Ms. Arthi Subramanian M. Sc. II yr

 Explain conflict, process,
management techniques.

State the causes of conflict. Enumerate conflict and
negotiation processes. management styles.

Understand various conflict

Please write a Please write a what comes to mind when what comes to mind when II say say C O N F L C T. C O N F L II C T.

interest. something that the first party cares about.DEFINTION  A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect. goals or needs view things from different perspectives  . Conflict is the dissension that occurs when 2 or more individual with different values.

.Definition of Conflict (1 of 2) A situation in which someone believes that his or her own needs have been denied.

Conflict is defined as the internal or external discord that results from differences in ideas. 2009)  . A process that begins when an individual or group perceives differences and oppositions between itself and another individual or group about interests and resources. values. or practices that matter to them. or feeling between 2 or more people( Bessie marquis. beliefs. values.

cooperative atmosphere leading to TEAM WORK  . It is necessary for harmonious. Conflict should be encouraged.VIEWS ON CONFLICT TRADITIONAL VIEW(1930’s to 1940’s) Conflict is harmful & need to be suppressed and avoided. peaceful.  MODERN VIEW ( after 1970’s) It is a natural occurrence.

Opposing actions and counteractions 5. suppress. At least 2 parties are involved CHARACTERISTICS 2.1.Difference in goals and or values 3. Interaction involves behaviors that will defeat. reduce. or gain a victory 4. Imbalance or favored power position .

Types of conflict 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. 7. Intra sender Inter sender Intra role Personal role Intra group Inter group Role ambiguity Role overload . 3. 8.

experience.Sources of Conflict Goal Incompatibility Different Values and Beliefs • Goals conflict with goals of others • Different beliefs due to unique background. training • Caused by specialized tasks. careers • Explains misunderstanding in crosscultural and merger relations .

Sources of Conflict Goal Incompatibility Different Values and Beliefs Task Interdependence Three levels of interdependence Pooled A Resource B C Sequential A B C Reciprocal B A C .

Sources of Conflict Goal Incompatibility Different Values and Beliefs Task Interdependence Scarce Resources Ambiguity Communication Problems Lack of opportunity --reliance on stereotypes • Increases competition for resources to Lack of ability fulfil goals communication heightens -.conflict causes lower motivation to communicate. increases stereotyping .arrogant conflict perception • Lack of rules guiding relations • Encourages political Lack of motivation tactics -.

Sources of Conflict        Intragroup : Leadership Task structure Group composition/ Size Cohesiveness/ group task External threats Outcomes .

       Inter group : System differentiation Task interdependence Scarce resources Jurisdictional ambiguity Separation of knowledge Firm authority Potential sources : Unclear duties / roles Conflicts of interest Communication barriers Dependence on one another Relationship difference Response to regulation Unsolved prior conflict         .

        Potential sources : Unclear duties / roles Conflicts of interest Communication barriers Dependence on one another Relationship difference Response to regulation Unsolved prior conflict .

 Conflict of feelings are often called personality conflict . Conflict of ideas   Dooley and Fryxell (1999) found that conflict of ideas at the early stage of decision making (idea formulation) was desirable. However. it can cause problems at a later stage when the ideas have to be implemented.

Based on Task Relationship Process . 3. 2.Types of Conflict  1.

 Inter personal conflicts : between 2 individuals Inter group conflicts : between 2 small / large / between a large and a small group. Increased group cohesiveness Increased production Stereotyping Hostile behviours towards the other group LEVELS OF CONFLICT  - .

INTER.PERSONAL CONFLICT JO-HARI WINDOW Knows about others Does not know about others Knows About Himself OPEN SELF HIDDEN SELF Does not know about himself BLIND SELF UNDISCOVERED SELF .

This may create a conflict with the rest of the staff if they believe that all baths should be completed by noon. She has 4 bed ridden patients in her care.  Case study : Hannagh is a nurse in a busy surgical ward. . She has finished 2 washes and has got 2 more washes to finish. Personal – Group Conflicts : between an individual and small / large group. She is due to go to her lunch break.

 Result from having to make a choice between 2 things of equal value( +ve/ve ) Case study :  Sarah is a nurse manager who is a mother experiences intrapersonal role conflict when she must choose between going to a parent teacher conference about her child or going to a professional nursing meeting. Tension due to disagreement within him / herself. .Inter personal conflicts : Within a person.


It is caused by – Environmental Factors Personal inadequacies Conflict frustration .FRUSTRATION      The obstacle that hinders a person in attaining a goal is a source of a frustration.


ROLE CONFLICT       SOURSE OF ROLE CONFLICT – Competitive Environment Differential Reward system Scarce Resource Role Ambiguity Cultural Differences .

The Conflict Process Conflict Perceptions Sources of Conflict Conflict Emotions Manifest Conflict Conflict Outcomes .

Latent Conflict (antecedent conditions) Felt Conflict Perceived Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict Resolution of Conflict management Conflict aftermath .

Peace building. negotiation. reconciliation may prevent reoccurrence / escalation of conflict .      Latent : Antecedent condition predicting conflict behaviour Perceived : Cognitive awareness of stressful situation exists Felt : Feelings and attitudes are present and affect the conflict Manifest : Overt behaviour from 3 earlier stages Resolution : Tension is reduced . problem solving is done to find a beneficial and mutually agreeable situation Aftermath : Negotiation.

Reaction to conflict                  Sublimation Vigorous physical exercise Increased efforts Identification Reinterpreting goals Substituting goals Rationalization Attention getting Reaction formation Flight into fantasy Projection Displacement Fixation Withdrawal Regression Repression Conversion .

Escalation of Conflict tactics             Competition Righteousness Stop listening Labeling Dealing with personalities Issue expansion Bickering Coalition Formation Threats Avoidance Intentional hurt .

           De-escalation of Conflict tactics Listening Showing tact and concern Appealing to de-escalation Goodwill gestures Airing feeling Meta communication Response to all levels Fractionalization Position paper Problem solving Establishing criteria .

Contention spreads from original to peripheral issues Disputants pull others into conflict Unresolved conflict causes alienation. it almost always yields negative results. violence Disputants scapegoat a peripheral group members .Effects of Conflict Undesirable effects :      The trend is toward escalation and polarization.

. 2003) Prevents intellectual stagnation Stimulates employees curiosity Prevents impetus for problem solving Facilitates employees personal change and maturation.Desirable effects       Conflict helps eliminate or reduce the likelihood of groupthink. A moderate level of conflict across tasks within a group resulted in increased group performance while conflict among personalities resulted in lower group performance (Peterson and Behfar.

Out of control conflict may be destructive. . An important factor related to conflict is the style of leadership and the resulting group norms regarding conflict. Conflict-producing behaviors are more likely from those high in aggression. and the need for autonomy. dominance.    Conflict may have some desirable consequences.

Organizational Conflict Outcomes Potential benefits   Improves decision making Strengthens team dynamics Dysfunctional outcomes     Diverts energy and resources Encourages organizational politics Encourages stereotyping Weakens knowledge management © Photo disc. With permission. .

 FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT Conflict that support the goals of the group and improve the performance are functional or Constructive form of conflict. . It is Creatively managed conflict that shakes people out of their mental ruts and give them new points of view.

lack of openness & trust between people.  .DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT  It is a conflict that hinders group performance due to poor communication. failure to be responsive to the needs & aspirations of the others.

and understand the issues better  Socioemotional conflict    Conflict viewed as a personal attack Foundation of conflict escalation Leads to dissatisfaction.Task vs. identify solutions. stress. Socioemotional Conflict  Task-related conflict    Conflict is aimed at issue. and turnover . not parties Basis of constructive controversy Helps recognize problems.

 Fear .  A scarcity of some resource.  Differences in information.  Rivalries in which one person or group competes with another. interests. Conflicts exist whenever incompatible activities occur. beliefs. values. or desires.

Conflict Scales 2 Inventories are available to measure conflict  1.) Intergroup/ other department 4.) Intrapersonal b.) Intergroup/ support services .) Interpersonal c.) Intergroup 2.) Intragroup c. Rahim organisational conflict inventory I (1983) -.) Intrapersonal b.3 dimensions are measured a. Perceived conflict scale ( 1992) 4 subscales of conflict a.

- - To determine how much conflict exists Determine causes and effects of conflict and the relationship of conflict to other variables of interest to nursing administrators Barki and Handurik’s : Proposed dimension : Disagreement and negative emotions have implications for development of another instrument containing items that reflect 3 dimensions .

Bargaining or Compromise : The parties agree to accept a solution somewhere between 2 points of view . deny power. 4.Denial : Conscious or unconscious.Lose – Win approach : Have less power. low self esteem.Ignore or Suppress : “ If I don’t acknowledge it . 2.Win – Lose situation : “ I’m going to win! I’ll get him” This leads to aggressiveness. 5. feud.APPROACHES TO CONFLICT 1. it’ll go away” 3.

6. 1975): Agree to solution 2. Creative. The mediator then makes a decision that’s fair to both parties. neutral party. Agree on the mediator 3. constructive. Agree to obey decision of mediator. high – risk approach. 1. Withdrawal : Not an acceptable approach. 7. Each party in the conflict presents his or her side to the mediator. 3 conditions ( Hasling . Mediation or arbitration : Involves addition of 3rd . 8. Problem solving / collaborating : Both parties work together for a solution. .

direct encounter with another person Both parties recognize that there’s conflict and agree to work on it. .CONFRONTATION       According to Johnson. Role of the advocate. in order to engage in more acceptable behavior” Face to face. 1972 “ An attempt to have the other person examine his or her behavior . Private place Location of the meeting : Neutral area. if employed.

2004).Conflict Management  Conflict management is defined as “the opportunity to improve situations and strengthen relationships” (BCS. –proactive conflict management –collaborative conflict management .

resources . beliefs     Previous relationship : trust. respect. environment/ setting. audience Strategies and tactics Consequences : Gains and looses may be important than management .CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Deutsch (1971) : Variables affecting conflict  Personal characteristics : values. significance. degree of attachment between the parties Nature of the problem : size. goals . complexity.

Conflict Management Styles High Competing Collaborating Assertiveness Compromising Avoiding Low Accommodating Cooperativeness High .

Blake and Mouton’s Conflict Grid .

also called accommodation. The optimum style for reducing conflict is the 9.1 style is the hands-off approach.1 is the bullheaded approach. . The 9. also called competing.9 approach.9 position. is excessively person-oriented. The 1. also called collaboration.5 position represents a willingness to compromise.      The 1. Blake and Mouton (1970) proposed a grid that shows various conflict approaches. also called avoidance. The 5.

Avoids feelings or perceptions that imply the other person is wrong or needs to change. 6. Encouraging behavior occurs when a team member: 1. Identifies with another team member’s problems. Exhibits behavior that is spontaneous and destruction-free 4. and accepts the team member’s reaction.Walker and Harris (1995) offer the following practical tips for implementing the 9. 2. 3. Investigates issues rather than taking sides on them. Treats other team members with respect and trust. Communicates a desire to work together to explore a problem or seek a solution. 5.9 style. . shares feelings.

Compromising.Smoothing. Collaborating. Sharing. Blake and Mouton’s 5 styles of Interpersonal conflict : Forcing. Avoiding. 2. Assertiveness ( Satisfying one’s own concerns) Cooperativeness ( Attempting to satisfy another’s concerns) Resulting Behaviour : Competing. Problem solving Thomas ( 2 dimensions ) 1. Accommodating . Withdrawing .

Reducing Differentiation  .Conflict Management Strategies 1. Emphasizing Superordinate Goals   Emphasizing common objectives rather than conflicting sub-goals Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation Removing sources of different values and beliefs  Generalist careers and job rotation  Common dress code and status  Common work experiences 2.

3. Communication and Understanding Employees understand and appreciate each other’s views through communication     Informal gatherings Formal dialogue sessions Relationship restructuring Drum sessions G. Diggens. . With permission.

. Diggens. With permission. Increase Resources  Duplicate resources 6. Reduce Task Interdependence  Dividing shared resources  Combine tasks  Use buffers 5. Clarify Rules and Procedures  Clarify resource distribution  Change interdependence G.Other Ways to Manage Conflict 4.

.Balance of power : Promote cooperation and collaboration in accomplishing a task definition of the real problem.7.Recognizing human needs : Recognition of one’s own human needs and empathy for the other party’s human needs.Defining the conflict : Agreement about the 9. 8.

Managing Conflict in Drum Circles Doug Sole leads a group of employees in Toronto in a drum circle. They also improve mutual understanding. With permission. G. Diggens. Drum circles encourage participants to learn how to cooperatively work together in unstructured workplaces. .

Dimensions of conflict handling intentions Assertive Assertiveness ---> Collaborating Competing < -----> ---> Avoiding Un assertive Accommodating Compromising Cooperativeness .

Initiate a discussion. clearly defined central issue. Respect individual difference 3. timed sensitively and held in an environment conducive to private discussion 2. facts. Agree on solution which balance power and strategies of all parties . framing main issue based on common principles. intension. Assertive dialogue. different viewpoints. Be empathetic with all parties 4.5 steps of conflict management      1. attentive listener 5.

everything that comes at you is seen as a problem or a solution. . competitive.Diane Yale (1988) outlines three metaphorical approaches to conflict:  The  Often results in a winner and loser in the resolution process. adversarial metaphor problem-solving metaphor  The   The creative orientation metaphor Brings an innovative quality to group conflict resolution. If [conflict] is focused on problem-solving.

A Continuum of Decision-Making Behavior .

 The Continuum of Decision-Making Behavior has been described as including four styles of decision making:  Tells  Sells  Consults  Joins .

1981) Determine problem / Group with whom there’s conflict Analyze the cause Consider alternative strategies Choose the strategy with best results Implement the conflict management strategy Evaluate . G.Handling conflict situation ( Mallory. .

An Attitude of patience must be maintained Difference of opinions are healthy & beneficial Certain amount of confidentiality must be maintained Anger & Conflict must be accepted. WIN-WIN Approach must be adopted .CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESSBASIC ASSUMPTIONS        Every individual is unique Every individuals has the inborn potentiality to resolve conflict.

     

Define the Problem Collects facts & Opinions Consider all solutions proposed Define the expected result Select the solution Implement the solution.

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When quick decision is vital On important issues where unpopular actions need implementations On issues vital to the organization’s welfare & when you know you are right. Against people who take advantage of non- cooperative behaviour.


When your objective is to learn Find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised.

AVOIDANCE    When a issue is trivial To let people cool down and regain perspective. . When others can resolve the conflict more effectively.

To minimized loss when you are outmatched.ACCOMODATION    When issues are more important to others than yourself to satisfy others. When harmony & stability are especially important .

When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure.COMPROMISE    To achieve TEMPORARY settlements to complex issues. .


.TYPES OF DECISION MAKERS  COMMANDERS They are by nature IMPATIENT and whose eagerness leads them to jump into quick decision.

they take long time to take decision . Since they don’t want to hurt or disturb others.TYPES OF DECISION MAKERS  CARERS They decide on the basis of their feelings but are concerned with others.

They want all the information before making decision.TYPES OF DECISION MAKERS  CALCULATORS They are perfectionists. .

Reverse perspectives. Assign advocacy subgroups. Reach a consensus . Challenge and criticize. Gather the alternatives.GROUP DECISION       Define the issue.

attitudes. expressed by people Be willing to accept outside to mediate conflict .Conflict management strategies      Identify boundaries of conflict. Area of management and disagreement. feelings. extent of each person’s aims Understand factors limiting constructive conflict management Aware of more issues involved Be open to ideas.

Conflict management strategies       Defensive model – win / lose Separate contending parties – Assigned to different shifts/ teams/ days on. off Suppress conflict – Decide not to talk about difference Restrict / Isolate the conflict – Agree/ disagree about a conflict and more onto items which they do agree about Smooth it over / finese it through an organisational change Avoid conflict to diminish destructive effects .

Smoothing : One person “smoothes” Avoiding : The parties choose not to

others involved in an effort to reduce the emotional component of the conflict.

acknowledge it or attempt to resolve it. Causes powerlessness, frustration.

Conflict Resolution
 

Compromising : Each party gives up

something it wants Competing : One party pursues what it wants at the expense of the others. Leads to anger, frustration. Co operating / Accommodating : One party sacrifices his beliefs and allows the other party to win. “ loose a battle( individual incident) to win a war (long term outcome)” Collaboration : All parties set aside their original goals an work together to establish a priority common goal.

Individuals should understand their own personal triggers to better deal with conflict situations in the workplace (Robin, 2004) Group members should think about other group members early on to identify privately those individuals and behaviors that may push their buttons.

 .  Conflict management : A conscious effort to deal with conflict and to control the problem.Conflict resolution Vs Conflict management Conflict Resolution : A solution that completely satisfies all parties involved in the conflict.

Shah. but who initially have different objectives. 2005 Definition : It is a process of interaction by which two or more parties who consider that they need to be jointly involved in an outcome. Another important consideration is that negotiation implies acceptance by both parties that agreement between them is required before a decision can be implemented . Param J.NEGOTIATIO N    Ken Shah & Prof. seek by the use of argument and persuasion to resolve their difference in order to achieve a mutually acceptable solution.

Negotiation Process      Preparation and planning Definition of ground rules Clarification or Jurisdiction Bargaining and Problem Solving Closure and Intervention .

3rd party concern > Japan 1. Autonomous (Self face/Independent) 3. 1. US 3 face concerns . Japan. 1988) 2. mutual face. Across 4 cultures : China.Self construal (Self image – Independent. Defending face > US Chinese: Self face concern. Cross cultural empirical tests : Revised Face negotiation theory.Negotiation Theories Face negotiation Theory ( Ting Toomey. . Germany. 11 face work behaviour were studied. Connected to others ( Other face/Interdependent) 4. Interdependent) 2. Low power distance – forcing style High power distance – yielding style ( low status) Germany : Self face.

Summarise Clarifying as Needed .Negotiation Define the problem Plan Watch Non verbal cues Adequate Information Listen carefully One issue at a time Clear View of Position Pause .

. flexibility Avoid destructive negotiation techniques Restate both verbally and in writing Recognize participants for their contributions During : 1. Be prepared mentally by having done your homework Determine your starting point. trade offs. assertiveness. bottom line Look for hidden agendas of both parties Maintain composure Role model. good communication skills.NEGOTIATION Before : 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 2. After : 1.

With permission. .Effective Negotiator Behaviours  Plan and Set Goals Gather Information Communicate Effectively Make Appropriate Concessions    © Corel Corp.

2006) 1.Types of Negotiation ( Fisher. Hard : Distributive negotiation Win Extreme position Longer benefits Dirty tricks Deception Threats Ultimatum Overpowering Outsmarting .

2. Soft :  Prevent conflicts  Concession  Reach an agent  Brainstorming  Consensus  Decision making 3. Potential Bargaining : Each side 4. Principled Negotiation : Integrative Win-Win Interest based Neither hard nor Soft .

Third-Party Objectives Procedural Fairness Efficiency Third-Party Conflict Resolution Objectives Outcome Fairness Effectiveness .

Types of Third Party Intervention High Mediation Level of Process Control Inquisition Arbitration Low Level of Outcome Control High .

With permission.  .Situational Influences on Negotiation  Location Physical Setting Time Investment and Deadlines Audience   © Corel Corp.

Negotiation Bargaining Strategies   Distributive vs Integrative bargaining Staking out Bargaining zone .

Opposition and Support ( Peter block.1991) .

Bargaining Zone Model Your Positions Initial Target Resistance Area of Potential Agreement Resistance Target Initial Opponent’s Positions .

 Borisoff and Victor (1998) argue that the best strategy for conflict management (negotiation) depends on the desired outcome .

Unilateral negotiation strategies include:  The trusting collaboration strategy.  The open subordination strategy.  The active avoidance strategy.  The firm competition strategy. .

Interactive negotiation strategies Trusting collaboration  Principled negotiation  Firm competition  Soft competition  Open subordination  Focused subordination  Active avoidance  Passive avoidance  Responsive avoidance  .

Fisher. Invent options for mutual gain. not positions. Ury. Focus on interests.     Separate the people from the problem. and Patton (1991) outline four principles that compose principled negotiation. . Seek objective criteria.

Issues in Negotiation     Role of mood and personality traits Gender differences Cultural differences in negotiation 3rd party negotiation .

When sides are not even (Phyllis 1994)         Dominance power Weakness power Increased Self awareness Honesty Clean Listen closely Kind / considerate Willing to accept others .

whom. Perception. Problem information. why. Goals. Facts. time frame Analyzing information : Factors.Steps : MEDIATION Assessing Conflict : What. impact. Issues Plan process Implement planned strategy Evaluating Outcome .

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Implementation of plan:
Arrange meeting of persons Expression of individual view points Look at alternative solutions Narrow choices Plan the implementation of decision Evaluating outcomes

Qualities facilitating mediation :
Trust Willingness of parties Clear communication

Gardner(2005) : 10 lessons


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Know thyself Learn to value and manage diversity Develop constructive conflict resolution skills Use power to create win – win situations Master interpersonal and process skills Recognize collaboration is a journey Leverage multidisciplinary forums to increase collaboration Appreciate that collaboration can occur spontaneously Balance autonomy and unity in collaborative relationships Remember that collaboration is not required for all decisions


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Negotiating parties reach an agreement that all parties can support even if it does not represent everyone’s first priorities. Indicates willingness by all parties to accept the agreed upon conditions. Time consuming Use of experienced facilitator, having consensus building skills Good leadership All parties have good communication skills, open minded and flexible.

general agreement and.[1] The formal process of achieving consensus ideally requires serious treatment of the considered opinion of each group member: those advocating the adoption.  Consensus is defined in English as. firstly . It has its origin in a Latin word meaning literally to feel together. of a particular course of action . say. secondly .group solidarity of belief or sentiment.

keeping in mind that a high degree of variation is still possible among individuals. and certainly if there must be individual commitment to follow up the decision with action. Consensus usually involves collaboration. There is considerable debate and research into both collective intelligence and consensus decision-making. rather than compromise . this variation remains important.  A close equivalent phrase might be the "collective agreement" of a group.

"Can two agents be combined to make a new agent?" sounds like an algebraic question. "is the operation of consensus closed in the domain of agents? Is there a larger domain of "abstract agents" in which this operation is closed?") . within mathematics.Models of consensus prisoner's dilemma This approach might be called "algebraic" as opposed to analytic. (More formally. the question. because it represents an agent by a symbol and then examines the algebraic properties of that symbol. For example.

Nominal Group Technique        - Listing ideas on paper Round robust decision Serial discussion for clarification Preliminary vote Analyzing vote Discussion of preliminary vote Revote Ranking Index card Role message form Role contract Decision chart .

.Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)      Types of ADR : Mediation : Neutral 3rd party Fact finding : Listening to both parties Arbitration : Binding resolution. final decision Ombudspersons : Person holding an official title in an organization.

Hierarchical conflicts in nursing practice – A meta analyses. Nursing programme were analyzed.Richard tower. Competing Cavanaugh (2001) : 145 Staff nurses and 82 nurse managers Avoidance ( Majority) Barton (2001) : Private sector 1. Collaboration 4. Oct 2008. Collaboration 3. 1. Avoiding 4. Compromise 3. Competing Summary : Avoiding / compromising ( More ) Collaboration (middle) Competing (Less) Nursing conflicts (Studies) .Avoidance ( common style) 2. Collaborating 3.Compromising 2. Suzanne Hitchgard. Accommodation Woodtli ( 1997) :167 deans of B.Compromising 2. Avoiding 4. vol(2) .Sc. The styles of conflict management employed were 1. Accommodation 5. Accommodating 5. Journal of nursing administration. 55-59 High tower’s ( 1996) hierarchical conflicts : 160 Managers were analyzed under this study. Competition 5.

This model allows the nursing process to be recast in new language that captures the interdependence of the client-nurse interaction. DrPH. client. RN. and health care system and in the greater social context. RNC  Abstract   Combining abstract concepts from grand theories with the pragmatics of nursing practice presents a dilemma for nursing that is being addressed with the emphasis on middle-range theory. . PhD.Cultural negotiation: A constructivist-based model for nursing practiceJoan Engebretson. This model accommodates the social values and beliefs of both the health care system and the social context. The philosophical perspective of constructivism is the foundation for a middle-range theory that links the nursing process to holism through the respective worlds and knowledge of the nurse and client. Lynna Y. Littleton. The nursing process is situated in the context of the cultural worlds of the nurse.

2006). individuals are neglecting their own needs. By avoiding the conflict. burnout and job satisfaction of the nursing profession.CONFLICT RESOLUTION -TOOLS FOR NURSING (Antonie Hiemer)   Research has concluded that styles of conflict resolution are strong predictors of the level of morale. The use of negative coping mechanisms. since it only postpones the conflict. 2006). This approach has an element of being self-sacrificing and simply obeying orders or serving other people (Kelly. and concerns.                                       . goals. increased burnout and occupational stress (Montoro-Rodriquez & Small. while trying to satisfy those of others. The use of avoidance as a conflict resolution method results in ineffective and unproductive outcomes. such as confrontation and avoidance styles. result in increased negative outcomes.

Evaluation A nursing case study that illustrates power conflict in an oncology nursing unit is displayed and reflection on conflict management from the case is provided. Power conflict is argued to be an important source of tension within nursing units.       Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study CRISTINA GARCÍA VIVAR BSc. However. Conclusion Further nursing education in conflict management for staff nurses and nurse managers is greatly needed . RGN Aim This paper is intended to put knowledge in conflict management into practice through reflecting on a nursing case study. detecting initial symptoms of conflict and adopting the most effective behaviour to conflict resolution is essential in nursing units. Learning to manage conflict at an early stage is therefore crucial to the effective functioning of nursing organizations. Key issues There is no appropriate or inappropriate strategy to deal with conflict. Background Nursing organizations are particularly vulnerable to conflict as the context of nurses' work may be difficult and stressful. MSc.

Nursing and Conflict (Ann marinerTommey) 1. gene therapy) Personal goal = Organisational goal -> Charting -> Work shift arrangement -> Time off at holidays -> Educational levels -> Professional gaps . stem cell therapy.Between members of health care team 2. Between nurses -> Philosophy.Between members of health care team -> Physiotherapist -> Nursing and Nursing assistants -> Pharmacy 1. blood transfusion. values and beliefs : Ethical issues ( abortion. With patient’s family 3.

Recognize the tactic 2. Question tactics legitimacy and desirability by using principled negotiation  Ury (1991) : 5 Step Break through negotiation 1. Raise issue explicitly 3. Do not react 2.Maquis and Huston ( 2006 ) : 3 techniques : 1. Disarm them 3. Change the game 4. Build a golden bridge 5. Make it hard to say NO  .

Manage conflict / Resolves conflict  .Leader Behaviour Empower followers Power to attain goals Constructive use of power Mentor Improved connection Group decision making Visible/ Relates to others Expertise Power to manage conflict Conflict resolution Growth preceding conflict Conflict interventions Collaboration  Manager Behaviour Power to obtain resources Management of power and conflict Negotiation Information Rewards / Punishment Legal authority Plan for conflict management Reduced justification Directs subordinates Competition / Bargaining Overlap : power / power sources.

Role of nurse manager in Negotiation     Mediator Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant .

Positional pressure tactics ( Negotiation)           Refusal to negotiate Extreme demands Escalating demands Calculated delay Smoke screen ( Inappropriate question) Over the barrel ( use weakness of others) Seduction ( false promise ) Flattering Aggressive take over Paternalism ( Action is good) .

    Stumbling blocks : Need to control others Need to be right Keep fighting ever .

Loss method •Win-Win all chances of loss even before occurrence •Voting •Authoritative •Consensus.Past . decision. ADR and opinion of each member of the nursing team before any decision . not consensus Negotiation. Future Past •Conflict Present •Conflict Future • is bad is inevitable Creation of conflicts •Accommodating / Avoidance / Competing approach Collaborative • •Multidisciplinary collaboration. Shared governance •Eliminate •Win . Present .

3. Arbitration Negotiation. Decision making Authority. 2. Negotiation. 4. 5.Indian and Western Scenario Indian Western 1.Obedience approach Collective bargaining Withdrawal approach . ADR Compromise. Arbitration. collaboration Accommodation approach Functional conflicts Dysfunctional conflicts Problem solving. Avoidance.

•Authoritative.Win situations •Win- Loss situations . Problem solving and decision making • Bargaining.Criticism and Suggestion Criticism •Avoidance and withdrawal methods largely practiced Suggestion •Collaboration. ADR.Obedience Nominal group technique need to be exercised approach in nursing •Win.

2008.B. Bessie L. Nursing Administration. Diane. Mosby/Elsevier 2. USA. Marquis.Bibliography 1. Basavanthappa. Huber. Leadership role and management functions in nursing. 3. Jaypee Publications. L.2006. Saunders/Elsevier company. Lippincott publication 4. USA. USA. 8th edition. 2004. J. Guide to Nursing Management and Leadership. Leadership anManagement.3rd edition. New Delhi. Ann Mariner Tomey. .

(2007). USA. 8.Janice Rider Ellis.organisational behavior. Martin davies. Issues. Publishers. New Delhi.(2009). Michael lee. Management. USA. 10. CRC Press 7. New age international (p) ltd. Organisational Behaviour. India. leadership and Management in organizations. Joseph T.Kondalkar v. today and tomorrow’s trends.2008.organizational behavior and public management public administration and public policy ..G. Wolters kluwer company. . Jaypee publishers 9. Elsevier publications. India. Stephen Robins.Catalano.(2008). 6.Nursing now. Nursing in today’s world : Trends.5. 2008.

Antonie Hiemer. Littleton.49:223-3 3. July. .Issues in Nursing practice. Oct 2008.Nursing Outlook . vol(2) . March 2007. American Journal of Nursing.Net and Journal References 1. 55-59 2. Vol(1).Sep 2001.Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study. Oct 2009. Suzanne Hitchgard. Robert Swanker .12:33-36. 5.RN Journal. Richard tower. 4. Consensus in today’s nursing.64-66. Cristina garcía vivar. Joan Engebretston. Hierarchical conflicts in nursing practice – A meta analyses. conflict resolution -tools for nursing . Journal of nursing administration. Cultural negotiation: A constructivist-based model for nursing practice. Lynna Y.2008.

com/military/classes/Mentoring/ resolutionppt 3.suite101. management-2954154 2.http://businessmanagement. References       1.curtin.slideshare. 4.html 6.cfm/negotiationconsensus-conflict management .pdf http://rphrm.dcswift.

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