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TYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Production Process An Activity whereby raw material is converted into semi finished products and
thereby adds to the value of utility of products, which can be measured as the difference between the value of inputs and value of outputs.
Production function ´ Encompasses the activities of procurement, allocation and utilization of resources. ´ The main objective of production function is to produce the goods and services demanded by the customers in the most efficient and economical way. ´ Therefore efficient management of the production function is of utmost importance in order to achieve this objective.
BIMAT PRODUCTION SYSTEM ´ is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into a set of desired outputs. Inputs Conversion Process Outputs Land Building Machines Labour capital Management Material Others Goods and Services Control 4 .
3.BIMAT TYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 1. Job Production System. 4. Continuous Production. . Mass Production 5 2. Batch or Intermittent Production.
6 . ´ Production is to meet the delivery schedule and costs are fixed prior to the contract.BIMAT JOB PRODUCTION ´ Herein one or few units of the products are produced as per the requirement and specification of the customer.
10. 3. 7.BIMAT EXAMPLES 1. 2. Custom clothing Prototype Large turbo generators Material handling machines Construction equipment 7 . 6. 9. Space vehicles Aircraft Machine tools Special purpose machines Tooling Jigs Fixtures 8. 4. 11. 12. 5.
BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS Irregular ´ Small lots ´ Flexible machines ´ Skilled workers ´ Very small quantities ´ Specially made ´ High variety low repetition ´ Skills required are very broad ´ 8 .
BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD) Skilled jobber or team of jobbers complete the entire product ´ Fixed position or process layout ´ Multi-skilled operatives ´ One part of the task is completed before next starts ´ A project with a team which combines to complete the whole is more complex ´ Product routings vary widely ´ 9 .
BIMAT BENEFITS ´ ´ Job is a unique product Work is concentrated on a specific unit supervision and inspection relatively simple ´ Specifications can change depending on the customer demand ´ Operators become more skilled & competent as each job gives them learning opportunity. 10 .
coping with a variety of tasks gives more satisfaction. ´ General purpose machines help in variety production. Opportunity to use innovative ideas and creative methods. ´ Working on a single unit. 11 .BIMAT BENEFITS (CONTD) ´ ´ Utilisation of full potential of operators.
BIMAT BATCH OR INTERMITTENT PRODUCTION SYSTEM Under this system the goods are produced partly for inventory and partly for customer's orders. printing presses. ´ Automobile plants. electrical goods plant are examples of this type of manufacturing ´ 12 . ´ E. components are made for inventory but they are combined differently for different customers.g.
limited quantities of each of the different types of products are manufactured on same set of machines.BIMAT BATCH PRODUCTION ´ In this.. 13 . electrical goods.g. ´ E. etc. automobile parts. ´ Different products are produced separately one after the other.
BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS 1. 5. 6. 2. Amount of supervision is less compared to job order. 3. 4. Higher level of work in process inventory. More number of set ups and hence high cost. Manufacturing lead time and cost are lower as compared to job order production. Plant and machinery set up is is changed as per requirements of the batch of items. 7. Plant and machinery are flexible. Shorter production runs. 14 .
Flexibility to accommodate and process number of products. Job satisfaction exists for operators. 6. 4. 5. 3. 2. Lower investment in plant and macinery. Better utilisation of plant and machinery. Cost per unit is lower as compared to job order production.BIMAT ADVANTAGES 1. 15 . Promotes functional specialisation.
BIMAT LIMITATIONS 1. 6. Work in process inventory is higher compared to continuous production. 4. 3. Higher set up costs due to frequent changes in set up. 16 . Lower utilisation of production facilities compared to mass production. Material handling is complex because of irregular and longer flows. Longer production times. Production planning and control is complex. 5. 2.
´ The system is suitable for oil refineries. ´ It is also known as mass flow production or assembly line production. ´ 17 . cement manufacturing etc. ´ Associated with continuous production and high demand.BIMAT CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION SYSTEM It refers to the production of standardized products with a standard set of process and operation sequence in anticipation of demand.
BIMAT EXAMPLES 1. 6. 4. 5. Steel Ores Cloth Pharmacy products gases. 7. Chemicals Petroleum products Cement Rubber Paint Paper processing 18 . 2. 11. 8. 3. 10. 9.
Component materials cannot be readily identified with final product and the product cannot be disassembled. Shorter lead-times. 19 . 4. 3. 2. Dedicated plant and equipment with zero flexibility. Material handling is fully automated.BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS 1. Wet or dry product flow measurable by weight or volume. 5.
7. 8. Larger investment and usually capital intensive units. The end product is not naturally divisible and hence n additional step such as bottling or canning is needed to get the product into saleable units. 20 .BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD) 6. Process follows a predetermined sequence of operations.
11. Planning and scheduling is a routine action. Persons with (semi-skilled) limited skills. 12. 10. Maintenance is an important aspect. Unit coat is lower due to high volume.BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD) 9. can be used on production line. 21 .
Demand for by-products and joint products. 3. Plant availability depends on preventive maintenance system.BIMAT SPECIAL FEATURES 1. 6. Variations in yields of output. Shelf life of raw materials. 22 . 5. Product differentiation is limited. Processing technology variations. Variations in raw materials quality due to different sources of supply. 7. 2. 4.
BIMAT MASS PRODUCTION Under this. ´ A huge quantity of same product is manufactured at a time and is stocked for sale. the production run is conducted on a set of machines arranged according to the sequence of operations. this process is also called as line flow. ´ 23 . ´ Different products will require different manufacturing lines. ´ Since one line can produce only one type of product.
Shorter cycle time of production. 3. 5. Large volume of products. Dedicated special purpose machines having higher production capabilities & output rates. 6. Standardisation of product & process sequence and hence product (line) layout is recommended. 4. Perfectly balanced production lines.CHARACTERISTICS 1. 24 . BIMAT 2. Lower in process inventory.
Extent of supervision required is less. Flow of materials. 25 . 8.BIMAT CHARACTERISTICS (CONTD) 7. Unit per cost is low due to high volume. 10. Production planning and control is easy. 11. Material handling can be fully automated. components and parts is continuous & without any backtracking. 9.
5. Higher rate of production with reduced cycle time. 2. Higher capacity utilisation due to line balancing. Less skilled operator can man the process. Low in process inventory. Production cost per unit will come down due to economies of scale. 4. 26 .BIMAT ADVANTAGES 1. 3.
2. Supervision is general rather than specific. 6. 4.BIMAT LIMITATIONS 1. The cycle time is determined by slowest operation. Breakdown of one machine will stop an entire production line. Work for operators is monotonous without much challenge. 27 . 5. 3. Line layout needs major adjustment / changes with the changes in the product design. High investment in production facilities.
BIMAT PROCESS OR FLOW PRODUCTION Under this. ´ 28 . the production run is conducted for an run is conducted for an indefinite period. ´ Identical products are produced in large numbers.
CHARACTERISTICS ´ BIMAT High volumes and low variety ´ Standard repeat products ´ Highly capital intensive and automated ´ Few changeovers ´ Difficult and expensive to start and stop ´ Product layout usually along conveyors or pipes ´ No idle time ´ Operators at work stations perform tasks as it passes through the workstation ´ Line is dedicated to one product only ´ Flexible continuous flow line may be capable of switching over to a model or product variant 29 .
BIMAT BENEFITS OF FLOW PRODUCTION Ease of using just in time technique ´ Labour and production costs reduced due to detailed planning ´ Deviants in the line are spotted through quality control techniques ´ No rest between operators so work-in-progress levels can be kept low ´ Space storage is minimum ´ Physical handling is minimum ´ Investment is quickly converted into sales ´ Control is easy ´ 30 .
ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING ´ BIMAT Assembly line is industrial arrangement of machines. equipment. and workers for continuous flow of work pieces in massproduction operations ´ First assembly line was introduced by Henry Ford in 1908 ´ Consists of sequence of work stations 31 .
BIMAT ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING PROBLEM ´ It is the issue of assigning tasks to the work station Tasks may require different times Assignment of tasks times to work stations are unequal ´ ´ ´ This leads to idle time 32 .
METHOD OF BALANCING ASSEMBLY LINE Assignment of tasks depends on demand rate ´ Depending on demand rate lines might be duplicated ´ Requires logical planning ´ Distribute total job among the work station so that all stations can complete their designed tasks at approximately same time ´ Split total assembly procedure into sub assemblies ´ 33 BIMAT .
BIMAT PARALLEL ASSEMBLY LINES ´ Demand is high duplicate entire line Shortens the assembly line May require more equipment and tooling More tasks are assigned to a work station Enriches work content ´ ´ ´ ´ 34 .
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