# Section 4: Implementation of Finite Element Analysis ± Other Elements

1. Quadrilateral Elements 2. Higher Order Triangular Elements 3. Isoparametric Elements

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements

-1-

Refers in general

to any four-sided, 2D element. 

We will start by

considering rectangular elements with sides parallel to coordinate axes. (Thickness = h)
Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -2-

Normalized Element Geometry ± 
³Standard´ setting

for calculations: 

Mapping between real and normalized coordinates: x  xc y  yc Implementation of FEA: \!  x ! a\  xc ; y ! bL  yc .-3;L ! Other Elements a b

First Order Rectangular Element (Bilinear Quad): 
4 nodes; 2 translational

d.o.f. per node. 

Displacements interpolated as follows:

u

\

.x .

y v .

\ .

.x .

-4- . y Implementation of FEA: Other Elements a1 a2\ a5 a6\ a3 a7 a4\ a8\ ³Bilinear terms´ ± implies that all shape functions are products of linear functions of x and y.

4.) Shape Functions: .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

1  \ .

1  L . N 2 .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ .

4 N 3 .1  L .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ .

N 4 .1  L .

L ! 1 .\ .

1  \ .

4 4 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements @ N k .1  L .

\ .L ! 1 .

1  \ k \ .

4 1 4 N1 .1  L kL .

\ .L ! -5- .

)  Displacement interpolation becomes:                 ¡ ¨ u .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.

y ¸ © ¹ v .x.

x . y º ª ¨ d1 ¸ N 2 .

N 3 .\ .

\ . N 4 .

0 0 0 0 « N1 .\ .

\ . 0 N1 . »© ¹ ¬ ¼ M.

\ . 0 N 2 .

0 N 3 .\ .

\ . 0 N 4 .

\ . ½ © ¹ ­ 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 © d ¹ 1 ª 8º "« N.

x » " ­ ½  Need to compute [B] matrix: « B .

x » ! ?x A« N .

x » ­ ½ ­ ½ « xxx ¬ ! ¬0 ¬ xxy ­ 0» « N1 .

\ .L » 0 N 2 .

\ .L 0 N 3 .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

xy ¼ ¬ 0 N1 .\ .L 0 x ¼ ¼ ! ??A.

L 0 N 2 .\ .

L 0 N3 .\ .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

\ .L ½ x ¼­ xx ½ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -6- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.)  Chain rule: xN k xx xN k xy 0 xN k x\ x\ x x k .4.

L ! .\ .

\ .L ! xxN\  0 xN k xL xL xx x\ xy  xxNk L .

a xL 1 ! 1 Lk .1  LkL .

1  \ k \ * b ! 4L .

xy ab 4 1 4 1 a k ! \ k .1  \ k \ .

1  LkL * ! b\ k 4 ab  Resulting [B(x)] matrix: « b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 b .

1  L 0 » ¬ ¼ « B .

x » ! 41 ¬  a .

1  \  a .

1  \ 0 0 0 a .

1  \ 0 a .

1  \ ¼ ab ­ ½ ¬  a .

1  \ b .

1  L  a .

1  \ b .

1  L a .

1  \ b .

1  L a .

1  \ b .

1  L ¼ ­ ½  Recall general expression for [k]: ?k A ! h * ´ area Implementation of FEA: Other Elements «B .

x » ?CA«B .

x » d ­ ½ ­ ½ Express in terms of \ and L! -7- T .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.)  Can show that L !1 \ !1 ¨ dx ¸¨ dy ¸ dA ! dxdy ! © d \ ¹© dL ¹ ! ab * d\ dL   ´ dA ! ´ ´ ab * d\ dL . T L !1 \ !1 Everything in terms of \ and L!  Can also show that . ª d\ ºª dL º area L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * ab * ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B Ad\ dL .

f ! ´ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV  ´ ­ ½ Ve L !1 \ !1 T « N .

x » .

t .

x dA ­ ½ \ !1 T Ae .W ! h * ab * L !1 L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ « N .

\ .L » .

b .

L d\ dL  h * a ­ ½ T \ !1 T \ !1 ´ « N .\ .

\ .L ! 1 » ­ ½ T T .

t .

\ .L ! 1 d\ h * b h * b Implementation of FEA: Other Elements L !1 L !1 ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ .\ ! 1.

t .

\ ! 1.L dL T  h *a \ !1 ´ « N .

\ .L ! 1 » ­ ½ .

t .

\ .L ! 1 d \ L !1 ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ .\ ! 1.

t .

\ ! 1.L dL . -8- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Gauss Quadrature:  Let¶s take a closer look at one of the integrals for the element stiffness matrix (assume plane stress): E h 2 2 k22 ! * a 2 .4.

1  \  1 b 2 .

1 R .

Only possible approach for isoparametric elements. 2 ´ ´ 1  R 2 16ab L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 _ a  Can be solved exactly. but for various reasons FEA prefers to evaluate integrals like this approximately:    Historically. considered more efficient and reduced coding errors.1  L d\ dL . Can actually improve performance in certain cases! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -9- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4.) Gauss Quadrature:  Idea: approximate integral by a sum of function values at predetermined points with optimal weights ± 1D case: ´ J .

\ d\ } §WiJ .

depend on n  n = order of quadrature. (Note: any polynomial of order 2n-1 can be integrated exactly using nth order Gauss quadrature. depend on n Gauss points = known locations.\ i . 1 i !1 1 n weights = known constants. determines accuracy of integral.) Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -10- .

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Gauss Quadrature:  Have tables for weights and Gauss points:  2D case handled as two 1D cases: 1 1 ´ ´ J .

\ .L d\ dL } §§WW J .

i j i j j !1 i !1 1 1 n n Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -11- .\ .L .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. still 2 translational d.o.  ³Higher order´   higher degree of complete polynomial contained in displacement approximations.4.f.) Higher Order Rectangular Elements  More nodes.  Two general ³families´ of such elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements Serendipity Lagrangian -12- . per node.

³bicubic´.  Shape functions are products of nth order polynomials in each direction.4. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -13- .) Lagrangian Elements:  Order n element has (n+1)2 nodes arranged in square- symmetric pattern ± requires internal nodes. «)  Bilinear quad is a Lagrangian element of order n = 1. (³biquadratic´.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

\ 5 ! 1. \ 4 ! .4. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements L(5) .  Consider 1D example of 6 points. \ 3 ! .3.75.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Uses a procedure that automatically satisfies the Kronecker delta property for shape functions.6. \ 2 ! .2. \1 ! .3 and function = 0 at other designated points: \ 0 ! 1.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. want function = 1 at \ 3 ! 0.

\ ! 3 .

\  \ 0 .

\  \1 .

\  \ 2 .

\  \ 4 .

\  \ 5 . .

\3  \ 0 .

\ 3  \1 .

\ 3  \ 2 .

\ 3  \ 4 .

\ 3  \ 5 -14- .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. L (m) k .4.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Can perform this for any number of points at any designated locations.

\  \ 0 .

\  \1 L .

\  \ k 1 .

\  \ k 1 L .

\  \ m ! m .

\  \i . .

\ ! .

\ k  \ 0 .

\ k  \1 L .

\ k  \ k 1 .

\ k  \ k 1 L .

\ k  \ m  .

\ k  \i i !0 i{k No \-\k term! Lagrange polynomial of order m at node k Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -15- .

4.) Lagrangian Shape Functions:  Use this procedure in two directions at each node: V (3) 6 .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

L  L 2 .

L  L10 .

L  L14 .

L ! .

L6  L2 .

L6  L10 .

L6  L14 H (3) 6 .

\  \5 .

\  \ 7 .

\  \8 .

\ ! .

\ 6  \ 5 .

\ 6  \ 7 .

\ 6  \ 8 (3) N 6 .

\ .L ! H 6 .

\ V6(3) .

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -16- .L .

4. there are no procedural differences in the formulation of higher order quadrilateral elements and the bilinear quad.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Notes on Lagrangian Elements:  Once shape functions have been identified.  Pascal¶s triangle for the Lagrangian quadrilateral elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements 3x3 nxn -17- .

4. only boundary nodes ± avoids internal ones.  However.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. more efficient than Lagrangian elements and avoids certain types of instabilities.  Not as accurate as Lagrangian elements.) Serendipity Elements:  In general. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -18- .

4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. quadratic serendipity element: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements N6 ! 1 2 ..g.) Serendipity Shape Functions:  Shape functions for mid-side nodes are products of an nth order polynomial parallel to side and a linear function perpendicular to the side.  E.

1  \ .

N 7 ! 1 .1  L 2 .

1  \ 2 .

2 -19- .1  L .

Step #2: subtract out mid-side shape function N5 with appropriate Ö weight N1 .)  Shape functions for corner nodes are modifications of the shape functions of the bilinear quad.    Ö Step #1: start with appropriate bilinear quad shape function.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.4. N1 .

node #5 ! 1 2 Ö Step #3: repeat Step #2 using mid-side shape function N8 and weight N1 .

node #8 ! 1 2 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements Nk ! 1 4 .

1  \ k\ .

1  L kL .

2. k ! 1.3. 4.\ k\  L kL  1 . -20- .

) Notes on Serendipity Elements:  Once shape functions have been identified.4. there are no procedural differences in the formulation of higher order quadrilateral elements and the bilinear quad.  Pascal¶s triangle for the serendipity quadrilateral elements: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements 3x3 mxm -21- .1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Kinematic Modes) ±  Instabilities for an element (or group of elements) that produce deformation without any strain energy. will dominate the deformation pattern.  Can occur for all 2D elements except the CST.  Typically caused by using an inappropriately low order of Gauss quadrature.) Zero-Energy Modes (Mechanisms.4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -22- .  If present.

4. can be eliminated by proper constraints. #3 = rigid body modes. #5. #8 = bending modes.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont. #6 = constant strain modes. #2. produce zero strain at origin. #7. #4. always have nonzero strain energy.) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Deformation modes for a bilinear quad:    #1. -23- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .

1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Mesh instability for bilinear quads using order 1 quadrature: ³Hourglass modes´ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -24- .4.

) Zero-Energy Modes ±  Element instability for quadratic quadrilaterals using 2x2 Gauss quadrature: ³Hourglass modes´ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -25- .4.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Avoid elements with known instabilities! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -26- .) Zero-Energy Modes ±  How can you prevent this?    Use higher order Gauss quadrature in formulation.4. Can artificially ³stiffen´ zero-energy modes via penalty functions.1: Quadrilateral Elements (cont.

Section 4: Implementation of Finite Element Analysis ± Other Elements 1. Isoparametric Elements 3. we will only look at quadrilateral elements. Higher Order Triangular Elements Note: any type of geometry can be used for isoparametric elements. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -27- . Quadrilateral Elements 2.

Section 4. need elements that do not ³fit´ the standard geometry.2: Isoparametric Elements  For various reasons. Curved boundaries Transition regions Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -28- .

)  Problem: How do you map a general quadrilateral onto the normalized geometry? x.4. y ! F .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

\ .L  .

\ .L ! F 1 .

y . F ! .x.

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -29- .

* x } N1 .4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Idea: Approximate the mapping using ³shape functions´.

L x1  N* .\ .

L x2  N* .\ .

L x3  L  N* .\ .

2 3 n * y } N1 .L xn .\ .

\ .L y1  N* .

\ .L y2  N* .

L y3  L  N* .\ .

L yn .\ . 2 3 n *  Require N k .

N* .\ .L to have Kronecker delta property.

\ . Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -30- .L not required to be the actual shape functions of  k the element. n can be as large or as small as you want.

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Approximate ³serendipity element´ shown using bilinear quad shape functions and approximation points at corners x! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .4.

1  \ .

1  L x1  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x2 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x4 . 4 4 1 4 -31- .

the number of approximation points equals the actual number of nodes for the element. the approximation functions are the actual shape functions for the element: x ! N1 .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  For an isoparametric element.4. also.

\ .L x1  N 2 .

L x2  N 3 .\ .

L x3  L  N n .\ .

\ . y ! N1 .L xn .

\ .L y1  N 2 .

L y2  N3 .\ .

\ .L y3  L  N n .

u .\ .L yn .

x. y ! N1 .

L u1  N 2 .\ .

\ .L u2  N 3 .

\ .L u3  L  N n .

L un .\ . v .

y ! N1 .x.

L v1  N 2 .\ .

L v2  N 3 .\ .

\ .L v3  L  N n .

L vn . pts. < # of nodes. > # of nodes. -32- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements . pts. element is called subparametric.\ . if # of approx.  If # of approx. element is called superparametric.

4. ª d\ ºª dL º area L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * ab * ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B Ad\ dL .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Recall the formulation of ³standard´ bilinear quad: ¨ dx ¸¨ dy ¸ dA ! dxdy ! © d \ ¹© dL ¹ ! ab * d\ dL   ´ dA ! ´ ´ ab * d\ dL . T L !1 \ !1 How does this work for an isoparametric element? -33- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Calculating the [B] matrix (assume isoparametric bilinear quad element): ¨ d1 ¸ ¨ u .

x. y ¸ « N1 .

L »© ¹ 0 N 2 .\ .

L 0 N 3 .\ .

\ .L 0 N 4 .

L 0 © ¹!¬ ¼ M.\ . v .

x . y º ­ 0 N1 .

\ .L 0 N 2 .

\ .L 0 N 3 .

L 0 N 4 .\ .

L ½ © ¹ ª 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 © d8 ¹ ª º "« N.\ .

x » " ­ ½ « xxx ¬ « B .

x » ! ¬ 0 ­ ½ ¬ xxy ­ 0» 0 0 0 0 « N1 .

L N 2 .\ .

L N 3 .\ .

\ .L N 4 .

L » x ¼ ¼ ! ??A.\ . xy ¼ ¬ 0 0 0 0 N1 .

L N 2 .\ .

L N 3 .\ .

L N 4 .\ .

L ½ x ¼­ xx ½ Need to apply the chain rule! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -34- .\ .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont. x\ xx x\ xy x\ xL xx xL xy xL  Using the approximate mapping: n n xN i xN i xx xx x ! § N i .4.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Chain rule: compute inverse rule first ± xN k xN k xx xN k xy xN k xN k xx xN k xy !  !  . .

L xi   !§ .\ .

L xi .\ . ! § .

!§ . x\ i !1 x\ xL i !1 xL i !1 n n n xN i xN i xy xy Similarly.L xi .\ .

! § .L yi .\ .

L yi . x\ i !1 x\ xL i !1 xL Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -35- .\ .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  Put all of this together ± ¨ xN k © x\ © © xN k © xL ª ¸ « xx xy » ¨ xN k ¹ ¬ x\ x\ ¼ © xx ¹!¬ ¼© ¹ ¬ xx xy ¼ © xN k ¹ ¬ xL xL ¼ © xy ½ª º ­ « n xN i ¬ § x\ .4.

\ .L xi i !1 !¬ n ¬ xN i ¬ § xL .

L xi ­ i !1 ¸ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ º xN i » ¨ xN k § x\ .\ .

\ .L yi ¼ © xx i !1 ¼© n xN i ¼ © xN k § xL .

.\ . ¹ ¹ º -36- Implementation of FEA: Other Elements The Jacobian matrix [J] of the mapping.L yi ¼ © xy i !1 ½ª n ¸ ¹ ¹.

L yi 1 ¬ i !1 1 ?J A ! J ¬ n xN i ¬ § xL .\ .

L xi ­ i !1 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements xN i » § .\ .

L xi ¼ ³Jacobian´ of § x\ .L yi ¼ i !1 x\ ¼ . n xN i ¼ \ .\ . J ! det ?J A.

i !1 ½ the mapping -37- .

J must have same sign at all points in normalized geometry.) Formulating an Isoparametric Element:  J is a (nonconstant) scaling factor that relates area in original geometry to area in normalized geometry. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -38- .  For a well-defined mapping. can show that dxdy ! J * d \ dL .  Large variations in J imply highly distorted mappings ± leads to badly formed elements.4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

u ! « N .

x » .

d   .

­ ½ 0 0 xN1 x\ xN1 xL xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL ¨ Ix ¸ © ¹ ! © I y ¹ ! «B .

x » .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Calculating the element stiffness matrix: L !1 \ !1 ?k A ! h * L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B A* J .

L d\ dL .\ . T area scaling factor ± polynomial function of (\.L)  Note: [B] is proportional to J-1: «polynomials functions of .

L » ½. ?B A ! ­ J .\ .

\ .L «new polynomials functions of .

@ ?k A ! h * ´ ´ ­ J .L » ½ d \ dL .\ .

you are integrating ratios of polynomial functions.L L !1 \ !1 L !1 \ !1 In general. which typically don¶t have exact integrals   use Gauss quadrature to evaluate! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -40- .\ .

) Calculating the element nodal forces: .4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

f ! ´ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV  ´ ­ ½ Ve Ae .W T « N .

x » ­ ½ T .

t .

x dA ! ?  Body force contribution: Ve What do you do with this? ´ « N .

x » ­ ½ T T L !1 \ !1 .

b .

x dV ! h * L !1 \ !1 ´ ´ ´ « N .

L » ­ ½ T .\ .

b .

y * J .x.

L d\ dL .W « N .\ . T  Surface traction contribution: ´ Ae .

x » ­ ½ .

t .

x dA ! § h* all edges edge # k « N .

\ .L » edge # k ½ ­ .

t .

x. y edge # k d l edge # k What do you do with these? Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -41- .

4.) Converting body force and surface tractions:  Idea #0: If body force = constant and/or surface traction on edge #k = constant.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont. do nothing!  Idea #1: Use the isoparametric mapping to modify force functions: n ¨ ¨ n ¸¸ x } § N i .

y } § N i .\ .L xi .

\ .L yi   .

b .

\ . § N i .L xi .

L yi ¹ ¹ . i !1 i !1 i º ª 4 i 4 4 4 4 4 2 4!1 4 4 4 4 43 º 1 ª !1 Ö ".\ .

b .

L " L !1 \ !1 T T Ö « N .\ .

x » .

b .

x dV } h * ´ ´ « N .

L » b .\ .

\ .L * J .

L d\ dL .\ . ´­ ½ ­ ½ n n .

i Ve L !1 \ !1  Idea #2: Make an isoparametric approximation for the forces: .

b .

x. y } § N .

L * .\ .

b .

x . y i i T ®n ¾ « N .

x » .

b .

x dV } h * ´ ´ ¯ § N i .

L * « N .\ .

\ .L » .

b .

yi ¿ * J .xi .

\ .L d \ dL . @´­ ½ ­ ½ i °!1 À Ve L !1 \ !1 T L !1 \ !1 i !1 n Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -42- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Converting d on edge #k:  In general: dl ! .4.

dx  .

dx ! 2 2 2 2 xx xx xy xy d\  dL and dy ! d\  dL .dy . dL ! 0 : d l edge # k ¨ xx ¸ ¨ xy ¸ ¨ n xN i ¸ ¨ n xN i ¸ ! d\ © © ! d\ © § . x\ xL x\ xL  On the given edge #k.

\ .L ! 1 xi ¹  © § .

\ .L ! 1 yi ¹ . x\ ¹ edge # k ª x\ ¹ edge # k ª º º ª i !1 x\ º ª i !1 x\ º 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 L .

\ 2 2 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -43- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.)  Thus. the contribution from surface tractions on edge #k is: h* ´ edge # k « N .4.

\ .L » edge # k ½ ­ T .

t .

y \ !1 edge # k d l edge # k Idea #1! n ¨ ¨ n ¸¸ ! h* ´ « N .x.

\. L !1 xi . § Ni .

\ .L ! 1 yi ¹ ¹ * L .

\ d \ . ­ ½ i !1 ºº ª ª i!1 \ !1 T  Note: N i .

L ! 1 ! 0 unless i = k or i = k+1 ! Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -44- .\ .

) Example: Formulating an Isoparametric Bilinear Quad ± ¨ 0.4.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4 * .

8  y ¸ t .

R = 0.25.50 in.  Required: Find [k] and (f). Use 2 x 2 Gauss quadrature for [k].000 ksi. y ! © ¹ ksi 0 ª º  Given: 4-node plane stress element has E = 30. x. h = 0. and surface traction shown. no body force. Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -45- .

4.) Solution:  Isoparametric mapping: x ! 1 .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

1  \ .

1  L x1  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x2  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L x4 4 4 4 4 ! 1 .

1  \ .

1  L * 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *8  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *11  1 .

1  \ .

4 4 4 4 y! 1 4 .1  L * 2 4 4 4 4 = 25  13 \  1 L  5 \L .

1  \ .

1  L *3  1 .

1  \ .

1  L * 4  1 .

1  \ .

1  L *10  1 .

1  \ .

8 -46- .1  L *8 4 4 4 3 = 25  4 \  11 L  1 \L . 4 4 4  Jacobian matrix and Jacobian: « xx ¬ x\ ?J A ! ¬ xx ¬ ¬ xL ­ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements xy » x\ ¼ « 13  5 L ¼!¬4 4 xy ¼ ­ 1  5 \ 4 4 xL ¼ ½  1L » 4 . J ! det ?J A ! 11 1 ¼  4\½ 4 3 4 35 4 1  8 \  27 L .

4.) Solution:  [B] matrix: « 1 0 0 0» 1¬ ?B A ! ¬ 0 0 0 1¼ ¼ J ¬0 1 1 0¼ ­ ½ « n xN iy ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL i ¬ ¬ n xN i xi ¬ § ¬ i !1 xL ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ­ n xN iy § i !1 x\ i n xN ix § x\ i i !1 0 0 « 11 1 ¬ 4  4\ ¬ ¬  1  5\ ¬ 4 4 ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ ¬ 0 ­ 0 0 n xN iy § xL i i !1 n xN ix § xL i i !1  3  1L 4 4 13  5L 4 4 0 0 » ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 0 ¼ ¼ n xN ¼ iy ¼ § x\ i ¼ i !1 ¼ n xN ¼ ix ¼ § i ¼ i !1 x\ ½ 0 0 0 11  1 \ 4 4  1  5\ 4 4 0 7  2L 9\ 7 5L  2 \ 0 « xxN1 \ ¬ xN1 ¬ xL ¬0 ¬ ¬0 ­ 0 0 xN1 x\ xN1 xL xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL 0 0 xN 2 x\ xN 2 xL xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL 0 0 xN 3 x\ xN 3 xL xN 4 x\ xN 4 xL 0 0 0 0  1  1L 4 4 1  1\  4 4 76L \ 0 7 3L  4\ 0 0 0 0 1  1L 4 4  1  1\ 4 4 0 0 0 0 1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0» ¼ 0¼ xN 4 ¼ x\ xN 4 ¼ xL ¼ ½  1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0 0 » ¼ ¼ 0 ¼ ¼  1  1L ¼ 4 4 ¼ 1  1\ ¼ ½ 4 4 ¼ 0 « 1 0 0 0» 8 ¬ 0 0 0 1¼ ¼ 70  \  27L ¬ ¬0 1 1 0¼ ­ ½ »« 1 1 ¼ ¬  4  4L ¼¬ 0 ¼ ¬  1  1\ ¼¬ 4 4 3  1L ¼ ¬ 0  4 4 ¼¬ 13  5L ¼ ¬ 0 4 4 ¼¬ ½­ 4 5L \ 0 6 2L  4\ 0 1  1L 4 4  1  1\ 4 4 0 0 1  1L 4 4 1  1\ 4 4 0 0 1 70  \  27L « 4 6L  2\ ¬ 0 ¬ ¬ 63L 9 \ ­ 0 6 3L 9 \ 4 6L 2 \ 75L  2\ 0 7 2L 9 \ 6 2L  4\ 45L \ » ¼ 7 3L  4\ ¼  7 6L \ ¼ ½ 0 Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -47- .2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.

¬ ¼ ¬ 0 0 12000 ¼ ­ ½ 1 1 ?k A ! .) Solution:  [k] matrix: 0 » «32000 8000 ?CA ! ¬ 8000 32000 0 ¼ ksi.2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.

5 in ´ ´ ?B A ?CA?B A* Jd\ dL T 1 1 ! «31.25* 70+231 L 203 \ 9 0L 2  231L\  43 \ 2 » ¬ ¼ 8 ¼ M O M *¬ ¼ 70 \ 27L ¬ ¬ L 31.25* 539 588L 490 \ 180L 2 228L\ 131\ 2 ¼ sym 1 1 ­ 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3½ « .0.25* 236 276L 196 \ 315L 2 354L\ 275 \ 2 L 31.

\ ½ ­k d .L » ´´ 1 1 .

.

d \ dL .

Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -48- .

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.4.) Solution:  2 x 2 Gauss quadrature: Wi ! W j ! 1. j ! 1. ?k A } §§WW j * «k . i. 2.

L ! L j » ! «k .\ ! \ i .

 i ­ ½ ­ i !1 j !1 1 3 . 1 3 »  «k .

 ½ ­ 1 3 . 1 3 »  «k .

 1 3 »  «k . ½ ­ 1 3 .

9 ?k A } ¬ M ¬ ¬1260. ¼ L 8489. O M ¼ kip ¼ L 8499.9 » s/in.9 ­ 1260.6 » O M ¼ kips/in.6 Note: ?k Aexact ! ¬ M ¬ ¬1263. 1 3 » ½ -49- .6 ­ « 7136.0 ¼ ½ L ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ 2 2 1 3 .9 ¼ ½ L 1263. ½ ­ Implementation of FEA: Other Elements « 7028.

2: Isoparametric Elements (cont.) Solution:  Element nodal forces: Implementation of FEA: Other Elements -50- .4.