## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Low Thermoelastic Damping
**

Temperature-dependent

internal friction in silicon

nanoelectromechanical systems

AdviserŘProf. Li, Wang Long

SpeakersŘHwang, Chih-Jay Q26971037

Chen, Po-Wei Q26974093

Li, Wen Rong Q26971061

Nguyen, Huu Nghia Q28977013

Introduction Introduction

To identify the thermal modes that contribute most to damping,

and illustrates how this information may be used to design devices

with higher quality factors.

We calculate damping in typical micromechanical resonator

structures using Comsol Multiphysics

We compare the results with experimental data reported in

literature for these devices..

Micromechanical resonators are used in a wide variety of

applications, including inertial sensing, chemical and biological

sensing, acoustic sensing, and microwave transceivers.

The resonator¶s Quality factor(Q), which describes the mechanical

energy damping.

In all applications, it is important to have design control over this

parameter, and in most cases, it is invaluable to minimize the

damping.

Zener developed general expressions for thermoelastic damping in

vibrating structures, with the specific case study of a beam in its

fundamental flexural mode.

Zener calculated the thermoelastic Q of an isotropic homogenous

resonator to be:

Zener made in assuming only thermal gradients in one direction

along the beam were significant does not capture the most

important thermal mode, even for a simple beam.

In addition, past efforts to estimate Q without explicitly

calculating the weighting functions have greatly overestimated the

damping behavior of real systems.

We describe a method for using full numerical solutions to

evaluate Q using Zener¶s approach.

The imaginary component represents the mechanical vibration

frequency, while the real part provides the rate of decay for an

unforced vibration due to the thermal coupling.

The quality factor of the resonator is defined as

The eigenvalues, Ȧ

i

, are complex.

In some cases, the experimental data appears to have achieved the

thermoelastic limit. For these devices, it is clear that structural

modifications that can engineer a higher thermoelastic limit are

warranted.

In devices where the measured Q value is less than half the

thermoelastic limit, investigation into and minimization of other

damping mechanisms is warranted.

This remarkable correlation between simulation results and

experiments suggests that the flexural beam Q is limited by

thermoelastic damping.

Experiment

Resonator Parameters

Resonator Cases

Results and conclusion Results and conclusion

We find that the TED Q is two orders higher than the measured Q.

This suggests that thermoelastic damping, for the fundamental

longitudinal mode, is not a significant contributor to the overall

energy loss in this resonator.

A paddle resonator operating in its torsional resonance was

simulated. The simulated resonant frequency was about 20% lower

than the measured torsional frequency.

The simulated result is consistent with the physical understanding

that torsional deformations produce little or no volumetric expansion

and should therefore have negligible thermoelastic damping.

By studying the damping contributions of individual thermal

modes, their mode shapes, and their frequencies, it is possible to

engineer MEMS resonators for higher Q.

In addition, by reviewing the fundamental coupled thermodynamic

energy expressions, we achieve a greater insight into the energy

loss mechanismitself.

The simulations were conducted in Comsol Multiphysics. This

software can parameterize the material parameters and geometry,

so that detailed optimization studies are enabled.

uoveining

Equation

Generalized Hooke·s law for

linear isotropic elastic solids

ı

x

= Ȝ ( e

x

+ e

y

+ e

z

)+2ȝe

x

ı

x

= Ȝ ( e

x

+ e

y

+ e

z

)+2ȝe

y

ı

x

= Ȝ ( e

x

+ e

y

+ e

z

)+2ȝe

z

Ȣ

xy

= 2ȝe

xy

Ȣ

yz

= 2ȝe

yz

Ȣ

zx

= 2ȝe

zx

Ȝ : Lame`¶ constant

ȝ : shear modulus

Thermal strain

İ

T

= Į(¨T)

Į : cofficient of thermal expansion

Force balance

3-D equation of motion

Fourier¶s law

Entropy

Combine differential fourier¶s law and entropy

Reference Reference

Amy Duwel, Tob N. Candler, Thomas W. Kenny, and Mathew

Varghese, ³ Engineering MEMS Resonators With Low

Thermoelastic Damping´, Journal of Miroelectromechanical

Systems, Vol. 15, NO. 6, Dec 2006.

Introduction Introduction

The understanding and control of composition, nanostructure, and

interface properties are important for the development of

nanostructured materials.

High-frequency mechanical resonators presenting high quality

factors are of interest for the development of sensitive force

detecting devices.

Quality factor of resonant micromechanical devices decreases

steadily with device dimension.

Defect motion is governed by an activation energy that

will induce Debye relaxation peaks in the temperature

dependence of internal friction.

Debye relaxation is the dielectric relaxation response of

an ideal, non-interacting population of dipoles to an

alternating external electric field. It is usually expressed

in the complex permittivity of a medium as a function of

the field's frequency Ȧ:

Fabrication and electrostatic operation of

nanomechanical beams as thin as 30 nm and frequencies

as high as 380 MHz.

Dynamical modeling and characterization of paddle

oscillators operating in the 1±10 MHz range.

Reporting the temperature dependent behavior of these

paddle oscillators and observing Debye internal friction

peaks in the T=160ņ190K range.

Experimental

Approach

Using electron beam lithography on silicon-on-insulator (SOI)

wafers consisting of a 400-nm-thick oxide buried underneath 200

nm of single crystal <100> silicon.

pumped down to the 10

-5

Torr range.

The cold finger allows temperature access and control over the T=4±300K

range.

The quality factor (Q) is closely approximated from the width of

the resonance peaks using the relation

f

0

is the center of the resonance response, and ¨f

FWHM

is its full

width half maximum.

Nanofabricated paddle oscillator

d=5.5 mm, w=2 mm, L=2.5 mm, b=175 nm, a=200 nm, h=400 nm

Identifying two modes of oscillation attributed to the

flexural and torsional motion of the supporting beams.

These modes are sufficiently decoupled to allow their

independent excitation by the application of the

appropriate actuation frequency.

Temperature dependence of the two resonant

frequencies of a metallized device

The frequency steadily

increases as the temperature

decreases to T=80K, at which

point an inflection of the slope

is observed. Overall increases

in resonant frequency of 6.5%,

and 1.5%are observed at the

lowest temperature for the

flexural and torsional modes.

Temperature dependence of the internal friction for the two

modes of motion of a metallized and nonmetallized device

Within the precision of our measurement, all four sets of data

show a peak structure centered at T=160±180 K.

The existence of this peak in both metallized and nometallized

devices suggests that the metal overlayer is not responsible for this

loss.

The reduction of the sloped dissipation background in the

nonmetallized device suggests that metal film monotonically

contributes to the total internal friction in that temperature range.

This contribution could possibly peak at much higher temperatures,

as expected from bulk polycrystalline metals.

A similar peak has been observed at T=135K in larger kilohertz

range microcantilevers, and has been attributed to surface or near-

surface related phenomena such as damage or presence of oxide.

The peaks observed in our megahertz-range devices could

potentially be related to similar phenomena, as a shift from

T=120± 140K at 2±10 kHz to T=160± 180K at 5±7 MHz would be

consistent with a Debye relaxation behavior dictated by an

activation energy of E

a

=0.25± 0.5 eV.

Results and conclusion Results and conclusion

The characterization of both modes of motion of these single-stage

paddles consistently suggested a material 50% softer than

expected from bulk silicon.

A temperature dependent frequency shift has been observed.

Low-temperature studies of internal friction at 5±7 MHz have also

revealed a double peak centered in the T=160± 180K range that

would be consistent with the activation energies expected from

near-surface phenomena previously reported in larger devices.

A thorough understanding of the various extrinsic, intrinsic, and

fundamental processes leading to internal losses at such scales. It

will enhance the quality of such RF structures.

Previous description allows the development of high-quality

resonators for technological applications, and provide access to

fundamental studies of surface effects and mesoscopic internal

friction.

imulate

Select multi-physics modes

Import object (.sat)

Import constant

Subdomain setting ± Solid, Stress-strain

boundary setting ± Solid, Stress-strain

Subdomain setting ± Heat Transfer by Conduction

Boundary setting ± Heat Transfer by Conduction

Solver Parameters setting

Solver

Calculate Q (Quality factor)

Quality factor (Q)

Final Conclusion Final Conclusion

Designing the micromechanical resonators we need to calculate

quality factor Q that describes the mechanical energy damping and

play an impotant role in the structure.

By using Zener formular (reference 1) and experimence the

dependence between temperature, resonant frequency and inertial

loss (reference 2) we can easily get Q value and compare the value

between calculation and experimence.

The result for the case Torsional 3D we solved with the value

Q = 2e8 simulating by Comsol Multiphysics that is fixed with

measured value at simulated frequency 4.4 MHz.

So we can solve the fully coupled thermoelastic dynamcs to obtain

exact expressions for Q in an arbitrary resonator with Comsol

Multiphysic.

With this reason, designing a micromechanical resonator is more

simple by simulating and calculating for exact results.

Final Conclusion Final Conclusion

Thanks for Thanks for

your attention your attention

Introduction

To identify the thermal modes that contribute most to damping, and illustrates how this information may be used to design devices with higher quality factors. We calculate damping in typical micromechanical resonator structures using Comsol Multiphysics We compare the results with experimental data reported in literature for these devices..

Micromechanical resonators are used in a wide variety of applications, including inertial sensing, chemical and biological sensing, acoustic sensing, and microwave transceivers. The resonator¶s Quality factor(Q), which describes the mechanical energy damping. In all applications, it is important to have design control over this parameter, and in most cases, it is invaluable to minimize the damping.

Zener developed general expressions for thermoelastic damping in vibrating structures, with the specific case study of a beam in its fundamental flexural mode. Zener calculated the thermoelastic Q of an isotropic homogenous resonator to be:

even for a simple beam. past efforts to estimate Q without explicitly calculating the weighting functions have greatly overestimated the damping behavior of real systems. We describe a method for using full numerical solutions to evaluate Q using Zener¶s approach. . In addition. Zener made in assuming only thermal gradients in one direction along the beam were significant does not capture the most important thermal mode.

The imaginary component represents the mechanical vibration frequency. i. are complex. . The quality factor of the resonator is defined as The eigenvalues. while the real part provides the rate of decay for an unforced vibration due to the thermal coupling.

it is clear that structural modifications that can engineer a higher thermoelastic limit are warranted. For these devices. the experimental data appears to have achieved the thermoelastic limit. . In devices where the measured Q value is less than half the thermoelastic limit. This remarkable correlation between simulation results and experiments suggests that the flexural beam Q is limited by thermoelastic damping. In some cases. investigation into and minimization of other damping mechanisms is warranted.

Experiment .

Resonator Parameters Resonator Cases .

Results and conclusion .

We find that the TED Q is two orders higher than the measured Q. is not a significant contributor to the overall energy loss in this resonator. . The simulated resonant frequency was about 20% lower than the measured torsional frequency. for the fundamental longitudinal mode. A paddle resonator operating in its torsional resonance was simulated. This suggests that thermoelastic damping. The simulated result is consistent with the physical understanding that torsional deformations produce little or no volumetric expansion and should therefore have negligible thermoelastic damping.

so that detailed optimization studies are enabled. In addition. we achieve a greater insight into the energy loss mechanism itself. By studying the damping contributions of individual thermal modes. The simulations were conducted in Comsol Multiphysics. their mode shapes. and their frequencies. This software can parameterize the material parameters and geometry. by reviewing the fundamental coupled thermodynamic energy expressions. . it is possible to engineer MEMS resonators for higher Q.

.

Generalized Hooke·s law for linear isotropic elastic solids = ( ex + ey + ez )+2 ex ( ex + ey + ez )+2 ey x = ( ex + ey + ez )+2 ez x = xy = 2 exy yz = 2 eyz zx = 2 ezx : Lame`¶ constant : shear modulus x .

Thermal strain T= (¨T) : cofficient of thermal expansion .

.

Force balance .

3-D equation of motion .

.

Fourier¶s law Entropy Combine differential fourier¶s law and entropy .

.

Reference .

NO. Kenny. Dec 2006. Candler. 6. ³ Engineering MEMS Resonators With Low Thermoelastic Damping´. . Journal of Miroelectromechanical Systems. Amy Duwel. Thomas W. Tob N. and Mathew Varghese. 15. Vol.

Introduction .

and interface properties are important for the development of nanostructured materials. nanostructure. The understanding and control of composition. . Quality factor of resonant micromechanical devices decreases steadily with device dimension. High-frequency mechanical resonators presenting high quality factors are of interest for the development of sensitive force detecting devices.

non-interacting population of dipoles to an alternating external electric field. Defect motion is governed by an activation energy that will induce Debye relaxation peaks in the temperature dependence of internal friction. It is usually expressed in the complex permittivity of a medium as a function of the field's frequency : . Debye relaxation is the dielectric relaxation response of an ideal.

. Reporting the temperature dependent behavior of these paddle oscillators and observing Debye internal friction peaks in the T=160 190K range. Fabrication and electrostatic operation of nanomechanical beams as thin as 30 nm and frequencies as high as 380 MHz. Dynamical modeling and characterization of paddle oscillators operating in the 1±10 MHz range.

Experimental Approach .

and ¨f FWHM is its full width half maximum. Using electron beam lithography on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers consisting of a 400-nm-thick oxide buried underneath 200 nm of single crystal <100> silicon. . pumped down to the 10-5 Torr range. The cold finger allows temperature access and control over the T=4±300K range. The quality factor (Q) is closely approximated from the width of the resonance peaks using the relation f0 is the center of the resonance response.

h=400 nm . L=2. w=2 mm. a=200 nm.5 mm.5 mm. b=175 nm.Nanofabricated paddle oscillator d=5.

. These modes are sufficiently decoupled to allow their independent excitation by the application of the appropriate actuation frequency. Identifying two modes of oscillation attributed to the flexural and torsional motion of the supporting beams.

. at which point an inflection of the slope is observed.5%. and 1.5% are observed at the lowest temperature for the flexural and torsional modes.Temperature dependence of the two resonant frequencies of a metallized device The frequency steadily increases as the temperature decreases to T=80K. Overall increases in resonant frequency of 6.

Temperature dependence of the internal friction for the two modes of motion of a metallized and nonmetallized device .

The reduction of the sloped dissipation background in the nonmetallized device suggests that metal film monotonically contributes to the total internal friction in that temperature range. . all four sets of data show a peak structure centered at T=160±180 K. The existence of this peak in both metallized and nometallized devices suggests that the metal overlayer is not responsible for this loss. This contribution could possibly peak at much higher temperatures. Within the precision of our measurement. as expected from bulk polycrystalline metals.

and has been attributed to surface or nearsurface related phenomena such as damage or presence of oxide. A similar peak has been observed at T=135K in larger kilohertz range microcantilevers. as a shift from T=120± 140K at 2±10 kHz to T=160± 180K at 5±7 MHz would be consistent with a Debye relaxation behavior dictated by an activation energy of Ea=0. The peaks observed in our megahertz-range devices could potentially be related to similar phenomena. .25± 0.5 eV.

Results and conclusion .

. Low-temperature studies of internal friction at 5±7 MHz have also revealed a double peak centered in the T=160± 180K range that would be consistent with the activation energies expected from near-surface phenomena previously reported in larger devices. A temperature dependent frequency shift has been observed. The characterization of both modes of motion of these single-stage paddles consistently suggested a material 50% softer than expected from bulk silicon.

. It will enhance the quality of such RF structures. intrinsic. Previous description allows the development of high-quality resonators for technological applications. A thorough understanding of the various extrinsic. and fundamental processes leading to internal losses at such scales. and provide access to fundamental studies of surface effects and mesoscopic internal friction.

.

Select multi-physics modes .

Import object (.sat) .

.

Import constant .

Subdomain setting ± Solid. Stress-strain .

boundary setting ± Solid. Stress-strain .

.

.

Subdomain setting ± Heat Transfer by Conduction .

Boundary setting ± Heat Transfer by Conduction .

Solver Parameters setting .

.

Solver .

Calculate Q (Quality factor) .

.

Quality factor (Q) .

The result for the case Torsional 3D we solved with the value Q = 2e8 simulating by Comsol Multiphysics that is fixed with measured value at simulated frequency 4.Final Conclusion Designing the micromechanical resonators we need to calculate quality factor Q that describes the mechanical energy damping and play an impotant role in the structure. . By using Zener formular (reference 1) and experimence the dependence between temperature. resonant frequency and inertial loss (reference 2) we can easily get Q value and compare the value between calculation and experimence.4 MHz.

. designing a micromechanical resonator is more simple by simulating and calculating for exact results.Final Conclusion So we can solve the fully coupled thermoelastic dynamcs to obtain exact expressions for Q in an arbitrary resonator with Comsol Multiphysic. With this reason.

Thanks for your attention .

- ME351MDV-Jan11-ForcedvibrationTutorial
- Foundations for Machines-Analysis & Design_By Shamsher Prakash.pdf
- Modal Mass, Stiffness and Damping
- Dielectric composites with a high and temperature-independent
- Electrical Circuits notes
- crewes_complex_Q.pdf
- VIBRATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
- Agile Nt
- Mrsnik Article Vib Fatigue Rice
- Di Electrics
- Measuring Small Inductances and Capacitance With the _AVR Transistortester
- Force Limited Vibration Testing - Nasa_hdbk_7004
- Advanced Mechanical Vibrations.pdf
- The Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer
- 11
- 23
- Introduction to Conputation of Reponse Spectrum by Ebeling - Usace (Ottimo) Itl92-4
- NingTang2009.PDF;Jsessionid=C57A09425132EA7EA3AAC7AEE3740164
- Numericals on Capacitors
- Frequency Response
- 1-s2.0-S0886779811001623-main
- 1003.0363v1
- tmp45CE.tmp
- Viscoelastic Modeling of Aortic Excessive Enlargement of an Artery
- ANSYS Modal Analysis
- Active Vibration Control of a Three-stage Tensegrity Structure by Chan, Arbelaez, Bossens, Skelton
- Use of Alternative Energy Sources for the Initiation and Execution of Chemical Reactions and Processes
- Xu Et Al-2007-ZAMM - Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics - Zeitschrift F-r Angewandte... (2)
- Floor Guideline
- Vibration of Elastic system

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading