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=  study is the technique  methd study

and w measuement emplyed t ensue the
best pssible use  human and mateial
esuces in caying ut a speciied activity.
=  Study is the study  the w.
= By the help  w study the w can be divided &
made simple.
= Management tl t achieve highe pductivity.
= ncened with human manual w & establishment
 standad  pemance.
= The aim is t impve the pductin pcess by the
eective utilizatin  all the esuces.
= It analyses bth the methd and duatin  the w
invlved in a pcess


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= Incease in pductivity.
= Systematic study.
= It establishes standad  w and pemance.
= Save cst  pductin.
= ective utilizatin  all esuces.
= Results in enhanced saety.
Methd Study







= Accding t Bitish Standads Institutin ( BS 3138):
_ `   
= Methd study is examinatin  w pemance and
eaangement  w t give bette esult in less
ets and time.
= Methd study is the pcess  subjecting w t
systematic, citical scutiny in de t mae it me
eective and me eective.
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= Detemining the cect sequence
= Impved layut
= Utilizatin  man & machine.
= T select the mateial  ight speciicatin.
= Right selectin  tls
= Reduce deectiveness.
= cnmy in human ets
= Bette physical envinment
Pcess hats
_ It represents diagrammatically the sequence / order of
various operations evolved in a production process from
start to finish.
_ In process charts symbols are used and these symbols
represents the sequence or movements of the activities.
_ These charts are of great value in analyzing production
process and the various methods to perform the operations.


_ An peatins ccus when an bject is intentinally changed in

ne  me  its chaacteistics.
_ This indicate the main steps in a pcess, methd  pcedue.
_ xamples  peatins ae:



_ An inspectin ccus when an bject is examined and

cmpae with the standad  the quality and quantity.
_ xamples  inspectin ae:




_ A tanspt indicates the mvement  wes,

mateial  equipment m ne place t anthe.
_ xamples  Tansptatin ae:




_ A delay ccus when the immediate pemance  the

next planned thing des nt tae place.
_ xamples  Delay ae:
pork waiting for the consecutive operations
porkers waiting for the tool cribs
Operators waiting for the instructions from supervisor.


_ Stage ccus when the bject is ept in an authized

custdy and is ptected against un authized emval.
_ xamples  Stage ae:
`aterial kept in store to be distributed to various work stations.

 Opeatins and Inspectin t caied simultaneusly.


_ phen work is confined to a single place, such as assembly

work where two hands are used to do a work, Two hand
process Chat is used to record the facts.
_ This chart include the information about the delay,
transportation and storage activities in the production process.
_ These charts generally represent the movement of an operators
hand during the production process system.
_ This chart can help in studying the function of both hands in
doing some task and explore the possibility of improvement if
›.No. › 


L.H. R.H. L.H. R.H. L.H. R.H.

1 Operation

2 Transport

3 Delay

4 ›torage

S.N Desciptin

1 Stage vent
2 Opeatin
3 Delay
4 Tanspt
5 Opeatin
6 Stage
7 Inspectin
8 Opeatin
Summay 1 3 1 2 1
˜ ›` ˜ 

_ These charts can be used to provide the details of the motion and time of short cycle
_ In ›I`O chart step by step analysis of the whole production process, the short
movements are recorded on a time scale e.g. `ovements of arm and finger of both
hands during some particular operations.
_ This chart is more exhaustive and detailed than process charts or two handed charts.
_ This chart is used to record short cycle operations, which a fraction of seconds.
_ After taking the motion picture, the roll of the film is recorded in the laboratory
frame by frame, by using ³ THERBLIG›
_ This chart is named after ³GILBERTH .
_ GILBERTH identified 17 elementary movements or groups of movement into
which he divide all types of human activity.
_ He has given symbols, letters codes for these therbligs.
_ The ›I`O chart is recording technique for micro-
micro-motion study.
_ A ›I`O chart is a chart based on the film analysis, used to record

Frame Number Theblig Time Desciptin
Description Time Therblig (1000/min)
›.No. Code Name Description Color





5 U US
   Burnt Ochre
    Gold Ochre
 Light Gray
_ `an and machine chart is used to evaluate and analyse the degree of
performance in various operations, activity charts are of great importance.
_ These charts provide valuable information about the equipment utilization
an present the voluminous and haphazardly placed data into a concise and
understandable form.
_ The busy and the idle periods both for man and machine can be easily
located with the help of these charts.
_ The information about busy and idle periods of man and machine can be
used for rescheduling so as to make more efficient use of resources.
u-Blank rectangle or space is used to show that one of the
two i.e. man or machine is idle.

u-Dark colored rectangular space shows position / period of

independent activity for man / machine is busy.

u-›tripped space shows when both man and machine are

working together i.e. combined activity.
= Attempt t measue the w.
= The applicatin designed t establish the time
 a qualiied wes t cay ut a speciied
jb at a deined level  pemance is nwn
as w Measuement.
= It is a time study, which attempts t detemine
the amunt  time equied t pem a tas
by an peat llwing a pescibed standad
_ ›election
_ Obtain all necessary information. ( porkers, `aterial, `achines, Layout, Quality, etc.)
_ Divide the jobs into elements.
_ Time the elements. (›topwatch is used, for timing of skill, alertness, attention)
_ The number cycles to be timed. (Variations, degree of accuracy, level of confidence)

_ Rating the operator. ( ›peed, effort, knowledge, pace of working)

_ Objective rating. ( Emphasis on ›peed, body movement, eye hand coordination, handling)
_ Allowances.


à  ` 







1.Time Study
_ Time study is used to identify the time standards for a particular job
performed by a competent worker under standard condition.
_ Time is recorded by the stop watch.
_ In time study by direct observation time is recorded for several cycles of
the task and then judge and record the pace.
_ ›topwatch time studyu Development of a time standard based on
observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles

Steps In Time Study

o Jb Identiicatin and Divisin
o Obsevatin
o Pace ating the we
o Allwances
o mputing the nmal time

2. By studying the Past pductin Recds

_ The past ecds  the pductin depatment can pvide

valuable inmatin abut the time taen t pem sme tas.
_ Past ecds ae analyzed caeully t get the desied inmatin.
_ The eliability and validity  inmatin m these ecds is
based n the assumptin that the natue  activities pemed
in the pductin has nt changed duing the peid.

3. Pedetemined Mtin Time Study
_ It is used whee the tas is pemed manually which is
cmpsed  basics mtin such as each, gasp, mve, tun,
stetch, apply pessue, elease and s n.
_ Pedetemined mtin study is a technique  setting w
standads that uses the ecded standad time data  each 
these basics mtins assciated with peming a tas and
summing them up t detemine the time equied t pem the
whle tas.
  † bseved pemance time pe
unit x Pemance ating

4.  sampling
_ A technique in which a lage numbe  bsevatins ae made
ve a peid  time  ne  gup  machines, pcesses 
_ ach bsevatins ecds what is happening at that instant and
the pecentage  bsevatins ecded  a paticula activity,
 delay, is a measue  the pecentage  time duing which
that activities delay ccus.
_ It is a technique  analyzing w by taing seveal
bsevatins, usually, at andm t see the elative equency
with which vaius elemental activities tae place.

1.Rati delay t detemine the activity-time pecentage  pesnnel 
 example, management may be inteested in the amunt 
time a machine is unning  idle.

2. Pemance measuement t develp a pemance index  wes. hen

the amunt  w time is elated t the quantity  utput, a measue 
pemance is develped. This is useul  peidic pemance evaluatin

3. Time standads t btain the standad time  a tas. hen w sampling is
used  this pupse, hweve, the bseve must be expeienced because he
 she must attach a pemance ating t the bsevatins.
_ One observer may conduct several work-sampling studies simultaneously.

_ 2. The observer need not be a trained analyst unless the purpose of the study is to
determine a time standard.

_ 3. No timing devices are required.

_ 4. pork of a long cycle time may be studied with fewer observer hours.

_ 5. The duration of the study is longer, which minimizes effects of short-period


_ 6. The study may be temporarily delayed at any time with little effect.

_ 7. Because work sampling needs only instantaneous observations, the operator has
less chance to influence the findings by changing his or her work method.