Neurobiology of selfregulation and the power of the mindful coach
At the end of the presentation the participants will be able to«
Describe some key anatomical structures
that underlie self regulation, change, and empowerment
Discuss research supporting the efficacy of a
The nervous system is a
network of specialized cells that communicate information about an organism and the organism¶s environment
Processes the information
and coordinates reactions in other parts of the organism
The brain is the central part of the nervous system for vertebrates and most invertebrates.
The brain consists of a collection of nerve cells that process information. 2. In vertebrates and most invertebrates the brain is the central part of the nervous system.
In vertebrates and most invertebrates the brain is the central part of the nervous system.
. 3. 2.1. It is a collection of nerve cells that process information. The most important function of the brain is to generate behaviors that promote the welfare of an organism.
How neurons communicate
Wondrous evolving mechanisms to view the brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Positron Emission tomography (PET scan) Measures emissions from radioactively labeled chemicals injected into the bloodstream Can map neuro -transmitter activity
Images blood flow to
region of the brain Current limit 2 mm
MAKE DECISIONS. INHIBIT RESPONSES
shape Spatial perception Visual perception
Visual perception and input Reading (perception and recognition of printed words)
Coordination Balance Skilled motor activity
Memory Hearing Expressive and receptive language Comprehension of language Musical awareness Organization &sequencing skills
Breathing Heart rate Arousal/Consciousness Sleep/wake functions Attention/concentration
.Brain & Behavior It all comes together here
Initiation Problem solving Judgment Inhibition of behavior Planning/anticipation Self-monitoring Motor planning Personality/emotions Awareness of abilities/limits Organization Attention/concentration Mental flexibility Speaking
Sense of touch Differentiation of size. color.
Different areas have somewhat specific functions
Basic body functions
Anatomy of Attentional Networks
James (1890) ³Attention is the taking possession of the mind in clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneous objects or trains of thought´
Raz (2006) Alerting Network
Orienting Network Conflict Network
Sympathetic Nervous system ± get ready to rumble« Arouses the body µfight or flight¶ Purpose is to manage energy and resources to meet perceived demands and challenges that are an immediate threat
. sexual arousal Purpose is to conserve resources and allow you to restore resources and energy.There is a (much neglected) OFF system The Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms the body Promotes enjoyment.
Balance and optimal performance
energy.Stress. and arousal
P E R F O R M A N C E
Under performing Depleted
chronic stress overload
The Sympathetic nervous system is built to meet immediate and life threatening demands Most of the demands we face today are not immediate
We get chronically stuck in the
..Health effects from chronic stress overload
´Lowered immune response ´Coronary artery disease ´Insulin resistance ´Type II Diabetes ´Obesity ´Insomnia ´Chronic fatigue and chronic pain ´««.
Behavioral effects from chronic stress
Impatience Anger Depression Substance abuse and addiction Difficulty concentrating Relationship difficulties
Many studies show that Self control is a function predominately of PRC and ACC The energy to self-regulate has a common and depletable energy store Emotional regulation Attentional control Impulse control Performance organization
Saliency Choose Healthy Behavior
Source: Adapted from Volkow et al.
.Tired Brain Circuits
Resist Impulsive Decision
Allow Impulsive Decisions
Source: Adapted from Volkow et al. Neuropharmacology. 2004.
Two groups assigned to drink less alcohol at a college alcohol party One. . beforehand taken through a thought suppression task Group not having suppression task more able to drink less Two groups being assigned to a frustration task One asked to resist eating a sweet beforehand.gave up more easily
one require more attention Second group more likely to sit through a boring movie rather than turn the channel. Two groups asked to remember numbers .Two groups given a taxing task.group asked to remember 2 numbers more able to resist sweet more than group asked to remember 7 numbers
Delay discounting and future reward imagery
Subjects evaluated for their specific delay discounting thresholds Given choices of near rewards and latter rewards Episodically asked to recall self selected (different) future rewards activated medial and lateral prefrontal cortex and reduced impulsivity
Translating research to practice
Keep attuned to neuro-psych developments Engage patients with growing knowledge Use coaching skills to elicit patient¶s motivations and skills for positive change future health imagery. ways of resting and strengthening self regulation µmuscles¶
Neurocircuitry of Addiction. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers.com/cortex/
. 35 (2010) 217-38. Volkow et. NeuroImage 49 (2010) 2536-43. Neuropsychopharmacology reviews. 11 (2007) 303-27. Gailliot MT. The relevance and treatment of cue-induced cravings in tobacco dependence. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Al. and Baumeister RF The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Ferguson SG and Shiffman S.References
Koob GF and Volkow ND.¶\ The Frontal Cortex http://scienceblogs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36 (2009) 235-43.