‡ Quality Circles are (informal) groups of employees who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify, define, analyze and solve work related problems. ‡ Usually the members of a particular team (quality circle) should be from the same work area or who do similar work so that the problems they select will be familiar to all of them. In addition, interdepartmental or cross functional quality circles may also be formed. ‡ An ideal size of quality circle is seven to eight members. But the number of members in a quality circle can vary.

UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 3 . BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY.History of Quality Circle  Quality circles were first established in Japan in 1962.  The use of quality circles then spread beyond Japan. and Kaoru Ishikawa has been credited with their creation.  The movement in Japan was coordinated by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). is promoting such activities. Quality circles have been implemented even in educational sectors in India and QCFI (Quality Circle Forum of India) formulated in 1982.

UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 4 .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Other Names of Quality Circles Small Groups Action Circles Excellence Circles Human Resources Circles Productivity Circles BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY.

UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 5 . intelligence. his wisdom. ‡ It is based upon the human resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity. ± Quality Circle is a problem solving technique. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY. ‡ Quality Circle concept has three major attributes: ± Quality Circle is a form of participation management. ± Quality Circle is a human resource development technique. as someone who willingly activists on his job.CONCEPT ‡ The concept of Quality Circle is primarily based upon recognition of the value of the worker as a human being. experience. attitude and feelings.

UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 6 .Objectives of Quality Circles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Promote job involvement Create problem solving capability Improve communication Promote leadership qualities Promote personal development Develop a greater awareness for cleanliness Develop greater awareness for safety Improve morale through closer identity of employee objectives with organization's objectives BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduce errors. supervisor and worker relationship ‡ Improve productivity ‡ Reduce downtime of machines and equipment ‡ Increase employee motivation BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 7 .FACULTY. Enhance quality Inspire more effective team work Build an attitude of problem prevention Promote cost reduction Develop harmonious manager.

Quality Circle Meetings ‡ Meetings are important part of quality circle's working. ‡ Meetings are attended by all the members of the quality circle.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 8 . ‡ In general. though variations are possible. ‡ Apart from the frequency of the meetings. ‡ Each meeting lasts for approximately one hour. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY. meetings take place once a week or once in a fortnight. what is important is the regularity of the meetings.

‡ Getting training as required to enable members to analyze problems. ‡ Prepare for a presentation to the management. ‡ Preparing recommendations for implementing solution(s). ‡ Follow up of implementation of suggestions. ‡ Analyzing problem(s).UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 9 .What Takes Place During Quality Circle Meetings ? ‡ Any of the several activities may occur during a meeting such as: ‡ Identifying a theme or a problem to work on.FACULTY. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.

Pitfalls and Problems ‡ Lack of faith in and support to Quality Circle activities among management personnel ‡ Lack of interest or incompetence of leaders/facilitator ‡ Apathy.FACULTY.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 10 . fear and misunderstanding among middle level executives ‡ Delay or non-implementation of Circle recommendations ‡ Irregularity of Quality Circle activities ‡ Non-application of simple techniques for problem solving ‡ Lack of or non-participation by some members in the Circle activities ‡ Circles running out of problems BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.

FACULTY.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 11 .‡ Antagonism of non-members towards Quality Circle operations ‡ Inadequate visibility of management support ‡ Complexity of problems taken up ‡ Non-maintenance of Quality Circle records ‡ Too much facilitation or too little ‡ Language difficulty in communication ‡ Communication gap between Circles and departmental head ‡ Change of management ‡ Confusing Quality Circle for another technique ‡ Resistance from trade unions BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.

Six Basic Elements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Circle participants or members. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. Top management.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 12 . Non-participating management/members.FACULTY. Program facilitator. Steering/advisory committee. Circle leaders/deputy leaders.

How Do Quality Circles Operate? ‡ Appointment of a steering committee.FACULTY. ‡ Formation of QCs by nomination/voluntary enrolment of QC members. facilitator and QC team leaders. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. ‡ Training of non-participating employees (by an expert consultant). ‡ Training of all QC members (by an expert consultant).UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 13 .

FACULTY. ‡ Evaluation of award/recognition.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 14 . ‡ Presentation of QC solutions to management. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. ‡ QC problem resolution by QCs through standardized techniques.‡ Problem data bank and identification of problems for QC work.

‡ The only stupid question is the one that is not asked. ‡ Strive for enthusiasm. ‡ Maintain a friendly attitude. ‡ Every member is responsible for the team¶s progress.FACULTY.Code of Conduct for QCs ‡ Attend all meetings and be on time. ‡ Criticize ideas. ‡ Be open to and encourage the ideas of others.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 15 . ‡ Make others feel a part of the group. ‡ Look for merit in the ideas of others. not persons. ‡ Listen to and show respect for the views of other members. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. ‡ Help other members to participate more fully.

Thank those who give assistance. Give credit to those whom it is due. solutions next. Objectives and causes first. Avoid actions that delay progress.avoid disruptive behavior. Give praise and honest appreciation when due.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Pay attention. Carry out assignments on schedule. Do not suppress ideas.do express. Ideas generated by the group should not be used as individual suggestions to suggestion scheme.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 16 . BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.FACULTY.

‡ Histogram.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 17 .FACULTY. ‡ Cause and effect diagram (or fish bone diagram or Ishikawa diagram).Problem Solving Tools and Techniques Used by Quality Circles ‡ Brainstorming. ‡ Scatter diagram ‡ Stratification ‡ Check sheet ‡ Control charts and graphs BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. ‡ Pareto analysis.

UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 18 . ‡ Affinity diagram. These are: ‡ Relations diagram.FACULTY. ‡ Arrow diagram. ‡ Matrix diagram. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.New QC Tools ‡ Quality circles started using additional seven tools as they started maturing. ‡ PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart). ‡ Systematic diagram or Tree diagram. ‡ Matrix data analysis diagram.

‡ Promotes continuous improvement in products and services. Achievement satisfaction.FACULTY. better quality. Promotes leadership qualities among participants. ‡ Brings about a change in environment of more productivity. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. reduced costs. Promotes group/team working. Serves as cementing force between management/nonmanagement groups.Benefits of QC ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Self development. Recognition. safety and corresponding rewards.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 19 .

Structure of Quality Circle BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 20 .FACULTY.


BY:SANIYA CHAWLA. Coordinator :also acts as facilitators is an individual responsible for coordinating and directing the quality circles activities within an organization and carries out such functions.FACULTY. Steering committee: Called middle management consists of chief executive heads of different divisions or a coordinator plays a positive role in quality circles activities for the success of the efforts.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 22 . Top management :The success of the quality circles depends solely on the attitude of the Top management and plays an important role to ensure the success of implementation of quality circles in the organization. II.Roles and Responsibility I. III.

promoter and teacher and is nominated by the management. VI. Members :Of the quality circles are the small group of people from the same work area or doing similar type of work whereas non-members are those who are not members of the quality circle but may be involved in the circle recommendation. Leader : Of the quality circles is chosen by the members among themselves and they may decide to have a leader by rotation since the members are the basic elements of the structure of quality circle. Facilitator: Acts as a catalyst.IV. V. BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 23 . innovator.FACULTY.

FACULTY.UGC NET PAPER-2 UNIT-3 24 .THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CIRCLE           Improvement of human relations and workplace morale Promotion of work culture Enhancement of job interest Effective team work Reducing defects and improving quality Improvement of productivity Enhancing problem solving capacity Improving communication & interaction Catalyzing attitude change Promotion of personal & leadership development BY:SANIYA CHAWLA.

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