You are on page 1of 123

SDH Basics

•Current transmission technologies (PDH)


•The Synchronous Digital Hierarchie (SDH)
•Bit rates, frame structures and interfaces in SDH
•Basic elements of STM-1
•SDH network elements
•Synchronization architecture in SDH
•Monitoring, maintenance and measurements in SDH
•International SDH Network standards
•Future Trends

Copyright by Wolfgang Sunk, ACTERNA Austria GmbH All rights reserved.


Elisabethstr. 36, A-2500 Baden No parts of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted,
e-mail: wolfgang.sunk@acterna.com or translated without the written permission of the publisher.
http://www.acterna.com

The Keepers of Communications


Current Transmission Technologies

The Keepers of Communications


The Telephone System

LE LE

The Keepers of Communications


Sampling

T1 T2 T3
time Audio Signal
T4 T5 T6 T7

Sampler Output
Pulse Amplitude T1 T2 T3
time
Modulated (PAM) T4 T5 T6 T7
signal

The Keepers of Communications


Non-Linear Quantization and Encoding
Quantization
Level digital codes
112 1 1 1 1 X X X X
96 1 1 1 0 X X X X 1/2V
1/4V
80 1 1 0 1 X X X X 1/8V
64 1 1 0 0 X X X X 1/16V
48 1 0 1 1 X X X X
1/32V
32 1 0 1 0 X X X X
1/64
1 0 0 1 X X X X V
1 0 0 0 X X X X
-V 0 0 0 0 X X X X +V
In accordance with 0 0 0 1 X X X X
CCITT’s A-law 0 0 1 0 X X X X

The Keepers of Communications


PCM Signal Data Rate

8000 8
samples x bits per = 64kbit/s
per sec sample

The Keepers of Communications


Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

The Keepers of Communications


PDH Systems Worldwide
Japan USA Europe

5. 397200
397200kbit/s
kbit/s 564992
564992kbit/s
kbit/s
x4 x4

4. 97728
97728kbit/s
kbit/s 274176
274176kbit/s
kbit/s 139264
139264kbit/s
kbit/s
x3
x3 x6 x4

3. 32064
32064kbit/s 44736
kbit/s 44736kbit/s
kbit/s 34368
34368kbit/s
kbit/s
x4
x5 x7
6312 8448
8448kbit/s
6312kbit/s
kbit/s kbit/s
2. order
x4 x3 x4

1544
1544kbit/s
kbit/s 2048
2048kbit/s
kbit/s
primary rate

x 24 x 30/31

64
64kbit/s
kbit/s

The Keepers of Communications


PDH Multiplex / Demultiplex

2048 kbit/s (+/-50ppm)

1
64 kbit/s 8448 kbit/s (+/-30ppm)
Data Signals 30 1
34 368 kbit/s (+/-20ppm)
DSMX 1
64k/2
1
139264 kbit/s (+/-15ppm)
0.3 to 3.1 kHz 1
AF signals 30

PCMX 30
1
15 kHz
Sound Program 5
DSMX
4
Signals 34/140
PCMX 30 4
DSMX
8/34
DSMX Channel Capacity:
64
2/8 64 x 30 = 1920
30

The Keepers of Communications


2 Mbit/s Frame Structures

signalling
2.448 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit=256 bit in 125µs information
encoded voice / data signals encoded voice / data signals
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 slots

The Keepers of Communications


2 Mbit/s Frame Structures

signalling
2.448 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit=256 bit in 125µs information
encoded voice / data signals encoded voice / data signals
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 slots

Si 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 FAS
(frames 0,2,4...)

Si 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa NFAS
(M) 4 5 6 7 8 (frames 1,3,5...)

Si: Reserved for international use


Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm)
A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm)

Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based


data links (point-to-point applications)
FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011)
NFAS: Non frame alignment signal

The Keepers of Communications


2 Mbit/s Frame Structures

signalling
2.448 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit=256 bit in 125µs information
encoded voice / data signals encoded voice / data signals
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 slots

Si 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 FAS 0 0 0 0 x Y x x frame 0
(frames 0,2,4...) MFAS NMFAS
Si 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa NFAS a b c d a b c d frames 1... 15 & 17...31
(M) 4 5 6 7 8 (frames 1,3,5...) signalling signalling
subscr. n subscr. n+15

Si: Reserved for international use


Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm)
A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm)
Y: Remote MF alarm (1=Alarm)
E: CRC error indication (0=Error)

Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based


data links (point-to-point applications)
FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011)
NFAS: Not frame alignment signal

The Keepers of Communications


2 Mbit/s Frame Structures

2.448 kbit/s Multiframe, ITU-T G.704


multiframe
fr 15 fr 0 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5 fr 6 fr 7 fr 8 fr 9 fr 10 fr 11 fr 12 fr 13 fr 14 fr 15

sub multiframe 1 sub multiframe 2


signalling
2.448 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit=256 bit in 125µs information
encoded voice / data signals encoded voice / data signals
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 slots

Si 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 FAS 0 0 0 0 x Y x x frame 0
(frames 0,2,4...) MFAS NMFAS
Si 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa NFAS a b c d a b c d frames 1... 15 & 17...31
(M) 4 5 6 7 8 (frames 1,3,5...) signalling signalling
subscr. n subscr. n+15

Si: Reserved for international use


Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm)
A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm)
Y: Remote MF alarm (1=Alarm)

Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based


data links (point-to-point applications)
FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011)
NFAS: Not frame alignment signal

The Keepers of Communications


2 Mbit/s Frame Structures
2.048 kbit/s Multiframe, ITU-T G.704
multiframe
fr 15 fr 0 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5 fr 6 fr 7 fr 8 fr 9 fr 10 fr 11 fr 12 fr 13 fr 14 fr 15

sub multiframe 1 sub multiframe 2


signalling
2.048 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit=256 bit in 125µs information
encoded voice / data signals encoded voice / data signals
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 slots

Si 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 FAS 0 0 0 0 x Y x x frame 0
(frames 0,2,4...) MFAS NMFAS
Si 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa NFAS a b c d a b c d frames 1... 15 & 17...31
(M) 4 5 6 7 8 (frames 1,3,5...) signalling signalling
subscr. n subscr. n+15
Time slot 0 of CRC multiframe:
sub multiframe 2 sub multiframe 1

Si: Reserved for international use


0 FAS C1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm)
1 NFAS 0 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
256 X 8 bit = 2048 bit A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm)
6 FAS C4 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Y: Remote MF alarm (1=Alarm)
7 NFAS 1 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa E: CRC error indication (0=Error)
C1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 M: Transmitting CRC multiframe alignment signal
8 FAS
1 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
( CRC MFAS: 001011 )
9 NFAS
256 X 8 bit = 2048 bit Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based
14 FAS C4 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 data links (point-to-point applications)
15 NFAS E2 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011)
NFAS: Not frame alignment signal

The Keepers of Communications


Plesiochronous Hierarchies - Frame Structures

8.448 kbit/s; frame length 848 bit; 100.4 us; ITU-T G.742

10 2 200 4 208 4 208 4 4 204

A: Alarm Bit
1a 2a 3a 4a 1b 2b 3b 4b 1c 2c 3c 4c s1 s2 s3 s4
N: National Spare Bit
1a: Stuffing Control Bit
1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 A N
S: Stuffing Bit

34.368 kbit/s; frame length 1536 bit; 44.7 us; ITU-T G.751

10 2 372 4 380 4 380 4 4 376

1a 2a 3a 4a 1b 2b 3b 4b 1c 2c 3c 4c s1 s2 s3 s4

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 A N

The Keepers of Communications


Plesiochronous Hierarchies - Frame Structures

139.264 kbit/s; frame length 2928 bit; 21 us; ITU-T G.751

12 4 472 4 484 4 484 4 484 4 484 4 4 480

1a 2a 3a 4a 1b 2b 3b 4b 1c 2c 3c 4c 1d 2d 3d 4d 1e 2e 3e 4e s1 s2 s3 s4

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 A N N N
A: Alarm Bit
N: National Spare Bit
1a,b,c,d: Stuffing Control Bit
S: Stuffing Bit

The Keepers of Communications


PDH Maintenance Signals

LOS
LOF AIS
AIS PDH
Equipment
D-Bit

BER 10-3 AIS


BER 10-6 PDH
Equipment
D-Bit
N-Bit

The Keepers of Communications


Plesiochronous Drop & Insert

140 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s

main
OLTU OLTU OLTU OLTU
stand-by
34 - 140 34 - 140 34 - 140 34 - 140

8 - 34 8 - 34 8 - 34 8 - 34

2-8 2-8 2-8 2-8

1,2 ................. 64 1,2 ................. 64

Line Terminating Drop & Insert Station Line Terminating


Unit Unit

The Keepers of Communications


The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

The Keepers of Communications


Why SDH Why SDH

ìSimpler multiplexing
(low SDH level can be directly identified from higher SDH level)

ìSimple D&I of traffic channels


(direct access to lower level systems without synchronization)

ìAllows mixing of ANSI and ETSI PDH systems


ìSDH is open for new applications
(It can carry PDH, ATM, HDTV, MAN, IP...)

ìSDH provides TMN (ECCs)


(for centralized network control)

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronous Network Structure
140Mbit/s
STM-1
2Mbit/s TM

ADM

STM-1, STM-4

140Mbit/s
2Mbit/s ADM STM-4/-16 ADM
34Mbit/s
ATM 34Mbit/s
8Mbit/s
Switch STM-1
2Mbit/s

DXC
LAN
DSC
ADM : Add Drop Multiplexer 2Mbit/s STM-1 / STS-3c Gateway to SONET
DXC : Digital Cross Connect 34Mbit/s
TM : Terminal Multiplexer 140Mbit/s
DSC: Digital Switching Center STM-1
LAN: Local Area Network STM-4

The Keepers of Communications


Layered Model of the SDH Network

Cicuit Layer
......
Packet Network Telephone Network

Lower
Order
VC-11 VC-12 VC-2 VC-3 Path
Layer

SDH Transport Layer


Higher
Order
VC-3 VC-4
Path
Layer

Multiplex section layer Section

Transmission
Layer

Media Layer
Regenerator section layer

Physical media layer

The Keepers of Communications


Path Denominations

Lower Order Path


Higher Order Path

Multiplex
Section
Regenerator
Sections VC-2
VC-12 VC-3 VC-4 VC-4 VC-3 VC-12
VC-1

SMX

SMX
Reg
VC-
VC-2 VC-4 VC-4 2
VC-1 VC-3 VC-3 VC-
1
STM-n STM-n
RSOH RSOH
STM-n MSOH
VC-4/3 POH
VC-1/2/3 POH

The Keepers of Communications


Network Node Interface (NNI)

SDH CC SDH SDH


PDH PDH

DEMUX
DEMUX

MUX /
MUX /
Reg.

NNI NNI NNI

The Network Node Interface (NNI) ITU-T Rec.:


specifications are necessary to G.707 Synchronous Multiplex Structure
enable interconnection of G.703 Electrical characteristic
synchronous digital network elements G.957 Optical interface characteristic
for transport of payloads

The Keepers of Communications


Bit Rates, Frame Structure and Interfaces
in SDH

The Keepers of Communications


SDH and SONET are International Standards
xN x1 ATM: 149.760 kbit/s
STM-N AU-4 VC-4
AUG STS-3C STS-3C
C-4 E4: 139.264 kbit/s
STS-3N
SPE
x3

x1 ATM: 48,384 kbit/s


TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3
x3

x1 x7
STM-0 AU-3 VC-3 DS3: 44.736 kbit/s
STS-1 C-3
STS-1 STS-1 SPE
E3 : 34.368 kbit/s
x7
TUG-2 x1 TU-2 VC-2
VT C-2 DS2: 6.312 kbit/s
VT-6 VT-SPE
group
Pointer processing
TU-12 VC-12
Multiplexing x3 C-12 E1: 2.048 kbit/s
VT-2 VT-SPE
x4
Aligning
TU-11 VC-11
Mapping C-11 DS1: 1.544 kbit/s
VT-1.5 VT-SPE

BELLCORE GR.253
SONET SDH ITU-T G.707 SDH ETSI
ANSI T1.105

The Keepers of Communications


STM-1 Frame Structure
270 Columns (Bytes)
transmit
9 270
1 row by row
1
RSOH
3
4 AU Pointer Payload
5 (transport capacity)

MSOH

RSOH: Regenerator section overhead


MSOH: Multiplex section overhead
Payload: Area for information transport
Transport capacity of one Byte: 64 kbit/s
Frame capacity: 270 x 9 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s
Frame repetition time: 125 µs

The Keepers of Communications


STM-1 Frame Structure

270 Columns (Bytes)


1 9 270

1
RSOH AU-4
3
4 AU Pointer
5 VC-4
MSOH

VC-4 POH
C-4
9

The Keepers of Communications


Higher SDH Bitrates

STM-1 #1 11111 STM-4

STM-1 #2 22222 12341234123412 . . . .

STM-1 #3 33333

44444
STM-1 #4
B1 B1
B2 B2
SOH termination New SOH

The STM-4/16/64 bit rate is obtained as integer multiples of the STM-1 tributary bit rate.
Clock offset at the tributary side is taken into consideration by pointer adaptation on the
STM-n output signal.

The Keepers of Communications


STM-4 Frame Structure
STM-4 SOH
36 bytes Payload

A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0 X X X X X X X X

B1 E1 F1 X X X X X X X X X X X X

D1 D2 D3 X

A U Pointers
B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D5

D7 D8 D9

D D D
10 11 12

S1 M1 E2 X X X X X X X X X X X X

#1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4

B1 and B2 bytes are being recalculated


Bytes E1, F1, K1, K2, D1 to D3 and D4 to D12 are taken from tributary #1

The Keepers of Communications


Basic Elements of STM-1

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronous Network
Path
Multiplex Section Multiplex Section
Reg. Section Regenerator Section Regenerator Section

SDH CC SDH SDH


PDH PDH

DEMUX
DEMUX

MUX /
MUX /
Reg.
back-up line

clock clock

clock

Parity Bytes B2 B2
B1 B1 B1
B3

Comm.
Channels
F2 E2, D4 ... D12 E1, F1, D1 ... D3

The Keepers of Communications


Embedded Overhead Bytes
STM-1 SOH

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 X X
B1 E1 F1 X X VC-3/4 POH
D1 D2 D3 J1
AU - PTR H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3 B3
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 C2
D4 D5 D6
G1
D7 D8 D9 VC-11/12/ 2 POH
F2
D10 D11 D12
S1 M 1 E2 X X H4 V5
F3 J2
K3 N2
Media dependent bytes
N1 K4
X Reserved for national use

SOH: Section overhead


POH: Path overhead RSOH
Pointer

P O H
MSOH
The overheads (SOH, POH) are used for maintenance and Payload

supervision of the SDH transmission network.

The Keepers of Communications


Functions of Regenerator Section Overhead
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3 ìFrame Alignment
AU - Pointer (A1, A2)
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9 ìSection Trace
D10 D11 D12 (J0 Identfication
S1 M1 E2 of regenerator source)

ìParity check
(B1 calculated by regenerator and multiplexers)

ìData communication channels


(D1...D3, F1 between regenerators)

ìVoice communication channels


(E1 between regenerators)

The Keepers of Communications


Functions of Multiplexer Section Overhead
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3 ìParity check (B2)
AU - Pointer
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 ìAlarm information (K2)
D4
D7
D5
D8
D6
D9
ìRemote error indication (M1,K2)
D10 D11 D12
S1 M1 E2

ìAutomatic protection switching


(K1, K2 Bytes)

ìData communication channels


(D4 to D12 between multiplexers)

ìClock source information (S1)


ìVoice communications channels
(E2 between multiplexers)

The Keepers of Communications


Functions of Path Overhead
VC-3/4 POH ìParity check
J1 B3, V5/ BIP-2 calculated by path
B3 terminating point
C2 VC-11/12/2
G1 POH ìAlarm and performance
F2
H4 V5 information
J2 (V5, G1)
F3
N2
K4
N1 K4 ìStructure of the VC
Signal label C2

ìMultiframe indication for TUs (H4)


ìUser communications channel
between path elements (F2, F3)

ìIdentification of the Path Source


(Path Trace J1, J2)

The Keepers of Communications


Functions and Characteristics of the
Individual Elements of NNI

• The Container (C)


– Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH)
– Synchronous to the STM-1
– Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing procedure
– Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed stuffing bits
– Bit by bit stuffing
• The Virtual Container (VC)
– Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path
Overhead)
– Transport as a unit through the network (SDH)
– A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area

The Keepers of Communications


Functions and Characteristics of the
Individual Elements of the NNI
• The Tributary Unit (TU)
– Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC
• The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)
– Combines several TUs for a new VC
• The Administrative Unit (AU)
– Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at last
• The Syncronous Transport Module Level 1 (STM-1)
– Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs
– Clock justification through positive-zero-negative stuffing in the
AU pointer area
– byte by byte stuffing

The Keepers of Communications


Overhead Byte Functionality
SOH A1, A2 Frame synchronisation
B1, B2 Parity bytes for transmission error monitoring
J0 Regenerator section trace
D1... D3 Regenerator section DCC
D4.. D12 Multiplex section DCC
E1, E2 Orderwire for voice communication
F1 User channel for maintenance purposes (data, voice)
K1, K2 Automatic protection switching (APS)
S1 Synchronisation status message
M1 MS-REI (remote error idication)

J1 Higher order path trace


VC-3/4 B3 Path parity byte for error monitoring
POH C2 Signal Label (composition of payload)
G1 Path status and performance
F2, F3 Path user channels
H4 Payload specific byte
K3 Automatic protection switching (APS)
N1 Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.)

V5 Error check, path status, signal label


VC-1/2 J2 Lower order path trace
N2 Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.)
POH K4 Automatic protection switching (APS)

The Keepers of Communications


The way of integrating PDH signals into STM-1

Plesiochronous signal 140Mbit/s

Container
Container C4

Path Overhead

Virtual
Virtual Container
Container VC-4

Pointer
Administrative
Administrative Unit
Unit AU-4

Section Overhead
Synchronous
Synchronous Transport
Transport Module
Module STM-1

The Keepers of Communications


Pointers
The pointer technology provides a means to accommodate timing differences at SDH
networks.
The pointer indicates the start of the payload within a STM-1frame.
STM-1

AU-Pointer
VC-4

1 TU-
PTR

VC-4 POH
VC-12
VC-12
POH

The Keepers of Communications


Use of the AU-4 Pointer Area, Coding
H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

NDF, Pointer Opportunity for Opportunity for


mapping struc, inc/dec negative stuffing positive stuffing
pointer inc/dec IDIDIDID (more capacity) (less capacity)

J1
C4 payload

Pointer interpretation : H1 byte H2 byte

N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D

New data flag (NDF) disabled : 0 1 1 0


New data flag enabled : 1 0 0 1
AU/TU type AU-4/TU-3 : 1 0
AU/TU type AU-3/TU-3 : 0 1
AU-4 pointer 0...782 : X X X X X X X X X X
TU-3 pointer 0...764 : X X X X X X X X X X
Null pointer indication (NPI) : 1 0 0 1 S S 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

The Keepers of Communications


Negative Justification

RSOH
H1 H2 H3 Start of VC-4
Actual pointer
MSOH

125µs
RSOH
Pointer with H1 H2 H3
inverted D bits
MSOH

250µs
RSOH
H1 H2 negative justification byte (data)

MSOH

375µs
New pointer RSOH
H1 H2 H3

MSOH
500µs

The Keepers of Communications


Pointer justification

frame n-1

frame n AU-Pointer

frame n+1
AU-Pointer

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping 140 Mbit/s

Container C-4 contains a 140 Mbit/s PDH Tributary

9 261

RSOH

AU Pointer 260
J1
B3
MSOH C2
G1 20 x 13 bytes per row
F2
H4 C-4
Z3 140 Mbit/s
K3
Z5

C-4 transport capacity: 260 x 9 x 64 kbit/s = 149.760 kbit/s

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping of a 140 Mbit/s Tributary into VC-4
The figure shows one row of the VC-4

J1 W 96 I X 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I

X 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I X 96 I

Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I X 96 I Y 96 I

Y 96 I Y 96 I X 96 I Y 96 I Z 96 I

W =IIIIIIII Y = RRRRRRRR X = CRRRROOO Z = I I I I I I SR

I = Information bit R = Fixed stuffing bit O = Overhead bit


S = Justification opportunity bit C = Justification control bit

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping 34 Mbit/s
Container C-4 contains 3 times a 34 Mbit/s PDH Tributary (ETSI structure)

9 261

RSOH
AU Pointer 260
J1 H1 H1 H1
B3
MSOH C2 H2 H2 H2
J1
G1 VC-3 #3
H3 H3 H3 B3 J1 VC-3 #2
F2 C2 B3 J1
H4 VC-3 #1
G1 C2 B3
Z3
K3
fixed stuffing F2 G1 C2
H4 F2 G
Z5 Z3 H4 1
K3 Z3 F2 C3
Z5 K3 H4 C-3
VC-4 POH
Z5 Z3
34 Mbit/s
K3
Z5
VC-3 POH
84
C-3 transport capacity: 84 X 9 x 64 kbit/s = 48.384 kBit/s

The Keepers of Communications


Mappings 2 Mbit/s

RSOH
AU pointer

MSOH VC-4

TUG-3

TUG-2
TU-12

Tu pointer

VC-12

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping and Multiplexing (1)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10...........................................261

RSOH J1

B3

C2

S T U F F I N G
S T U F F I N G
AU-4 Pointer
G1

F2

H4

MSOH Z3

K3

Z5
A B C A B C A A B C

. ...... . ...... . ......

1 TUG-3 86 1 TUG-3 86 TUG-3


1 86
(A) (B) (C)

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping and Multiplexing (2)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10...........................................86
TUG-3 N
P NPI: Null Pointer Indication

S T U F F I N G
I 1001 XX11 1110 0000 XXXX XXXX

S T U F F I N G

A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A2 E3 F3 G3

123 1231231 23 123 123123123 123 123123123


TUG-2 TUG-2 TUG-2
(A) (B) (G)

TU-12s occupy
36 bytes per
TU-12 ..... TU-12 TU-12 ..... TU-12 TU-12 ..... TU-12 frame
#1 #3 #1 #3 #1 #3

The Keepers of Communications


Mapping 2 Mbit/s (asynchronous)
VC-4 POH
V4
VC-12 Structure:
XXX XX00 H4
V5 Payload
R 35 bytes VC-4 Payload
in one
32 bytes (32x8I) VC-4 V1

R XXX XX01 H4 Payload


J2
C1 C2 O O O O R R VC-4 Payload
V5: VC-12 Path Overhead V2
32 bytes (32x8I)
R: fixed stuffing bits
J2: Path Trace XXX XX10 H4
R Payload
140 Bytes

N2 C1/2: Justification control bit


VC-4 Payload
C1 C2 O O O O R R O: Overhead bit
N2: Network Operator byte V3
32 bytes (32x8I) K4: APS
S2: Justification opportunity bit XXX XX11 H4
R Payload
I: Info-bit
K4 VC-4 Payload
S2 I I I I I I I
V4
32 bytes (32x8I)
XXX XX00 H4 Payload
R
VC-4 Payload
H4: Indicates the number of Vx
500 µs V1,V2,V3: TU-12 Pointer

The Keepers of Communications


VC-4 Contiguous Concatenation
4 x 9 bytes 4 x 261 bytes
STM-4

RSOH

AU-4 Pointers
J1
B3
MSOH

Fixed Stuff
C2

Fixed Stuff
Fixed Stuff
G1
F2 C-4-4c
H4
F3
K3
N1

VC-4-4c
4 x 261 bytes
The first Pointer indicates J1
All other Pointers are set to "Concatenation Indication"
ATM Cell

The Keepers of Communications


How to transport 600 Mbit/s ATM via
150 Mbit/s SDH ?

4x
VC4
VC4
VC4
VC4

150 Mbit/s
150 Mbit/s
150 Mbit/s
#?
Different 150 Mbit/s
delays for VC- 600 Mbit/s
4's?
VC-4-4c

622 Mbit/s 622 Mbit/s

Out In
Out In
In Out
In Out
STM-4 port STM-4c port
STM-4c port STM-4 port

ATM switch ATM switch


SDH cross-connect for VC-4

The Keepers of Communications


VC-4 virtual Concatenation (Generation)
4 x 9 bytes 4 x 261 bytes
STM-4

RSOH

AU-4 Pointers
J1 J1 J1 J1
B3 B3 B3 B3
MSOH C2 C2 C2 C2
G1 G1 G1 G1
F2 F2 F2 F2 C-4-4vc
H4 H4 H4 H4
F3 F3 F3 F3
K3 K3 K3 K3
N1 N1 N1 N1

Generation: VC-4-4vc
All Pointers are set to the same value 4 x 261 bytes
All VC-4 should be kept in the same STM-4
All VC-4 are transported as individual VC-4's ATM Cell

The Keepers of Communications


VC-4 virtual Concatenation (Termination)
J1 J1
J1 B3
B3 J1 B3
VC-4 #1 C2 C2 VC-4 #4
C2 B3 VC-4 #3 G1
G1 C2 VC-4 #2 G1
F2 F2
F2 G1 H4
H4 F2 H4
F3 F3
F3 H4 K3
K3 F3 J1 J1 J1 J1K3 N1
N1 K3 B3 B3 B3 B3N1
N1 C2 C2 C2 C2
G1 G1 G1 G1
F2 F2 F2 F2 C-4-4vc
H4 H4 H4 H4
F3 F3 F3 F3
K3 K3 K3 K3
N1 N1 N1 N1

Termination: VC-4-4vc
VC-4-4vc is reconstructed using the 4 x 261 bytes
(different) pointer values for alignment
ATM Cell

The Keepers of Communications


SDH and SONET are International Standards
ATM: 149.760 kbit/s
xN x1
STM-N AU-4 VC-4
STS-3N
AUG STS-3C STS-3C
C-4 E4: 139.264 kbit/s
SPE
x3

x1 ATM: 48,384 kbit/s


TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3
x3

x1 x7
STM-0 AU-3 VC-3 DS3: 44.736 kbit/s
STS-1 C-3
STS-1 STS-1 SPE
E3 : 34.368 kbit/s
x7
TUG-2 x1 TU-2 VC-2
VT C-2 DS2: 6.312 kbit/s
VT-6 VT-SPE
group

TU-12 VC-12
SDH ITU-T G.707 x3
VT-2 VT-SPE
C-12 E1: 2.048 kbit/s
x4

SONET BELLCORE GR.253 TU-11 VC-11


ANSI T1.105 VT-1.5 VT-SPE
C-11 DS1: 1.544 kbit/s

The Keepers of Communications


STS-1 frame structure for SONETsystems

90 Bytes
3 87

TOH SPE
9 Rows

125 µs

The STS-1 bit rate = 810 bytes/frame x 8 bits/byte x 1 frame/125 µs


or STS-1 = 51.840 Mb/s

TOH = Transport Overhead


SPE = Synchronous Payload Envelope

The Keepers of Communications


Asynchronous DS-3 mapping (SONET)
3 columns 87 columns
Section OH Framing
A1
Framing
A2
STS-ID
C1
BIP-8 Orderwire User
B1 E1 F1
Data
Com Data Com Data Com
D1 D2 D3
Pointer Pointer Pointer Action
H1 M2 H3
Bip-8 APS APS
SPE
Line OH

B2 K1 K2
Data Com Data Com Data Con
D4 D5 D6
Data Com Data Com Data Com
D7 D8 D9
Data Com Data Com Data Com
D10 D11 D12
Trace
Sync Status FEBE Orderwire J1
Z1 Z2 E2
BIP-8
B3
Signal Label
C2
Path Status
G15

User Channel
F2
Indicator
Async DS-3
H4

Growth
Z3
Growth
Z4
Tandem
Z5

The first column of the SPE (9 bytes) is taken up by STS-1 path overhead (POH)
Remaining 86 columns are treated as a single bundle.
The complete STS-1 payload envelope is about 51Mb/s :
DS-3 is 44736 Mb/s - approximately 5 Mb/s of insert stuffing must be added.

The Keepers of Communications


SDH Network Elements

The Keepers of Communications


SDH Network Elements

Terminal Multiplexer

PDH & Applications:


STM-m STM-n
Point-to-Point
Tributaries Transmission Systems
m<n (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16)

SDH Repeater

STM-n STM-n Applications:


Line Signal Regeneration
in Point-to-Point and Ring
Networks

The Keepers of Communications


Add Drop Multiplexer

ADM
WEST EAST

STM-1/4 STM-1/4

......

Tributary Ports : n x 2 Mbit/s ( 34 Mbit/s)

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronous Cross Connect
2.4 Gbit/s 2.4 Gbit/s
16x SDH
16x
Multiplexer
622 Mbit/s 4x 622 Mbit/s
4x
155 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s
155 Mbit/s
155
VC4
34 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s
34 2 VC12 2
2 VC12 2 34
140 2 VC12 2
140 Mbit/s 2 VC12 2 140 140 Mbit/s

140 VC4
VC 4 140 Mbit/s
140 Mbit/s VC4 140
VC 3
34
VC 12 VC3
34 (45)Mbit/s VC3 34 (45)Mbit/s
VC12
VC11
2 (1.5)Mbit/s 2 2 (1.5)Mbit/s
VC12

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronous Line Equipment
4
16 x 140 Mbit/s 4
Optical STM-16
or 4
Transmit
16 x STM-1 4 Sync Unit
MUX

PC / TMN (Q) Management


Communication Unit
Service Service Channel Unit
Channels SLX 1/16
Data Overhead
Channels Processing Unit
4
16 x 140 Mbit/s 4
STM-16
or 4 Optical
Receive
16 x STM-1 4 Sync Unit
DEMUX

The Keepers of Communications


Hybrid Networks Connect Old and
New Technologies
140Mbit/s
STM-1
2Mbit/s TM

ADM

STM-1, STM-4

140Mbit/s
2Mbit/s ADM STM-4/-16 ADM
34Mbit/s
ATM 34Mbit/s
Switch STM-1 8Mbit/s

2Mbit/s
DXC
LAN

2Mbit/s STM-1 / STS-3c Gateway to SONET


ADM : Add Drop Multiplexer
34Mbit/s
DXC : Digital Cross Connect
140Mbit/s
TM : Terminal Multiplexer
STM-1
STM-4 SDH

The Keepers of Communications


STM-4
Trunk
Network L 2 Trunk Network
L1
STM-16 SDH
SDH
Network
Network Topology
Topology
STM-1
Trunk Network
Exchange L2
M-1
ST

Local Network
Local
Exchange

FlexMux

Subscriber Mux
Access 64/2M

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronization Architecture in SDH

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronization Network

Primary Reference Clock


long term: holdover 24h:
PRC
Caesium (Stratum 1) requ : 1 x 10-11
typ : 5 x 10-12
Rubidium (Stratum 2) requ : 1.6 x 10-8 , 1 x 10-10
typ : 4 x 10-11 , 2 x 10-11

SSU SSU
Synchronization Supply Unit

SEC SEC SEC


SDH
SDH Equipment Clock
SDH SDH
Equip. Equip. Equip.

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronization reference model

G.811 G.812 G.812


PRC TNC SSU TNC SSU

G.813 G.813 G.813


SEC SEC SEC

Limits:

Max. 10 x G.812 TNC


Max. 60 x G.813 SEC,
though no more than
20 between 2 TNCs

The Keepers of Communications


Synchronization of SDH Network Elements

SDH Network Element

Internal 2 Mbit/s
155 Mbit/s Oscillator
Data Signal Data Signal
±4.6 ppm

Osc.

Synchronous
SDH Signal

2 048 kHz
Central Clock

The Keepers of Communications


Hold-over mode

Phase error [ ns]

100000

10000

1000

100

10

0.01 1 100 10000


Observation interval [s]

The Keepers of Communications


Hold-over measured values (TIE)

The Keepers of Communications


Which Recommendations define
Synchronization Networks

ITU-T ANSI / Bellcore ETSI

Definitions G.810 T1.101 / GR-253 ETS 300 462-1


Network G.825 T1.105 / GR-253 ETS 300 462-3
Primary Reference Clocks G.811 T1.101 ETS 300 462-6
Synchron. Supply Clocks (ST2) G.812 T1.101 ETS 300 462-4
Equipment Clocks (ST3) G.813 (G.81s) GR-253 ETS 300 462-5

The Keepers of Communications


Monitoring, Maintenance and Control Functions
in SDH

The Keepers of Communications


EVENTS SDH EVENTS SONET

Phys./Reg.

Line (L) Phys./Section


LOS Loss Of Signal LOS Loss Of Signal
TSE Test Sequence Error (Bit Err.) TSE Test Sequence Error
LSS Loss of Sequence Synchron. LSS Loss of Sequence Synchr.

Sect.
LTI Loss of incoming Timing Ref. LTI Loss of inc. TimingRef
OOF Out Of Frame OOF Out Of Frame
LOF Loss Of Frame LOF Loss Of Frame
B1 Regenerator Section BIP Err. B1 Section BIP Errors

Higher Order Path Mux Sect.


B2 Multiplex Section BIP Err. B2 Line BIP Errors
MS-AIS Multiplex Section AIS AIS-L Line AIS
MS-RDI Mux Sect. Remote Defect Ind. RDI-L Line remote Defect Ind.
MS-REI Mux Sect. Remote Errro Ind. REI-L Line Remote Error Ind.
AU-LOP Loss Of AU Pointer LOP-P SP Loss Of Pointer
AU-NDF New Data Flag AU Pointer NDF-P SP New Data Flag

STS Path (SP)


AU-AIS AU Alarm Ind. Signal AIS-P SP AIS
AU-PJE AU Pointer Just. Event
B3 HO Path BIP Errors B3 SP BIP Errors
HP-UNEQ HO Path Unequipped UNEQ-P SP Unequipped
HP-RDI HO Path Remote Defect Ind. RDI-P SP Remote Deect. Ind.
HP-REI HO Path Remote Error Ind. REI-P SP Remote ERrro Ind.
PDI-P SP Payload Defect Ind.
HP-TIM HO Path Trace Ident. Mismatch TIM-P SP Trace Ident. Mismatch
HP-PLM HO Path Payload Label Mism. PLM-P SP Payload Label Mismatch
TU-LOP Loss Of TU Pointer LOP-V VP Loss Of Pointer
TU-NDF New Data Flag TU Pointer NDF-V VP New Data Flag
Lower Order Path

TU-AIS TU AIS AIS-V VP AIS


TU-LOM Loss Of Multiframe LOM Loss Of Multiframe
BIP-2/B3 LO Path BIP Errors UNEQ-V VP Unequipped

VT Path (VP)
LP-RDI LO Path Remote Defect Ind. RDI-V VP Remote Defect Ind.
LP-REI LO Path Remote Error Ind. REI-V VP Remote Error Ind.
LP-RFI LO Path Remote Failure Ind. RFI-V VP Remote Failure Ind.
PDI-V VP Payload Defect Ind.
LP-TIM LO Path Trace Ident. Mismatch TIM-V VP Trace Ident. Mismatch
LP-PLM LO Path Payload Label Mism. PLM-V VP Payload Label Mism.

LCD Loss of Cell Delineation I.610


HCOR Correctable Header Errors
HUNC Uncorrectable Header Errors
ATM Path

VP-AIS Virtual Path AIS I.610


VP-RDI Virtual Path Remote Defect Indication I.610
VC-AIS Virtual Channel AIS I.610
VC-RDI Virtual Channel Remot Defect Indication I.610
Vx-AIS Virtual Channel AIS & Virtual, Path AIS simultan. (O.191)
Vx-RDI Virtual Channel RDI & Virtual, Path RDI simultan. (O.191)
LOC Loss Of Continuity I.610

The Keepers of Communications


Frame Areas Covered by Parity Bytes
Parity bytes providing a means to supervise the transmission
quality of a life STM-N signal !
B1:
RSOH - Supervision of the
whole STM-1 frame
Payload - Covers the regenerator
MSOH sections of a trans-
mission system

B2:
RSOH - Covers the multiplex
AU-PTR sections (from network
Payload node to network node)
MSOH

B3:
RSOH - Covers the transmission
paths from beginning to
Payload
Payload the end (tributary to
tributary)
MSOH

The Keepers of Communications


Parity Supervison Procedure

Transmit Side frame n+1 frame n

BIP-8 B1
Receive Side

frame n+1 frame n

recalculation at Rx side

Comparison
with the Tx side value BIP-8 B1

The Keepers of Communications


How to Built a Parity Byte ?
• Bit interleaved data field structure of the area covered
– Field width: BIP-24: 24 bits (B2)
– BIP-8: 8 bits (B1, B3)
– BIP-2: 2 bits (V5)
• Column by column parity check for even numbers of "1"

Example: 24 bit interleaved parity check (BIP-24)


Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3
1 11 11 1 11 11 1 11 1 01 11 1 01 11 1 11 10 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1

even numbers of "1"

801 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
BIP-24 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

The Keepers of Communications


SDH Maintenance Interactions
Regenerator Multiplex Higher Order Lower Order
Section Section Path Path
"1"
LOS/LOF AIS
(J0) RS-TIM
BIP Err.
(B1)
MS-AIS "1"
(K2) AIS
MS-BIP Err.
(B2)
(M1) MS-REI
MS-RDI
(K2)
AU-AIS "1"
AU-LOP
HP-UNEQ "1"
(C2) AIS
(J1) HP-TIM
HP-BIP Err.
(B3)
HP-REI
(G1)
HP-RDI
(G1)
TU-AIS "1"
TU-LOP
LOM
(H4)
(C2) HP-PLM
LP-UNEQ "1"
(V5) AIS
LP-TIM
(J2)
LP-BIP Err.
(V5)
(V5) LP-REI
(V5) LP-RDI
"1"
(V5) LP-PLM
AIS

The Keepers of Communications


Maintenance Signal Definitions (1)

LOS Drop of incomming optical power level causes BER of 10-3 or worse
OOF A1, A2 incorrect for more than 625 us
LOF If OOF persists of 3ms
B1 Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8
MS-AIS K2 (bits 6,7,8) =111 for 3 or more frames
B2 Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-24
MS-RDI If MS-AIS or excessive errors are detected, K2(bits 6,7,8)=110
MS-REI M1: Binary coded count of incorrect interleavedbit blocks
AU-AIS All "1" in the entire AU including AU pointer
AU-LOP 8 to 10 NDF enable or 8 to 10 invalid pointers
HP-UNEQ C2="0" for 5 or more frames
HP-TIM J1: Trace identifier mismatch
HP-SLM C2: Signal label mismatch
HP-LOM H4 values (2 to 10 times) unequal to multiframesequence

B3 Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8


HP-RDI G1 (bit 5)=1, if an invalid signal is received in VC-4/VC-3
HP-REI G1 (bits 1,2,3,4) = binary coded B3 errors

The Keepers of Communications


Maintenance Signal Definitions (2)
 TU-AIS All "1" in the entire TU incl. TU pointer
 TU-LOP 8 to 10 NDF enable or 8 to 10 invalid pointers
LP-UNEQ VC-3: C2 = all "0" for >=frames;

 VC-12: V5 (bits 5,6,7) = 000 for >=5 frames


LP-TIM VC-3: J1 mismatch; VC-12: J2 mismatch
LP-SLM VC-3: C2 mismatch; VC-12: V5 (bits 5,6,7) mismatch
BIP-2 Err Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-2 (V5)
LP-RDI V5 (bit 8) = 1, if TU-2 path AIS or signal failure received
LP-REI V5 (bit 3) = 1, if >=1 errors were detected by BIP-2
LP-RFI V5 (bit 4) = 1, if a failure is declared

Abbreviations:

AU Administration unit LP Low path TIM Trace identifier


HP High path OOF Out of frame TU Tributary unit
LOF Loss of frame REI Remote error indication (FEBE) UNEQ Unequipped
LOM Loss of miltiframe RDI Remote defect indication (FERF) VC Virtual
LOP Loss of pointer RFI Remote failure indication C container
LOS Loss of signal SLM Signal label mismatch

The Keepers of Communications


Perfomance Parameter
ITU-T G.821
ES Errored Second Second with > 1 bit error
SES Severely Errored Second Second with BER > 1 x 10E-3

ITU-T G.826
ES Errored Second Second with> 1errored block
SES Severely Errored Second Second with > 30% errored blocks
or > 1 defect
BBE Background Block Error Errored block, not occuring as
part of SES

UAS Unavailable Seconds:


Time
10 sec 10 sec
Unavailability < 10 Availability
detected sec detected
Unavailable Seconds
Unavailable Seconds

The Keepers of Communications


Jitter and Wander

The Keepers of Communications


Jitter and Wander Definitions
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...

Time Line
1
UI
Bit Sequence 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

Ideal Signal (NRZ)

Actual Signal
(with Jitter
and Wander)

Phase Variations (Jitter or Wander) in a Digital Transmission System

The Keepers of Communications


Sources of Jitter and Wander

•Interference signals
•Pattern dependent jitter
•Phase noise
•Delay variation
•Stuffing and wait time jitter
•Mapping jitter
•Pointer jitter

The Keepers of Communications


Jitter and Wander Measurement Method

Clock
Input

Jitter
and
Signal
Input
Pattern N φ HP LP
Wander

1 Result
Clock V
Evaluation

Pattern-Clock Frequency Phase Detector Filters Peak-to-Peak


Converter Divider Detector

Ext. Reference Clock Input


(Wander Measurement)
φ ~ 1 Hz

Phase Detector Low Pass Filter VCO

Reference Clock Generator (PLL)

The Keepers of Communications


Jitter Measurement Filters
Amplitude / dB Values according to ITU-T Rec. G.825 and G.813
STM-1: 500 Hz 65 kHz 1.3 MHz
STM-4: 1 kHz 250 kHz 5 MHz
Wander STM-16: 5 kHz 1 MHz 20 MHz
10 Hz
Frequency / Hz

Total Jitter High


Jitter including Frequency
lower Jitter
Frequency
Components
Max. Jitter Amplitude: 1,5UI 0,15UI

The Keepers of Communications


Definition of Jitter Peak-to-Peak Amplitude

Jitter / UIpp

Jitter Time
Amplitude
(PP)

Measurement Period

The Keepers of Communications


Jitter and Wander Measurements

• Network output jitter (G.825)

• Network element output jitter (G.783, G.813)

• Jitter transfer function (G.958)

• Jitter and Wander tolerance (G.825, G.813)

The Keepers of Communications


WANDER Definitions
Wander Long-term timing variation (below 10 Hz)

TIE "Time Interval Error"

MTIE "Max. Time Interval Error"

TDEV "Time Deviation", timing variation as a function of


integration time. Provides information about the
spectral content.

TVAR"Time Variation", square of TDEV

ADEV "Allen Deviation"

MADEV "Modified Allen Deviation"

Definitions specified in ITU-T Rec. G.810

The Keepers of Communications


TIE and MTIE Definitions

Wander / UI
e nting
s t
Time variation against reference
r e pre Offse
pe cy
TIE max Slo equen
Fr

MTIE TIE at t End

TIE min
Time
Observation Period
Start End

The Keepers of Communications


Results (MTIE) compared to Standards

The Keepers of Communications


Network resilience

The Keepers of Communications


Linear Protection (G.783)

W
1 + 1 Protection scheme
P

W
P 1 : 1 Protection scheme

W
W 1 : N Protection scheme

The Keepers of Communications


Linear Protection (G.783)

W
1 + 1 Protection scheme
P

W
P 1 : 1 Protection scheme

W
W 1 : N Protection scheme

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional and Bidirectional Rings
Traffic A -> B Traffic A -> B
ADM ADM

A B -> A A

ADM B ADM ADM B ADM

ADM ADM longer


Traffic B -> A
path
Unidirectional Ring Bidirectional Ring
traffic between A-B - use the shorter or longer path
uses the entire length of ring - increase number of paths
- short path : traffic
long path : protection

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Fiber 1 : unidirectional

A Fiber 2 : unidirectional

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Fiber 1 : unidirectional

A Fiber 2 : unidirectional

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Fiber 1 : unidirectional

A Fiber 2 : unidirectional

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring

Working

A Protection

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

Working
D

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring

Working

A Protection

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

Working
D

The Keepers of Communications


Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring

Working

A Protection

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

Working
D

The Keepers of Communications


Two fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Fiber 1

A Fiber 2

working
F Tributary B
protection

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Two fiber Bidirectional Line Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Fiber 1

A Fiber 2

working
F Tributary B
protection

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Two fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Fiber 1

A Fiber 2

working
F Tributary B protection

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring
(BLSR)
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Span-Switched Ring
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Span-Switched Ring
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


Four fiber Bidirectional Span-Switched Ring
Working Fiber 1 + 2

Prot.Fiber 3 + 4 A

F Tributary B

E Tributary C

The Keepers of Communications


TMN in SDH networks

The Keepers of Communications


Network Management

Basic tasks of network management:

Administrative functions:

Operation: Network supervising (anomalies, defects)


Network linking (reserve links, additional links)

Maintenance: Identifing and elimination of impairments

Planning and commissioning: Network configuration

Operative functions: Supervision of network functions


Repair
Installation
Self test

The Keepers of Communications


TMN Overlay

Q Central Q
OS
Q
Q
Local
OS
Q
Q ECC
CC CC

Q ECC

ADM
ADM

ADM

ADM

The Keepers of Communications


Telecommunication Management Network
(TMN) Overlay

Management of :

Performance
X X
Central Central Faults
OS OS
Configuration
Q3 Accounting
NE
Manager Q3 Security
NE Local
Manager OS
STM-N
Q3
Q3
Q ECC Q ECC
ADM DXC STM-N STM-N DXC
ADM
ADM

ADM Data Communication Network : X.25, ISDN, LAN

The Keepers of Communications


TMN Reference Configuration
Operating
System
OS F
Workstation
Q3

Data Communication Network


DCN
Q3
Q3 Mediation
Device
MD F
Q2 or Q1 Workstation

Local Communication Network


LCN F
Qx Workstation

Network
Element MD: Conversion between different interfaces
Network
NE Element (Information Conversion Function ICF:
NE manufacturer-specific information model ->
operator specific information model)

The Keepers of Communications


Interoperability in TMN
X TMN X TMN
Operations Operations Interoperability problems because of
System System
–multi vendor networks
–heterogenous technology
Q3 –different standards for protocols and
management information
Q3

QMonitor provides

QMonitor – easy adaptation to the interface


(autoconfiguration)
based on
DominoWAN – decoding of protocols and management
DominoLAN information
DA-30 – automatic detection of errors in
Qecc Qecc management information
– SDH/SONET Qecc access with
transmission analyzers (e.g. ANT-20)
Qecc

The Keepers of Communications


SDH Benefits
Reduced equipment costs
multi vendor compatibility

Lower maintenance costs


built-in defect and anomaly monitoring

Future proof equipment


SDH is the physical layer for BISDN

Efficient drop / insert facilities


ADM (add&drop multiplexers), DXC (digital cross connectors)

TMN capabilities
Built-in DCN (data comm. network), DCC/ECC

More flexibility in provision of services


adding transmission capacity by routing on demand

The Keepers of Communications


1999/2000 :
Future Trends - WDM Systems
STM16/OC-48, 40 
STM64/OC-192, 16 
155Mio
64kb/s: 9,7Mio 19,4Mio 38,7Mio
STM256
10T OC-768,
STM64 320 
OC-192,
STM64 320 
OC-192,
1000G 160  a nnels
STM64
l ti pl e ch
u
OC-192,
M with m
80 #
DWD
100G

10 TDM 40 80 Optical
GB/s GB/s networking
GB/S networking
10G
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
2000: 100 x 10G 1 Tb/s
64kb/s: 121000 484000 2001: 400 x 10G 4 Tb/s
2004: 400 x 40G 16Tb/s
The Keepers of Communications
Driver - converging networks

IP is the Universal
Convergence Layer

IP,Service Functions Multi-Service


s will merge, transport
ATM
various
SONET migration Optical
scenarios networking
DWDM
Fiber Fiber
The existing network: DWDM is main long
reliable, but unaffordable distance + Metro
transmission
technology
The Keepers of Communications
Let‘s summarize !

•Please name the PDH bitrates !


•Please explain „stuffing“ !
•When will „stuffing“ be applied ?
•What is the reaction of a Network element after an „LOS“ alarm ?
•What is the meaning of an „LOF“ alarm ?
•Is it possible to drop an 2Mbit/s signal out of an 140Mbit/s line ?
•Why not ?
•Please name the SDH bitrates !
•Explain the way an PDH signal is integrated in an STM-1 !

The Keepers of Communications


Let‘s summarize !

•Please name the different sections of an SDH connection !


•What is a parity byte ?
•Please explain the way to build a parity byte !
•Which parity bytes do you know ?
•Which overhead bytes are used for data communication ?
•What is a „pointer“ ?
•What is a „pointer“ used for ?

The Keepers of Communications


Let‘s summarize !

•Please name the SDH network elements !


•What are they used for ?
•Please explain how a synchronization network looks like !
•Explain the possibilities to synchronize a NE !
•What is a holdover mode ?
•Which byte is used to transport an HP-UNEQ ?
•Please explain „Jitter“ and „Wander“ !
•How can jitter be defined ?
•Please explain the terms TIE and MTIE ?
•Please explain the term TDEV ?

The Keepers of Communications


Let‘s summarize !

•Please name the main Jitter and Wander measurements !


•Explain these measurements !
•Please explain the methods of linear protection !
•What kind of ring structures do you know ?
•What are the the advantages of a TMN controlled network ?
•How is the TMN interface called ?
•Please explain „DWDM“ !

The Keepers of Communications