar coordinates or Cartesian coordinates  Scaled so that non-zero order modes have zero mean and unit variance – Puts modes in a common reference frame for meaningful relative comparison  Other power series descriptions are not orthogonal  Wave aberrations in an optical system with a circular pupil accurately described by a weighted sum of Zernike polynomials  The Orthonormal set of Zernike polynomials is recommended for describing wave aberration functions and for data fitting of experimental measurements for the eye7 – Terms are normalized so that the coefficient of a particular term or mode is the RMS contribution of that term Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03 .

 . − n + 2.θ ) = N n Rn ( ρ ) cos(mθ ) m m = − N n Rn ( ρ ) sin(mθ ) m Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 for m ≥ 0 . Maeda 3/10/03 . − n + 4. 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1 . δ m 0 = 0 for m ≠ 0 factorial.5(n − m ) − s ] ! Patrick Y. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π for a given n : m can only take on values of − n.m Rn ( ρ ) is the radial polynomial m zernike.m R (ρ) = m n (n− m ) 2 ∑ s =0 (−1) s (n − s )! ρ n−2 s s ! [ 0.5(n + m ) − s ] ! [ 0. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π for m < 0 .Mathematical Formulae 3 The Zernike polynomials are defined as 3 : m m Z n ( ρ . n m N n is the normalization factor m Nn = 2(n + 1) 1 + δ m0 δ m 0 = 1 for m = 0 . 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1 .

List of Zernike Polynomials 7. or Piston Tilt in y . Maeda 3/10/03 . Distortion Tilt in x .axis 1 2 ρ sin (θ ) 2 ρ cos(θ ) 6 ρ 2 sin (2θ ) 3 2ρ 2 − 1 ( ) 6 ρ 2 cos (2θ ) ( 8 ( 3ρ ( 8 ρ 3 sin (3θ ) 3 8 3 ρ 3 − 2 ρ sin(θ ) 8 ρ 3 cos(3θ ) 10 ρ 4 sin (4θ ) ) − 2 ρ ) cos(θ ) ) 10 4 ρ 4 − 3 ρ 2 sin(2θ ) 5 6ρ 4 − 6ρ 2 + 1 ( 10 4 ρ 4 − 3 ρ 2 cos(2θ ) 10 ρ 4 cos (4θ )  ( ) ) Secondary Astigmatism Spherical Aberration. Defocus Secondary Astigmatism Patrick Y.direction.9.axis Coma along x . Defocus Astigmatism with axis at 0  or 90  Coma along y .direction.θ ) Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Meaning Constant term.10 mode j 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  order n 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4  frequency m 0 -1 1 -2 0 2 -3 -1 1 3 -4 -2 0 2 4  m Z n ( ρ . Distortion Astigmatism with axis at ± 45  Field curvature.

θ ) = ∑ k k n m=− n ∑W n m n m Z n ( ρ . y ) WaveAberration. Maeda 3/10/03 .Wave Aberration Description Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 The wave aberration is expressed as a weighted sum of Zernike polynomials 7 : W ( ρ .θ ) n  −1 m  m m m m = ∑  ∑ Wn (− N n Rn ( ρ ) sin(mθ )) + ∑ Wnm ( N n Rn ( ρ ) cos(mθ )) n m = − n m=0  W ( x.m Patrick Y. y ) = j max j =0 ∑W Z j j ( x.

Double-Index Zernike Polynomials Radial Order. m -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Common Names7 Piston Z m n ( ρ . n 0 -6 -5 -4 Azimuthal Frequency. Maeda 3/10/03 2 3 4 5 6 .1) Secondary Spherical Aberration (m=0) Patrick Y.m 1 Tilt Astigmatism (m=-2.2).1). Trefoil(m=-3. Defocus(m=0) Coma (m=-1.θ ) ZernikePolynomial.3) Spherical Aberration (m=0) Secondary Coma (m=1.

Maeda 3/10/03 2 3 4 5 6 .m 1 Tilt Astigmatism (m=-2.1). n 0 -6 -5 -4 Azimuthal Frequency.1) Secondary Spherical Aberration (m=0) Patrick Y. m -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Common Names7 Piston Z m n ( ρ .3) Spherical Aberration (m=0) Secondary Coma (m=1. Defocus(m=0) Coma (m=-1. Trefoil(m=-3.θ ) ZernikePolynomialPSF.Double-Index Zernike Polynomial PSFs Radial Order.2).

8 0 .1).6 0 .7 0 .5 0 .1 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 . Defocus(m=0) Coma (m=-1.8 0 .7 0 .3 0 .8 0 .6 0 .9 0 .1 0 0 6 Secondary Spherical Aberration (m=0) 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 Patrick Y.9 0 .4 0 .6 0 .2 0.9 0 .2 0 .2 0 .5 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .9 0 .4 0 .1 0 Spherical Aberration (m=0) 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .2 0 .4 0 .4 0 .2 0 .4 0 .9 0 .5 0 .7 0 .5 0 .8 0.8 0 .2λ 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .8 0 .3 0 .1 0 0 Secondary Coma (m=1.1 0 0 5 1 0 .5 0 .5 0 .9 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .5 0 .6 0 .3 0 .6 0 .2 0 .m 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 Z m n ( ρ .9 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .3 0 .3 0 .9 0 .5 0 .3 0 .7 0 .4 0 .6 0 .2 0 .4 0 .5 0 .2 0 .7 0 .5 0 .4 0 . m -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 1 0 .4 0 .3 0 .6 0 .4 0 .8 0 .9 0.5 0.7 0 .8 0 .4 0 .6 0 .2 0 .5 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .2 0 .4 0 .7 0 .8 0 .2 0 .9 0 .3 0 .5 0 .7 0 .2 0 .5 0.2 0 .4 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .4 0.9 0 .2 0 .6 0 .5 0 .1) 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .3 0.5 0 .7 0 .1 0 0 1 0 . Maeda 3/10/03 .7 0 .2 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .2 0 .9 0 .9 0 .7 0 .9 0 .6 0 .3 0 .2 0 .7 0 .6 0.9 0 .3 0 .4 0 .2 0 .2 0 .8 0 .3 0 .3 0 .2).9 0 .3 0 .8 0 .3 0 .7 0 .9 0 .3 0.6 0 .6 0 .7 0 .6 0 .7 0.3 0 .5 0 .1 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 .7 0 .9 0 .5 0 .3 0 .4 0 .8 0 .6 0 .5 0 .1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 1 0 .1 0 0 4 1 0 .6 0 .3 0 . Trefoil(m=-3.1 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .4 0.5 0 .7 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .6 0 .4 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .5 0 .6 0 .3 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .8 0.2 0 .5 0 .9 0 .9 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .6 0 .8 0 .9 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .8 0 .9 0 .7 0 .1 0 0 Tilt Astigmatism (m=-2.7 0 .8 0 .3) 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 1 0.9 0 .1 0 0 0 .2 0 .6 0 .2 0 .8 0 .8 0 .3 0 .6 0 .1 0 0 Pupil Diameter = 4 mm 0 to 50 cycles/degree λ = 570 nm RMS wavefront error = 0.6 0.6 0 . n 0 -6 -5 -4 Azimuthal Frequency.8 0 .5 0 .1 0 0 3 1 0.1 0 0 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 4 5 6 Common Names7 Piston ZernikePolynomialMTF.1 0 0 1 0 .4 0 .2 0.1 0 0 1 0 .4 0 .Double-Index Zernike Polynomial MTFs Radial Order.1 0 2 MTFy MTFx 4 0 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 1 0 .2 0 .7 0 .6 0 .4 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .4 0 .8 0 .2 0 .4 0 .5 0 .3 0 .9 0 .3 0 .8 0 .6 0 .9 0.3 0 .9 0 .1 0 0 1 0 .2 0 .2 0 .8 0 .4 0 .8 0 .3 0 .7 0 .8 0 .5 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .3 0 .4 0 .8 0 .7 0 .9 0 .7 0 .9 0 .7 0 .θ ) 1 0 .7 0 .4 0 .8 0 .8 0 .7 0.

1 0 1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0. m -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 1 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.1 0 1 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.θ ) 1 0.1 0 Secondary Coma (m=1.1 0 6 Secondary Spherical Aberration (m=0) 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Patrick Y.6 0.7 0.9 0.6 0. Trefoil(m=-3.7 0.8 0.1 0 Tilt Astigmatism (m=-2.4 0.4 0. Maeda 3/10/03 .2 0.3 0.5 0.1 0 Pupil Diameter = 7.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.1).8 0.3) 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 1 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.1) 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.2).1 0 Spherical Aberration (m=0) 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0.1 0 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 4 5 6 Common Names7 Piston ZernikePolynomialMTF.3 0.9 0.1 0 3 1 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.1 0 1 0.1 0 4 1 0.7 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0. 7 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.3 mm 0 to 50 cycles/degree λ = 570 nm RMS wavefront error = 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.1 0 1 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.1 0 1 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.2 0. 5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.2 0. n 0 -6 -5 -4 Azimuthal Frequency.3 0.7 0.3 0.Double-Index Zernike Polynomial MTFs Radial Order.4 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.7 0. Defocus(m=0) Coma (m=-1.3 0.7 0.3 0.1 0 1 0.9 0.8 0. 6 0.2 0.5 0. 9 0.9 0.1 0 5 1 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.2λ 20 30 40 50 1 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.1 0 1 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.1 0 1 0.8 0. 4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.1 0 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 0. 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0.3 0.1 0 1 0.7 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0.4 0.1 0 2 MTFy MTFx 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 0. 8 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.6 0. 2 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.1 0 1 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.m 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 Z m n ( ρ .5 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.1 0 1 0. 3 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 1 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.2 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.1 0 1 0.1 0 1 0.

m Patrick Y.084970583 -0.010606602 -0.33 0.Simulation based on Human Eye Data Mode j 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Coefficient (µm) 0 0 0 1.m WaveAberrationPSF.12 0. Wrms = 0.19 0.4mm pupil 1 0.05 0.6 0.21 -0. Wrms = 0.037947332 0.6 0.m WaveAberration.4mm pupil 1 0.26 0.4 0. 5.416413256 0 0.03 -0.85012 λ MTF of Aberrated System.8 0.4 0.060083276 0.484608089 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 MTF of Zero Aberration System.19 -0.015811388 0.2 0 MTF of Zero Aberration System.2 0 0 10 20 30 s (cycle/deg) x 0.4 0.6 0.2 0 40 50 0 10 20 30 s (cycle/deg) y 40 50 WaveAberrationMTF.074246212 -0. Maeda 3/10/03 .85012 λ 1 1 0. 5.02 0 0.091923882 0.2 0 0 10 Total RMS Wavefront Error (µm) 20 30 s (cycle/deg) x 40 50 0 10 20 30 s (cycle/deg) y 40 50 MTF of Aberrated System.15 RMS Coefficient (µm) 0 0 0 0.34 -0.120208153 -0.4 0.8 0.047434165 0.134721936 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.

Maeda 3/10/03 .Measurement Setup y z Pupil Iris x Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Incoming Light Beam Retina Ideal Real Planar Aberrated Wavefront Wavefront Patrick Y.

Maeda 3/10/03 .Shack-Hartmann Sensor Layout Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 PBS Pupil Relay Optics CCD Lenslet Array Light Source Patrick Y.

y2) ∆ y(x1. Maeda 3/10/03 .Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Lenslet Array ∆ y(x1. y3) ∆ y(x1. y1) Aberrated Wavefront ∆ y(x1. y4) Focal Length f Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 Patrick Y.

y ) ∆y ( x. y ) ∆x( x. y ) = ∑W j f ∂x j ∂Z j ( x. y ) j Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 W j is the coefficient of the Z j mode in the expansion W j is equal to the rms wavefront error for that mode ∂Z j ( x. y ) = ∑W j f ∂y j (14) (15) Equations (14) and (15) can be used to determine the Wj’s using Least-squares Estimation Patrick Y. y ) ∆y ( x. y ) = ∑W j ∂y ∂y j ∂Z j ( x. y ) = ∑ W j Z j ( x.Data Fitting with Zernike Polynomials ∂W ( x. Maeda 3/10/03 . y ) ∂W ( x. y ) = ∑W j ∂x ∂x j ∂Z j ( x. y ) ∆x( x. y ) ∂W ( x. y ) = ∂x f ∂W ( x. y ) = ∂y f W ( x .

y ) and = c ( x. y 2 )  W j max                  c( x k . y k ) g 2 ( x k . y1 )  g j max ( x1 . y 2 )  1 2      W1                b( x k . y 2 ) h2 ( x1 . y1 )   h1 ( x1 . y k ) h2 ( x k . y k )  W2   = ⋅  c( x1 . y1 ) g 2 ( x1 . ∆x( x. y ) = g j ( x. y )   g ( x . y ) ∂x ∂y Equations (14) and (15) can be expressed in matrix form  b( x1 . y k )      or β =α ω The Least . y k )  g1 ( x k . y1 )   g1 ( x1 . y )  g 1 1 2 2 1 2 j max ( x1 . y ) g ( x . y k )  h j max ( x k . Maeda 3/10/03 . y ) = b( x. y k )   h1 ( x k . y 2 )   h1 ( x1 .Least-squares Estimation Let. y k )  g j max ( x k . y ) ∆y ( x. y 2 )  h j max ( x1 .squares estimate of ω is given by : Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 2k 2 > j max ω LS = (α T α ) −1α T β where α T is the matrix transpose of α Patrick Y. y1 )  h j max ( x1 . y ) f f ∂Z j ( x. y1 ) h2 ( x1 . y1 )    b( x . y ) and = h j ( x. y1 )           c( x1 . y ) ∂Z j ( x.

orthogonal set of basis functions may result in the inversion of an ill .Benefits of Orthogonality Since the Z j ' s are orthogonal : Their partial derivatives in x are orthogonal Their partial derivatives in y are orthogonal Therefore the columns in α are orthogonal ⇒ α T α = D1 Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 where D1 is a diagonal matrix with non .conditioned matrix. (α T α ) −1 Patrick Y.zero diagonal elements ⇒ ω LS = D2α T β where D2 is a diagonal matrix ⇒ The wave aberration coefficients are obtained by projection of the data onto the partial derivatives of the Zernike polynomials and multiplication by a diagonal matrix Note that a non . Maeda 3/10/03 .

Conclusions  Zernike Polynomials well suited for Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003  Describing wave aberration functions of optical systems with circular pupils  Estimation of wave aberration coefficients from wavefront measurements  Able to integrate Psych 221 learning with material from optical systems and Fourier optics courses  Linear systems theory make image formation and image quality evaluation straightforward  Suggestions for future work  Extend simulation to incorporate chromatic effects  Investigate the how wave aberration changes with accommodation  Conduct simulations on a wide set of patient data  Simulate the higher order aberrations induced by the PRK and LASIK  Research some of the new wavefront technologies like implantable lenses Patrick Y. Maeda 3/10/03 .

7. Lakshminarayanan. L.. R. Part I Ray Geometrical Optics. R. S. (1994). N. Opt. N. The Quest for SuperVision.. Applegate. H. (1986). 14. Soc. pp: 232-244. L... J. D. M. (2000). J. “Aberration and Retinal Image Quality of the Normal Human Eye. Handbook of Visual Optics. (2000). (1997).. W.html Bracewell. Optical System Design. Williams. D. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. R. E. Soc. 16. J. (1998).. J.. (1978).V.. McGraw Hill Mahajan." OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Vol. L. 11. Y. New York: McGraw Hill Thibos. 35. No. Cox. Bille. Liang. Grimm. B.References [1] [2] Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 MacRae.edu/Library/HVO/Handbook. A. Thibos. "Standards for Reporting the Optical Aberrations of Eyes. Hofer. http://research. A. Customized Corneal Ablation. Opt... Vol. Vision Science and its Applications. Am. R. G. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Patrick Y. SPIE Press Liang. Goodman. DC). Slack Incorporated.A. R..indiana. S554-S559. Draft Chapter on Standards for Reporting Aberrations of the Eye. Guirao. J. San Francisco: McGraw Hill Gaskill. N. Webb. L.. No. I. Porter. Goelz. VSIA Standards Taskforce Members (2000).. September/October 2000. Vol..” Journal of Refractive Surgery. D. Krueger. A. R.” J. 11..(1999). New York: Wiley Fischer.. Linear Systems. Washington.opt.T. The Fourier Transform and Its Applications... 1949-1957. “Objective Measurement of Wave Aberrations of the Human Eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack Wave-front Sensor. Fourier Transforms. (2001). R. A. “Visual Benefits of Correcting Higher Order Aberrations of the Eye. Yoon. 2873-2883. Applegate. V. Maeda 3/10/03 . Am. Optics. Schweigerling..” J. (1968). Vol. Williams. (ed) (Optical Society of America. Introduction to Fourier Optics. A. S.

Appendix I Matlab Source Code Files: Stanford University Psych 221 / EE 362 Winter 2002-2003 zernike. Maeda 3/10/03 .m WaveAberration.m ZernikePolynomialMTF.m ZernikePolynomial.m ZernikePolynomialPSF.m Patrick Y.m WaveAberrationMTF.m WaveAberrationPSF.

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