Section 4: Implementation of Finite Element Analysis ± Other Elements

1. Quadrilateral Elements 2. Higher Order Triangular Elements 3. Isoparametric Elements

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements

-1-

Section 4.1: Quadrilateral Elements 
Refers in general

to any four-sided, 2D element. 

We will start by

considering rectangular elements with sides parallel to coordinate axes. (Thickness = h)
Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -2-

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.)
Normalized Element Geometry ± 
³Standard´ setting

for calculations: 

Mapping between real and normalized coordinates: x  xc y  yc Implementation of FEA: \!  x ! a\  xc ; y ! bL  yc .-3;L ! Other Elements a b

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.)
First Order Rectangular Element (Bilinear Quad): 
4 nodes; 2 translational

d.o.f. per node. 

Displacements interpolated as follows:

u

\

.x .

y v .

\ .

.x .

-4- . y Implementation of FEA: Other Elements a1 a2\ a5 a6\ a3 a7 a4\ a8\ ³Bilinear terms´ ± implies that all shape functions are products of linear functions of x and y.

4.) Shape Functions: .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

1  \ .

1  L . N 2 .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ .

4 N 3 .1  L .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ .

N 4 .1  L .

L ! 1 .\ .

1  \ .

4 4 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements @ N k .1  L .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ k \ .

4 1 4 N1 .1  L kL .

\ .L ! -5- .

)  Displacement interpolation becomes:                 ¡ ¨ u .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.

y ¸ © ¹ v .x.

x . y º ª ¨ d1 ¸ N 2 .

N 3 .\ .

\ . N 4 .

0 0 0 0 « N1 .\ .

\ . 0 N1 . »© ¹ ¬ ¼ M.

\ . 0 N 2 .

0 N 3 .\ .

\ . 0 N 4 .

\ . ½ © ¹ ­ 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 © d ¹ 1 ª 8º "« N.

x » " ­ ½  Need to compute [B] matrix: « B .

x » ! ?x A« N .

x » ­ ½ ­ ½ « xxx ¬ ! ¬0 ¬ xxy ­ 0» « N1 .

\ .L » 0 N 2 .

\ .L 0 N 3 .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

xy ¼ ¬ 0 N1 .\ .L 0 x ¼ ¼ ! ??A.

L 0 N 2 .\ .

L 0 N3 .\ .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

\ .L ½ x ¼­ xx ½ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -6- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.)  Chain rule: xN k xx xN k xy 0 xN k x\ x\ x x k .4.

L ! .\ .

\ .L ! xxN\  0 xN k xL xL xx x\ xy  xxNk L .

a xL 1 ! 1 Lk .1  LkL .

1  \ k \ * b ! 4L .

xy ab 4 1 4 1 a k ! \ k .1  \ k \ .

1  LkL * ! b\ k 4 ab  Resulting [B(x)] matrix: « b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 » ¬ ¼ « B .

x » ! 41 ¬  a .

1  \  a .

1  \ 0 0 0 a .

1  \ 0 a .

1  \ ¼ ab ­ ½ ¬  a .

1  \ b .

1  L  a .

1  \ b .

1  L a .

1  \ b .

1  L a .

1  \ b .

1  L ¼ ­ ½  Recall general expression for [k]: ?k A ! h * ´ area Implementation of FEA: Other Elements «B .

x » ?CA«B .

x » d ­ ½ ­ ½ Express in terms of \ and L! -7- T .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.)  Can show that L !1 \ !1 ¨ dx ¸¨ dy ¸ dA ! dxdy ! © d \ ¹© dL ¹ ! ab * d\ dL   ´ dA ! ´ ´ ab * d\ dL . T L !1 \ !1 Everything in terms of \ and L!  Can also show that . ª d\ ºª dL º area L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * ab * ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B Ad\ dL .

f ! ´ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV  ´ ­ ½ Ve L !1 \ !1 T « N .

x » .

t .

x dA ­ ½ \ !1 T Ae .W ! h * ab * L !1 L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ « N .

\ .L » .

b .

L d\ dL  h * a ­ ½ T \ !1 T \ !1 ´ « N .\ .

\ .L ! 1 » ­ ½ T T .

t .

\ .L ! 1 d\ h * b h * b Implementation of FEA: Other Elements L !1 L !1 ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ .\ ! 1.

t .

\ ! 1.L dL T  h *a \ !1 ´ « N .

\ .L ! 1 » ­ ½ .

t .

\ .L ! 1 d \ L !1 ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ .\ ! 1.

t .

\ ! 1.L dL . -8- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Gauss Quadrature:  Let¶s take a closer look at one of the integrals for the element stiffness matrix (assume plane stress): E h 2 2 k22 ! * a 2 .4.

1  \  1 b 2 .

1 R .

Only possible approach for isoparametric elements. 2 ´ ´ 1  R 2 16ab L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 _ a  Can be solved exactly. but for various reasons FEA prefers to evaluate integrals like this approximately:    Historically. considered more efficient and reduced coding errors.1  L d\ dL . Can actually improve performance in certain cases! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -9- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.) Gauss Quadrature:  Idea: approximate integral by a sum of function values at predetermined points with optimal weights ± 1D case: ´ J .

\ d\ } §WiJ .

depend on n  n = order of quadrature. (Note: any polynomial of order 2n-1 can be integrated exactly using nth order Gauss quadrature. depend on n Gauss points = known locations.\ i . 1 i !1 1 n weights = known constants. determines accuracy of integral.) Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -10- .

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Gauss Quadrature:  Have tables for weights and Gauss points:  2D case handled as two 1D cases: 1 1 ´ ´ J .

\ .L d\ dL } §§WW J .

i j i j j !1 i !1 1 1 n n Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -11- .\ .L .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. still 2 translational d.o.  ³Higher order´   higher degree of complete polynomial contained in displacement approximations.4.f.) Higher Order Rectangular Elements  More nodes.  Two general ³families´ of such elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements Serendipity Lagrangian -12- . per node.

³bicubic´.  Shape functions are products of nth order polynomials in each direction.4. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -13- .) Lagrangian Elements:  Order n element has (n+1)2 nodes arranged in square- symmetric pattern ± requires internal nodes. «)  Bilinear quad is a Lagrangian element of order n = 1. (³biquadratic´.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

\ 5 ! 1. \ 4 ! .4. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements L(5) .  Consider 1D example of 6 points. \ 3 ! .3.75.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Uses a procedure that automatically satisfies the Kronecker delta property for shape functions.6. \ 2 ! .2. \1 ! .3 and function = 0 at other designated points: \ 0 ! 1.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. want function = 1 at \ 3 ! 0.

\ ! 3 .

\  \ 0 .

\  \1 .

\  \ 2 .

\  \ 4 .

\  \ 5 . .

\3  \ 0 .

\ 3  \1 .

\ 3  \ 2 .

\ 3  \ 4 .

\ 3  \ 5 -14- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. L (m) k .4.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Can perform this for any number of points at any designated locations.

\  \ 0 .

\  \1 L .

\  \ k 1 .

\  \ k 1 L .

\  \ m ! m .

\  \i . .

\ ! .

\ k  \ 0 .

\ k  \1 L .

\ k  \ k 1 .

\ k  \ k 1 L .

\ k  \ m — .

\ k  \i i !0 i{k No \-\k term! Lagrange polynomial of order m at node k Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -15- .

4.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Use this procedure in two directions at each node: V (3) 6 .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

L  L 2 .

L  L10 .

L  L14 .

L ! .

L6  L2 .

L6  L10 .

L6  L14 H (3) 6 .

\  \5 .

\  \ 7 .

\  \8 .

\ ! .

\ 6  \ 5 .

\ 6  \ 7 .

\ 6  \ 8 (3) N 6 .

\ .L ! H 6 .

\ V6(3) .

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -16- .L .

4. there are no procedural differences in the formulation of higher order quadrilateral elements and the bilinear quad.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Notes on Lagrangian Elements:  Once shape functions have been identified.  Pascal¶s triangle for the Lagrangian quadrilateral elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements 3x3 nxn -17- .

4. only boundary nodes ± avoids internal ones.  However.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. more efficient than Lagrangian elements and avoids certain types of instabilities.  Not as accurate as Lagrangian elements.) Serendipity Elements:  In general. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -18- .

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. quadratic serendipity element: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements N6 ! 1 2 ..g.) Serendipity Shape Functions:  Shape functions for mid-side nodes are products of an nth order polynomial parallel to side and a linear function perpendicular to the side.  E.

1  \ .

N 7 ! 1 .1  L 2 .

1  \ 2 .

2 -19- .1  L .

Step #2: subtract out mid-side shape function N5 with appropriate Ö weight N1 .)  Shape functions for corner nodes are modifications of the shape functions of the bilinear quad.    Ö Step #1: start with appropriate bilinear quad shape function.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4. N1 .

node #5 ! 1 2 Ö Step #3: repeat Step #2 using mid-side shape function N8 and weight N1 .

node #8 ! 1 2 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements Nk ! 1 4 .

1  \ k\ .

1  L kL .

2. k ! 1.3. 4.\ k\  L kL  1 . -20- .

) Notes on Serendipity Elements:  Once shape functions have been identified.4. there are no procedural differences in the formulation of higher order quadrilateral elements and the bilinear quad.  Pascal¶s triangle for the serendipity quadrilateral elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements 3x3 mxm -21- .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Kinematic Modes) ±  Instabilities for an element (or group of elements) that produce deformation without any strain energy. will dominate the deformation pattern.  Can occur for all 2D elements except the CST.  Typically caused by using an inappropriately low order of Gauss quadrature.) Zero-Energy Modes (Mechanisms.4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -22- .  If present.

4. can be eliminated by proper constraints. #3 = rigid body modes. #5. #8 = bending modes.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. #6 = constant strain modes. #2. produce zero strain at origin. #7. #4. always have nonzero strain energy.) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Deformation modes for a bilinear quad:    #1. -23- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Mesh instability for bilinear quads using order 1 quadrature: ³Hourglass modes´ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -24- .4.

) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Element instability for quadratic quadrilaterals using 2x2 Gauss quadrature: ³Hourglass modes´ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -25- .4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Avoid elements with known instabilities! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -26- .) Zero-Energy Modes ±  How can you prevent this?    Use higher order Gauss quadrature in formulation.4. Can artificially ³stiffen´ zero-energy modes via penalty functions.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Section 4: Implementation of Finite Element Analysis ± Other Elements 1. Isoparametric Elements 3. we will only look at quadrilateral elements. Higher Order Triangular Elements Note: any type of geometry can be used for isoparametric elements. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -27- . Quadrilateral Elements 2.

Section 4. need elements that do not ³fit´ the standard geometry.2: Isoparametric Elements  For various reasons. Curved boundaries Transition regions Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -28- .

)  Problem: How do you map a general quadrilateral onto the normalized geometry? x.4. y ! F .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

\ .L  .

\ .L ! F 1 .

y . F ! .x.

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -29- .

* x } N1 .4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Idea: Approximate the mapping using ³shape functions´.

L x1  N* .\ .

L x2  N* .\ .

L x3  L  N* .\ .

2 3 n * y } N1 .L xn .\ .

\ .L y1  N* .

\ .L y2  N* .

L y3  L  N* .\ .

L yn .\ . 2 3 n *  Require N k .

N* .\ .L to have Kronecker delta property.

\ . Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -30- .L not required to be the actual shape functions of  k the element. n can be as large or as small as you want.

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Approximate ³serendipity element´ shown using bilinear quad shape functions and approximation points at corners x! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .4.

1  \ .

1  L x1  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x2 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x4 . 4 4 1 4 -31- .

the number of approximation points equals the actual number of nodes for the element. the approximation functions are the actual shape functions for the element: x ! N1 .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  For an isoparametric element.4. also.

\ .L x1  N 2 .

L x2  N 3 .\ .

L x3  L  N n .\ .

\ . y ! N1 .L xn .

\ .L y1  N 2 .

L y2  N3 .\ .

\ .L y3  L  N n .

u .\ .L yn .

x. y ! N1 .

L u1  N 2 .\ .

\ .L u2  N 3 .

\ .L u3  L  N n .

L un .\ . v .

y ! N1 .x.

L v1  N 2 .\ .

L v2  N 3 .\ .

\ .L v3  L  N n .

L vn . pts. < # of nodes. > # of nodes. -32- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements . pts. element is called subparametric.\ . if # of approx.  If # of approx. element is called superparametric.

4. ª d\ ºª dL º area L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * ab * ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B Ad\ dL .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Recall the formulation of ³standard´ bilinear quad: ¨ dx ¸¨ dy ¸ dA ! dxdy ! © d \ ¹© dL ¹ ! ab * d\ dL   ´ dA ! ´ ´ ab * d\ dL . T L !1 \ !1 How does this work for an isoparametric element? -33- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Calculating the [B] matrix (assume isoparametric bilinear quad element): ¨ d1 ¸ ¨ u .

x. y ¸ « N1 .

L »© ¹ 0 N 2 .\ .

L 0 N 3 .\ .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

L 0 © ¹!¬ ¼ M.\ . v .

x . y º ­ 0 N1 .

\ .L 0 N 2 .

\ .L 0 N 3 .

L 0 N 4 .\ .

L ½ © ¹ ª 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 © d8 ¹ ª º "« N.\ .

x » " ­ ½ « xxx ¬ « B .

x » ! ¬ 0 ­ ½ ¬ xxy ­ 0» 0 0 0 0 « N1 .

L N 2 .\ .

L N 3 .\ .

\ .L N 4 .

L » x ¼ ¼ ! ??A.\ . xy ¼ ¬ 0 0 0 0 N1 .

L N 2 .\ .

L N 3 .\ .

L N 4 .\ .

L ½ x ¼­ xx ½ Need to apply the chain rule! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -34- .\ .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont. x\ xx x\ xy x\ xL xx xL xy xL  Using the approximate mapping: n n xN i xN i xx xx x ! § N i .4.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Chain rule: compute inverse rule first ± xN k xN k xx xN k xy xN k xN k xx xN k xy !  !  . .

L xi   !§ .\ .

L xi .\ . ! § .

!§ . x\ i !1 x\ xL i !1 xL i !1 n n n xN i xN i xy xy Similarly.L xi .\ .

! § .L yi .\ .

L yi . x\ i !1 x\ xL i !1 xL Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -35- .\ .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Put all of this together ± ¨ xN k © x\ © © xN k © xL ª ¸ « xx xy » ¨ xN k ¹ ¬ x\ x\ ¼ © xx ¹!¬ ¼© ¹ ¬ xx xy ¼ © xN k ¹ ¬ xL xL ¼ © xy ½ª º ­ « n xN i ¬ § x\ .4.

\ .L xi i !1 !¬ n ¬ xN i ¬ § xL .

L xi ­ i !1 ¸ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ º xN i » ¨ xN k § x\ .\ .

\ .L yi ¼ © xx i !1 ¼© n xN i ¼ © xN k § xL .

.\ . ¹ ¹ º -36- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements The Jacobian matrix [J] of the mapping.L yi ¼ © xy i !1 ½ª n ¸ ¹ ¹.

) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Can now compute the regular chain rule ± ¨ xN k © x\ © © xN k © xL ª ¸ ¨ xN k ¹ © xx ¹ ! ?J A© ¹ © xN k © xy ¹ ª º ¸ ¨ xN k ¹ © xx ¹ © ¹ © xN k ¹ © xy º ª ¨ xN k ¸ © x\ ¹ 1 ¹ ! ?J A © © xN k ¹ ¹ © xL º ª n ¸ ¹ ¹.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4. ¹ ¹ º « n xN i ¬ § xL .

L yi 1 ¬ i !1 1 ?J A ! J ¬ n xN i ¬ § xL .\ .

L xi ­ i !1 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements xN i » § .\ .

L xi ¼ ³Jacobian´ of § x\ .L yi ¼ i !1 x\ ¼ . n xN i ¼ \ .\ . J ! det ?J A.

i !1 ½ the mapping -37- .

J must have same sign at all points in normalized geometry.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  J is a (nonconstant) scaling factor that relates area in original geometry to area in normalized geometry. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -38- .  For a well-defined mapping. can show that dxdy ! J * d \ dL .  Large variations in J imply highly distorted mappings ± leads to badly formed elements.4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont. © xv ¹ ! ¬ © ¬ ¼© ¹ © ¹ ¬ © K ¹ ¬ 0 1 1 0¼ © xx ¹ © xx ¹ ­ ?0A ½ © xv ¹ © xv ¹ ª xy º ­ ª xy º ª xy º « 1 0 0 0» 1¬ @ ?B A ! 0 0 0 1¼ ¼ J¬ ¬0 1 1 0¼ ­ ½ « n xN iy ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL i ¬ ¬ n xN i xi ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ­ n xN iy § x\ i i !1 n xN ix § x\ i i !1 0 0 .) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Calculating the [B] matrix: ¨ xu ¸ ¨ xu ¸ xx xx ¨ I x ¸ « 1 0 0 0 » © xu ¹ © xu ¹ «?J A1 © ¹ ¬ xy xy I y ¹ ! 0 0 0 1¼ © xv ¹ .4.

u ! « N .

x » .

d   .

­ ½ 0 0 xN1 x\ xN1 xL xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL ¨ Ix ¸ © ¹ ! © I y ¹ ! «B .

x » .

d . ­ ½ ©K ¹ ª xy º xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL xu xu ¨ x\ ¸ ¨ x\ ¸ « xxN1 \ © xu ¹ © xu ¹ ¬ xN1 ?0A » © xL ¹ © xL ¹ ¬ xL ¼ ! . ¼ x\ xN 4 ¼ xL ¼ ½ » ¨ d1 ¸ ¼© ¹ ¼ © d2 ¹. 1 © xv ¹ © xv ¹ ¼ ?J A ½ © x\ ¹ © x\ ¹ ¬ 0 © xv ¹ © xv ¹ ¬ 0 ª xL º ª xL º ¬ ­ 0 0 n xN iy § xL i i !1 n xN ix § xL i i !1 » ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 0 ¼ ¼ n xN ¼ iy ¼ § x\ i ¼ i !1 ¼ n xN ¼ ix ¼ § i ¼ i !1 x\ ½ 0 0 0 xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL 0 0 xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL xN 4 x\ xN 4 xL 0 0 0 0 xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL 0 0 0 0 xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL 0 0 0» ¼ 0¼ xN 4 . xN 4 ¼ © M¹ x\ ¹ xN 4 ¼ © ¼ ª d8 º xL ½ 0 0 « xxN1 \ ¬ xN1 ¬ xL ¬0 ¬ ¬0 ­ 0 0 xN1 x\ xN1 xL xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL xN 4 x\ xN 4 xL 0 0 0 0 0 0 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -39- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Calculating the element stiffness matrix: L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B A* J .

L d\ dL .\ . T area scaling factor ± polynomial function of (\.L)  Note: [B] is proportional to J-1: «polynomials functions of .

L » ½. ?B A ! ­ J .\ .

\ .L «new polynomials functions of .

@ ?k A ! h * ´ ´ ­ J .L » ½ d \ dL .\ .

you are integrating ratios of polynomial functions.L L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 In general. which typically don¶t have exact integrals   use Gauss quadrature to evaluate! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -40- .\ .

) Calculating the element nodal forces: .4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

f ! ´ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV  ´ ­ ½ Ve Ae .W T « N .

x » ­ ½ T .

t .

x dA ! ?  Body force contribution: Ve What do you do with this? ´ « N .

x » ­ ½ T T L !1 \ !1 .

b .

x dV ! h * L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ T .\ .

b .

y * J .x.

L d\ dL .W « N .\ . T  Surface traction contribution: ´ Ae .

x » ­ ½ .

t .

x dA ! § h* all edges edge # k « N .

\ .L » edge # k ½ ­ .

t .

x. y edge # k d l edge # k What do you do with these? Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -41- .

4.) Converting body force and surface tractions:  Idea #0: If body force = constant and/or surface traction on edge #k = constant.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont. do nothing!  Idea #1: Use the isoparametric mapping to modify force functions: n ¨ ¨ n ¸¸ x } § N i .

y } § N i .\ .L xi .

\ .L yi   .

b .

x . y } © b © § N i .

\ . § N i .L xi .

L yi ¹ ¹ . i !1 i !1 i º ª 4 i 4 4 4 4 4 2 4!1 4 4 4 4 43 º 1 ª !1 Ö ".\ .

b .

L " L !1 \ !1 T T Ö « N .\ .

x » .

b .

x dV } h * ´ ´ « N .

L » b .\ .

\ .L * J .

L d\ dL .\ . ´­ ½ ­ ½ n n .

i Ve L !1 \ !1  Idea #2: Make an isoparametric approximation for the forces: .

b .

x. y } § N .

L * .\ .

b .

x . y i i T ®n ¾ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV } h * ´ ´ ¯ § N i .

L * « N .\ .

\ .L » .

b .

yi ¿ * J .xi .

\ .L d \ dL . @´­ ½ ­ ½ i °!1 À Ve L !1 \ !1 T L !1 \ !1 i !1 n Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -42- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Converting d on edge #k:  In general: dl ! .4.

dx  .

dx ! 2 2 2 2 xx xx xy xy d\  dL and dy ! d\  dL .dy . dL ! 0 : d l edge # k ¨ xx ¸ ¨ xy ¸ ¨ n xN i ¸ ¨ n xN i ¸ ! d\ © © ! d\ © § . x\ xL x\ xL  On the given edge #k.

\ .L ! 1 xi ¹  © § .

\ .L ! 1 yi ¹ . x\ ¹ edge # k ª x\ ¹ edge # k ª º º ª i !1 x\ º ª i !1 x\ º 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 L .

\ 2 2 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -43- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Thus. the contribution from surface tractions on edge #k is: h* ´ edge # k « N .4.

\ .L » edge # k ½ ­ T .

t .

y \ !1 edge # k d l edge # k Idea #1! n ¨ ¨ n ¸¸ ! h* ´ « N .x.

\. L !1 » © t © § N i .

\. L !1 xi . § Ni .

\ .L ! 1 yi ¹ ¹ * L .

\ d \ . ­ ½ i !1 ºº ª ª i!1 \ !1 T  Note: N i .

L ! 1 ! 0 unless i = k or i = k+1 ! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -44- .\ .

) Example: Formulating an Isoparametric Bilinear Quad ± ¨ 0.4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4 * .

8  y ¸ t .

R = 0.25.50 in.  Required: Find [k] and (f). Use 2 x 2 Gauss quadrature for [k].000 ksi. y ! © ¹ ksi 0 ª º  Given: 4-node plane stress element has E = 30. x. h = 0. and surface traction shown. no body force. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -45- .

4.) Solution:  Isoparametric mapping: x ! 1 .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

1  \ .

1  L x1  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x2  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x4 4 4 4 4 ! 1 .

1  \ .

1  L * 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *8  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *11  1 .

1  \ .

4 4 4 4 y! 1 4 .1  L * 2 4 4 4 4 = 25  13 \  1 L  5 \L .

1  \ .

1  L *3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L * 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *10  1 .

1  \ .

8 -46- .1  L *8 4 4 4 3 = 25  4 \  11 L  1 \L . 4 4 4  Jacobian matrix and Jacobian: « xx ¬ x\ ?J A ! ¬ xx ¬ ¬ xL ­ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements xy » x\ ¼ « 13  5 L ¼!¬4 4 xy ¼ ­ 1  5 \ 4 4 xL ¼ ½  1L » 4 . J ! det ?J A ! 11 1 ¼  4\½ 4 3 4 35 4 1  8 \  27 L .

4.) Solution:  [B] matrix: « 1 0 0 0» 1¬ ?B A ! ¬ 0 0 0 1¼ ¼ J ¬0 1 1 0¼ ­ ½ « n xN iy ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL i ¬ ¬ n xN i xi ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ­ n xN iy § i !1 x\ i n xN ix § x\ i i !1 0 0 « 11 1 ¬ 4  4\ ¬ ¬  1  5\ ¬ 4 4 ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ¬ 0 ­ 0 0 n xN iy § xL i i !1 n xN ix § xL i i !1  3  1L 4 4 13  5L 4 4 0 0 » ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 0 ¼ ¼ n xN ¼ iy ¼ § x\ i ¼ i !1 ¼ n xN ¼ ix ¼ § i ¼ i !1 x\ ½ 0 0 0 11  1 \ 4 4  1  5\ 4 4 0 7  2L 9\ 7 5L  2 \ 0 « xxN1 \ ¬ xN1 ¬ xL ¬0 ¬ ¬0 ­ 0 0 xN1 x\ xN1 xL xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL 0 0 xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL 0 0 xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL xN 4 x\ xN 4 xL 0 0 0 0  1  1L 4 4 1  1\  4 4 76L \ 0 7 3L  4\ 0 0 0 0 1  1L 4 4  1  1\ 4 4 0 0 0 0 1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0» ¼ 0¼ xN 4 ¼ x\ xN 4 ¼ xL ¼ ½  1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0 0 » ¼ ¼ 0 ¼ ¼  1  1L ¼ 4 4 ¼ 1  1\ ¼ ½ 4 4 ¼ 0 « 1 0 0 0» 8 ¬ 0 0 0 1¼ ¼ 70  \  27L ¬ ¬0 1 1 0¼ ­ ½ »« 1 1 ¼ ¬  4  4L ¼¬ 0 ¼ ¬  1  1\ ¼¬ 4 4 3  1L ¼ ¬ 0  4 4 ¼¬ 13  5L ¼ ¬ 0 4 4 ¼¬ ½­ 4 5L \ 0 6 2L  4\ 0 1  1L 4 4  1  1\ 4 4 0 0 1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0 0 1 70  \  27L « 4 6L  2\ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ 63L 9 \ ­ 0 6 3L 9 \ 4 6L 2 \ 75L  2\ 0 7 2L 9 \ 6 2L  4\ 45L \ » ¼ 7 3L  4\ ¼  7 6L \ ¼ ½ 0 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -47- .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

¬ ¼ ¬ 0 0 12000 ¼ ­ ½ 1 1 ?k A ! .) Solution:  [k] matrix: 0 » «32000 8000 ?CA ! ¬ 8000 32000 0 ¼ ksi.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.

5 in ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B A* Jd\ dL T 1 1 ! «31.25* 70+231 L 203 \ 9 0L 2  231L\  43 \ 2 » ¬ ¼ 8 ¼ M O M *¬ ¼ 70 \ 27L ¬ ¬ L 31.25* 539 588L 490 \ 180L 2 228L\ 131\ 2 ¼ sym 1 1 ­ 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3½ « .0.25* 236 276L 196 \ 315L 2 354L\ 275 \ 2 L 31.

\ ½ ­k d .L » ´´ 1 1 .

.

d \ dL .

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -48- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Solution:  2 x 2 Gauss quadrature: Wi ! W j ! 1. j ! 1. ?k A } §§WW j * «k . i. 2.

L ! L j » ! «k .\ ! \ i .

 i ­ ½ ­ i !1 j !1 1 3 . 1 3 »  «k .

 ½ ­ 1 3 . 1 3 »  «k .

 1 3 »  «k . ½ ­ 1 3 .

9 ?k A } ¬ M ¬ ¬1260. ¼ L 8489. O M ¼ kip ¼ L 8499.9 » s/in.9 ­ 1260.6 » O M ¼ kips/in.6 Note: ?k Aexact ! ¬ M ¬ ¬1263. 1 3 » ½ -49- .6 ­ « 7136.0 ¼ ½ L ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ 2 2 1 3 .9 ¼ ½ L 1263. ½ ­ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements « 7028.

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Solution:  Element nodal forces: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -50- .4.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful