Pankaj sharma PGDM 051

Egypt Demographic Profile
‡Population 80,471,879 (July 2010 est.) ‡Age structure ‡0-14 years: 31.8% no(male 13,292,961/female 12,690,711) ‡15-64 years: 63.5% (male 26,257,440/female 25,627,390) ‡65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,636,560/female 2,208,455) (2008 est.) ‡0-14 years: 33% (male 13,308,407/female 12,711,900) ‡15-64 years: 62.7% (male 25,138,546/female 24,342,230) ‡65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,546,774/female 1,818,778) (2010 est.) ‡Median Age ‡Total: 24 (2007) ‡Male: 24 (2007) ‡Female: 24 (2007) ‡Population growth rate ‡2.033 %( 2010 est.)

TECHNICAL STANDARD OF EGYPT
Standardization's official application in Egypt started in 1957, when presidential decree number 29/1957 established the Egyptian Organization for Standardization (EOS). Of Egypt¶s 8,500 standards, 543 are Egyptian technical regulations or mandatory standards. EOS reports that it has harmonized mandatory standards with international standards and that about 80 percent of its mandatory standards are based on standards issued by international institutions such as the Geneva-based International Organization for Standardization. In the absence of a mandatory Egyptian standard, Ministerial Decree Number 180/1996 allows importers to choose a relevant standard from seven international systems including ISO, European, American, Japanese, British, German, and for food, Codex standards

Standards Organizations
There are three main official Egyptian governmental organizations involved in developing and enforcing the standards used and applied in Egypt. They are: Egyptian Organization for Standards and Quality Control (EOS): The EOS was established in 1957 and is affiliated with the Ministry of Trade and Industry and issues standards and technical regulations through a consultative process with other ministries and the private sector. Verification of compliance with standards and technical regulations is the responsibility of agencies including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture and, for imported goods, the General Organization for Import Export Control (GOEIC) in the Ministry of Trade and Industry

Political
Head of state: President Hosni Mubarak Prime minister: Atef Muhammed Abeid There are 31 ministers, heading each ministry, while the prime minister also heads the Ministry of Planning and International Co-operation. The national assembly is called the People's Assembly, and has 454 seats, of which the president appoint 10representatives.The National Democratic Party holds 415 of these seats. Egypt is politically stable, but there have been many examples of unrest in recent years. Egypt has only a limited democracy, where elections allow only some political parites, and the elections have proven to allow few changes from pre-democratic times. Still, Egypt has made great advances, and may arrive at a true democracy in the coming years.

‡ The main challenge is the Muslim Brotherhood, which run for elections, but which adhere to an antidemocratic ideology. Their strength in the 2005 elections may stop Egypt's Western allies from pushing the democratic reforms any further. Egypt is a country with a fair amount of freedom of speech, and civil rights are in most cases well secured. At the present, the militant wings of Islamist groups (to which the Muslim Brother also belong) represent at the moment little threat to the Egyptian government, although the situation was uncertain after the bomb attacks at the tourist resort Sharm el-Sheikh in 2005. At the present, there is about 17,000 political prisoners in Egypt. A majority of these are Islamists (according to The Egyptian Organization of Human Rights).

DUTIES AND TAXES
On September 8, 2004, the GOE announced a new tariff structure. The government removed services fees and import surcharges, reduced the number of ad valorem tariff bands from 27 to 6, dismantled tariff inconsistencies, and rationalized national sub-headings above the six-digit level of the Harmonized System (HS). The changes in tariffs reduced the officially announced weighted average tariff rate from 14.6 percent to 9.1 percent. The government also eliminated services fees and import surcharges ranging from 1 percent to 4 percent. The GOE replaced its 13,000-line ten-digit tariff structure with a six-digit structure with less than 6,000 tariff lines. This change should reduce disputes over product classificationfor customs purposes. Additionally, the GOE eliminated export duties on 25 products in short supply on

the domestic market. Although the Finance Minister announced plans to reduce tariffs further by mid2005, to date, no further reductions have been made. While Egypt has undertaken significant tariff reforms, it continues to apply high tariff rates to a range of products. Tariffs on passenger cars with engines under 1,600cc were reduced in 2004 to a maximum of 40 percent, while cars with engines over 1,600cc now have a tariff rate of 135 percent.

Import Bans and Barriers
The Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) prohibits the importation of natural products, vitamins, and food supplements. These items can only be marketed in Egypt by local companies that manufacture them under license, or prepare and pack imported ingredients and premixes according to MOH specifications. Only local factories are allowed to produce food supplements and to import raw materials used in the Manufacturing process.

TRADE SUMMARY
The U.S. goods trade surplus with Egypt was $3.7 billion in 2008, an increase of $690 million from $3.0 billion in 2007. .S. goods exports in 2008 were $6.0 billion, up 12.8 percent from the previous year. Corresponding U.S. imports from Egypt were $2.4 billion, down 0.3 percent. Egypt is currently the 36th largest export market for U.S. goods. The stock of U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in Egypt was $7.5 billion in 2007 (latest data available), up from $6.5 billion in 2006. U.S. FDI in Egypt is concentrated largely in the mining sector

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