In work measurement, an operation is divided into simple definable activities and assigned a time value. Work measurement is usually undertaken after completing the process of work simplification through the method study. It might also lead to disputes between management and union and ultimately loss of labor, productivity and managerial efficiency. Proper work measurement generates useful data that can help in proper labor utilization, production schedule, standard costing, budgeting, working out wage incentives and above all to determine competitive pricing of product. Work measurement techniques are tools of management and the areas where these tools are put to use depend entirely on the policy of the management.

Work measurement is the application of technique designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carryout a special job at a defined level of performance.

STANDARD PERFORMANCEIt is the optimum rate of output that can be achieved by a qualified worker as an average per working day or shift, due allowance being made for the necessary time required for rest. QUALIFIED WORKERHe has the necessary physical attributes, intelligence and education and has acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to the satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality. ELEMENTAn element is a distinct part of a specified job selected for convenience by observation, measurement and analysis. There are eight types of element i.e; repetitive, occasional, constant, variable, manual, machine, governing and foreign.

RELAXATION ALLOWANCEIt is the additional time that is allowed to a worker for a specified work over the basic time. This time is allowed so that he can recover from the physical and psychological effect of the job preformed under specified conditions and also for attending to his personal needs. It is computed as a percentage of basic time and taken into account several factors depending upon the job.

WORK CONTENTThe work content of a job consist of work plus allowance for rest, personal needs, contingencies and so on, give in work units, work content = basic time and relaxation allowance and any for additional work, i.e; that part of the contingency allowance which represent work.

STANDARD TIMEIt is the total time in which a job should be completed at standard performance. Standard time = basic time + allowance

ALLOWED TIMEA time allowed for payment purpose to the factory work where the standard time is increased appropriately by a factor representing a bonus.

WORK CYCLEIt is the sequence of the elements which are required to perform a job or yield a unit of production. The sequence may sometime include occasional elements.

RATINGRating is the assessment of a worker¶s rate of working relative to the observer¶s concept of rate corresponding to the standard pace.

STANDARD RATINGIt is defined as the rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve as an average output for a given period of time. This rating is denoted as 100.

BASIC TIMEThis time taken by a qualified worker to do a piece of work at the standard rate of performance. Basic time = observed time *rating factor = observed time *(observed rating/100)

STANDARD MINUTESA standard minute express a unit of work in terms of the 100 BS scale. Standard performance is recognized as being 60 SMs an hour. It is different from standard time, in that the latter includes ineffective and unoccupied time.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Compare the methods devised by method studies of doing a particular work and select the best method. To allocate the labor to the jobs in proportion to the work involved having a proper balance the labor on the job. In the preparation of realistic incentive scheme. In the organization of labor by comparing the actual time taken and the targeted time for doing the work. In preparing the labor budget and control. In preparing the estimates for present and future work.

The procedure of work measurement includesSelecting Recording Examining Measuring Compiling Defining work measurement

The work under question may be repetitive or nonrepetitive type. In repetitive operations, the elements of operations will repeat many times during the study. In non-repetitive works, work cycle is hardly repeated, the example of such work are maintenance work and construction work. Depending on the type of work means repetitive or nonrepetitive proper method of work measurement is selected. Basically there are eight methods of work measurement. They are: 1. Stop watch time study 2. Synthesis 3. Predetermined motion time system (PMTS) 4. Analytical estimating 5. Comparative estimating 6. Activity sampling

It is applicable to repetitive work. It is often called a time study. This is a technique for determining as accurately as possible, the time required to carry out a specified task by a qualified worker at a defined level of performance. Time is a work measurement technique for recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the job to be timed. Select a job cycle. Time the job for all cycles and rate the worker. Compute the normal time based on the average cycle time and the worker rating. Determine the fraction of time available, making allowance for personal needs, delays and fatigue. Set the performance standard based on the normal time and the allowances. average cycle time =sum of cycle times recorded / number of cycles observed normal time = average cycle time* worker rating standard time = normal time / available fraction of the time allowance fraction = fraction of time for personal needs, fatigue, and unavoidable delays available fraction of time = 1- allowance fraction

This synthetic technique are used where standard time is computed by adding various elemental times which constitutes the work. Standard data is available for most of the known elemental operations such as for preparatory, setting, manipulating, removing, clearing, tool positioning, holding and tightening. The data should be stored in a library in such a manner for easy reference when required for estimating purpose. These standards cannot be transferred to other factories as they refer to the particular conditions prevailing in a specific workshop at a given factory.

It is defined as a work measurement technique by which normal times are established for basic human motion and these time values are used to build up the time for a job at a defined level of performance. It is a work measurement technique that involves observing through a job, recording job elements, recording preestablished motion units, and calculating a performance standard. PMTS is an improvement over motion study because, besides affording detailed analysis of the motion, it makes it possible to set a measure of the time, that a series of motion ought to take.

Observe the job if it is not being performed. It is best to observe under typical conditions, typical machine, material and worker. Divide the job elements. Do not be concerned about timing them, just thoroughly document all motions performed by the worker. From a table of predetermined time standards, record the standard for each motion units. Find the sum of the standards for all motions. Estimate an allowance for personal time, delays, and fatigue, and add of the sum of standards. This total sum is the predetermined time standard for the job.

MTM- Method Time Measurement Work Factor BMT- Basic Motion Times

This technique is used to determine the time values for jobs, having long and non- repetitive operations. The time values are determined by using synthetic data or on the basis of past experience of the work study, When no synthetic of standard data is available. It is essential that the estimator must have adequate experience of estimating, motion study, time study and the use of standard data.

Find the job details Break the job into elements Select time values from the standard data catalogue Estimates the time values for the remaining elements Add the time values obtained by above steps to get the total normal time Add the appropriate blanket relaxation allowance Add any other allowance of applicable, to arrive at the standard time for the given job

A work measurement technique in which the time for a job is evaluated by comparing the work in it with the work in a series of similar jobs-bench-marks, the work content of which has been measured. When we want to prescribe time for a new job, it is compared with the benchmark jobs and a judgment is made as to which band of jobs it most nearly compares with. It is then judged to be of this band and the appropriate work value from the band is taken as being the work value applicable.

In this the work study man go round the office and note\down what exactly happens at a particular workstation when he visits. He note down whether the worker or machine is working or idle. He has to plan his work. First he must decide what should be the ample size. His work may take one day or number of days.

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